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UNIDAD I: CONCEPTOS FUNDAMENTALES.

Thermodynamics

Some application areas of thermodynamics.

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SYSTEMS

closed system (control mass)

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Mass cannot cross the boundaries of a A closed system with a moving
closed system, but energy can.
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open system, (control volume)

An open system (a control volume)


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with one inlet and one exit.
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Tarea
Property

State

Process

Equilibrium

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DENSITY AND SPECIFIC VOLUME

Density is defined as mass per unit volume

Specific volume v, is defined as volume per unit mass

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PRESSURE

Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area.

Most pressure-measuring devices, however, are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere,
and so they indicate the difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure.

Some basic pressure gages.

gage pressure

vacuum pressures

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Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures.

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Barometer
Measuring Pressure with a Manometer
A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of SG,
and the manometer column height is h m, as shown in Fig. If the local atmospheric pressure is patm
Pa, determine the absolute pressure within the tank.

Specific gravity, or relative density, is defined as the


ratio of the density of a substance to the density of
some standard substance at a specified temperature
(usually water at 4°C, for which pH2O =1000 kg/m3).
That is,

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1–42 The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the
pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer as shown in
Fig. Determine the gage pressure of air in the tank if
h1=0.2 m, h2=0.3 m, and h3=0.46 m. Take the densities
of water, oil, and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3, 850 kg/m3, and
13,600 kg/m3, respectively.
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two bodies are in
thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal
equilibrium with each other.

Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both have the same temperature reading
even if they are not in contact.

The equality of temperature is the only


requirement for thermal equilibrium.
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