Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11



4.1 Introduction

For numerical analysis, ANSYS FLUENT® software was used. ANSYS FLUENT
software has the capability of physical modelling of flow, study of turbulence, heat transfer
and analysis of aerodynamic characteristics over a surface. Software is widely used for
analysis of multi-phase flows, aeroacoustics and turbomachinery problems [38].
Validation of the results were done with previous studies and Wind Tunnel Test Results
on similar aircraft but without exhaust integration [4, 5]. Working fluid was taken as air
throughout the study. Hence, a verified model and software package capable of predicting
turbulent, high temperature, viscous compressible flow was used for this research.
Combination of suitable solver, boundary conditions, viscous model and solution
methods, accurate results for flow over the aircraft surface and inside the intake and
exhaust were achieved.

4.2 Conservation Equations

Conservation equations are the basis of fluid mechanics and helps in describing
the motion of flow. Navier-Stokes equations were derived from principle of conservation
of mass, momentum and energy [39]. For numerical analysis, Reynolds-averaged Navier-
Stokes (RANS) set of equations are used to account for time dependent behavior of flow.
RANS helps in optimum utilization of computational resources by averaging the flow
quantities over the entire range of turbulence scale [39]. RANS equations also cater for
Reynolds stressors that form an important part of flow analysis. The governing
conservation equations are [40];




Pressure based solver in FLUENT® was used to implement these equations. This
solver solves the conservation equations simultaneously. The convergence of solution
takes more time than coupled solver but it utilizes the computational resources effectively.

4.3 Turbulence Model

For solution of RANS equations, additional turbulence model is needed to cater

the effect of turbulence. FLUENT provides number of models to simulate different type of
fluid flow. Various turbulence models are designed by incorporation of additional
equations through these models. User Defined Functions (UDFs) can also be utilized
along with these models.
Selection of turbulence model in numerical analysis is critical and is considered as
the most important part of CFD analysis. The selection process sometimes becomes
complex due to uncertainty of fluid flow in some cases. Although, FLUENT provides
option of different turbulence model but no model is considered superior over other.
Hence, every model is useful in its own domain. Aspects which are considered for
selection of turbulence model includes flow characteristics, problem under study,
resources, input conditions, and time availability. Turbulence model independence is
generally carried out during CFD analysis to analyze the results obtained and compare
among different models. Same approach was utilized during this research as well. Based
on fluid physics, applicability of governing equations, time availability and input conditions
of problem under study, Spalart-Allmaras (SA) model was chosen for this research.

4.4 Spalart and Allmaras Model

Spalart and Allmaras model is one of the available solver model in FLUENT which
solves RANS through one-equation model. [41]. S-A model is known to be suitable for
aerospace applications which involve viscous effects and is considered quite reliable for
analysis involving boundary layer phenomena and adverse pressure gradient regions
[42]. The model is also known for its application in propulsion and turbomachinery. The
model effectively solves viscous flow properties in near wall region and boundary layer
[43]. In FLUENT, S-A model use wall functions to optimize computational resources. This
approach helps in applying S-A model in simulations where accurate near wall results are
required with a coarser mesh size. Since the model was basically made for aerodynamic
flows, its applications in industrial applications are not widely accepted. In most of the
turbulence models, the basic issue is the computation of eddy viscosity. S-A model solves
a transport equation in modified form to solve for turbulent kinematic viscosity [41].

4.5 Viscous Flow Treatment of Spalart-Allmaras Model

For analysis of turbulent flow, it is important to consider few major aspects such as
mesh generation and selection of solver model. Turbulence plays a key part in transport
of momentum and other scalars involved in complex flows. Grid dependence plays a
major role in turbulent flow as compared to laminar flow due to interaction of mean flow
and turbulence. Fine meshes are required in the region where there are chances of rapid
change in mean flow or formation of shear layers. S-A model is generally a low Reynolds
number model. This model is specifically designed for fine meshes which are able to
resolve viscous flow regions. Some damping functions are been incorporated in the S-A
model to properly reduce the turbulent viscosity in viscous sub layers.


5.1 Solution Strategy

Density based solver with explicit formulation in steady state condition was used
for analysis. The next step after meshing of geometry is the definition of solver strategy.
The meshed geometry of intake, exhaust and aircraft were imported in FLUENT
separately. The append technique was in FLUENT to combine intake, exhaust and
aircraft meshed geometries together in a single case file. The common adjoining surfaces
were defined as interfaces. The analysis was carried out at three different Mach Numbers
(0.6, 0.8 and 1.5) at five different angle of attack (-4, 0, 4, 8,12) and two mass flow rates
(design and off design mass flow rates). Hence, a total of 30 simulations were carried out
during the research.

5.2 Solver

The solver in FLUENT was selected as density based as it efficiently solves

continuity, momentum and energy equations simultaneously. In this solver, governing
equations for scalar quantities are solved sequentially and segregated from one another.
Mean properties within a control volume can be calculated through following governing

Where the vectors W, F and G are defined as

Solution of Navier Stokes become cumbersome at low speeds due to difference in
fluid velocity and speed of sound. This issue leads to high convergence time and
sometimes produce inaccurate results. Therefore, density based solver was coupled with
time derivative pre-conditioning.

5.3 Flow Modeling

A symmetry plane was employed along the longitudinal axis of aircraft for
computational economy as aircraft geometry is symmetrical in longitudinal plane. Also,
numerical simulations were carried out at zero side slip angle which allowed the
simulation with half geometry. Double precision solver was used for better accuracy, fluid
was taken as air with ideal gas properties. Density based solver was selected with explicit
algorithm. Due to sensitivity and importance of temperature effects in the research,
energy equation option was also used. 2nd order upwind scheme was selected in flow
discretization and 1st order upwind scheme was applied for modified turbulent viscosity.
Suitable relaxation parameters were applied and a courant number of 1 was selected. All
solver settings are tabulated below:

Solver Settings
Turbulence Model S-A Model
Solver Density Based
Flux Roe-FDS
Formulation Explicit
Flow Discretization 2nd Order Upwind Scheme
Courant No 01
Multi Grid 04
Parallel Processor 08

Table 2: Solver Settings

5.3.1 Boundary Conditions for Aircraft with Intake and Exhaust Duct

Calculation and finalization of boundary conditions is considered one of the most

critical step in CFD analysis. Input conditions for intake, exhaust and aircraft were
calculated separately for this research. It is important to mention that calculation of
exhaust conditions was quite complex and cumbersome as it required complete analysis
of propulsion system (RD-93). For this purpose, mathematical modelling for RD-93 engine
was carried out to ascertain the exhaust input parameters at different flow conditions.
Analysis was carried out at three different Mach Numbers (0.6, 0.8 and 1.5) at five
different angle of attack (-4, 0, 4, 8,12) and two mass flow rates (design and off design
mass flow rates). For all Mach No. (subsonic and supersonic), static pressures values
were taken in accordance with atmospheric sea level conditions. Details of boundary
conditions for the research are tabulated below:

Region Boundary Condition Remarks

Far Field Pressure Far Field According to free stream Mach
No. with varying AoA’s
Aircraft Wall No Slip wall conditions
Symmetry Symmetry -
Intake (Start) Interface Interface between aircraft intake
and inlet of the intake duct
Intake (End) Pressure Outlet According to free stream flow
conditions and engine intake
requirement(Design and off-
Exhaust (Start) Pressure Inlet According to Engine
Performance at corresponding
free stream condition
Exhaust (End) Interface Interface between aircraft outlet
and outlet of the exhaust duct

Table 3: Boundary Conditions

The default convergence criteria were set for analysis. With the above mentioned
boundary conditions and computational resources available, a single solution almost took
15-18 days for convergence to a satisfactory level.


6.1 Introduction

In order to conduct internal flow analysis of aircraft with exhaust nozzle integration,
it is essentially important to analyze different engine parameters at different flight
conditions to accurately simulate the flow conditions in CFD analysis. Calculation and
analysis of engine parameters and behavior at varying conditions is one of the most
cumbersome and challenging task due to non-availability of accurate engine data for
military specification engines. Also temperatures and pressure variations are usually not
available in technical or maintenance manual and are only available with OEM. In order
to accomplish the research objectives, a detailed analytical analysis of RD-93 turbofan
engine (installed in this aircraft) was carried out and different parameters were calculated
and verified with available data through thrust matching technique. A comprehensive
scheme was developed for engine analysis in accordance with Aircraft Engine design
books [12, 44, 45] and its software package ONX® and PERF®. The results were verified
and found to be in conjunction with available data which helped in achieving the research
objectives successfully. Details of engine analysis are presented in subsequent sections
of this chapter.

6.2 RD-93 Turbofan Engine

The basic aim of analytical analysis of RD-93 was to ascertain certain required
parameters for CFD analysis of aircraft with intake and exhaust integration. RD-93 engine
is a low bypass turbofan engine with a high thrust to weight ratio. RD-93 is a light weight
turbofan engine which is being used for fighter aircraft. Generally, it is an upgrade variant
of originally built RD-33 engine developed by OKB-117 in 1981 [46]. The engine has an
excellent flow stability which counters flow disturbances efficiently and in turn helps in
better control of aircraft. The engine also offers high rate of thrust and aircraft acceleration
which is essentially required for modern fighter aircraft [47].

Figure 13: RD-93 Turbofan Engine

Figure 14: Cutaway of a Turbofan Engine with Mixed Flow Afterburner

Due to lack of complete range of data, because of military confidentiality

considerations, exact values of temperatures, pressures and other parameters were
unknown at different flight conditions. Hence, a baseline model of engine was developed
through analytical analysis using engine design software and modifying few parameters
in accordance to RD-93 engine. The engine was basically modeled by ONX® and Perf ®
program using data from available technical manuals. To accurately model the RD-93
engine, the engine characteristics such as compressor pressure ratio, stages, efficiencies
etc were practically surveyed and analyzed for detailed analysis. General characteristic
data was used wherever engine input was not available. Thrust matching and thrust
specific fuel consumption matching technique was used to verify the results. Engineering
thermodynamics approach was also applied during the detailed analysis to cover all the
aspects of fuel burning and heat losses issue during the actual combustion process of
fuel during normal and afterburner operations. The overall objective of this research was

achieved through the thrust matching analytical approach and was successfully

6.3 Analytical Approach

ONX ® and Perf ® are engine design and analysis software packages developed
by J. Mattingly and are frequently used in educational institutes and mechanical industry
[12]. The software can be effectively used to design and analyze aircraft engines for both
design and off design conditions. The data inputs for RD-93 engine components were
ascertained from available technical manual and real time engine operations. General
trends and available literature was consulted for certain inputs such as components
efficiencies. Some alterations and iterations were made in these parameters in order to
evolve a RD-93 model that predicts thrust in close approximation to available thrust
RD-93 has twin spool compressor with 4 low pressure stages and 9 high pressure
stages. The compressed air after going through combustion process in annular
combustor goes towards single stage high pressure turbine and then low pressure
turbine. For modelling purpose, the compressors were split into two parts, i.e. High
pressure compressor and low pressure compressor. RD-93 engine uses mixed flow for
exhaust gases. The engine utilizes a convergent divergent nozzle which is efficient and
effective for high supersonic speeds. The bypass air helps in lowering the temperature of
exhaust gases and reduces exhaust infra-red signatures as well. A mixed flow nozzle
configuration was employed for engine simulation for accurate prediction of performance
Some of the considerations and assumptions made during engine simulations
were as follows:
1. Calculations were made at sea level conditions
2. The pressure ratio of high pressure compressor and low pressure
compressor were already known and used for simulations.
3. Combustion chamber pressure losses are not dependent on turbine’s
4. Total pressure loss at combustion process is almost negligible.

5. Efficiencies of combustion chamber and afterburner are constant for all

6.4 RD-93 Characteristics

General characteristics of RD-93 engine were obtained from its available technical
manuals. For better analytical modelling, the compressor pressure ratio and bypass ratio
of engine were fixed at 21 and 0.49 respectively. The fan pressure ratio was kept for
optimum configuration according to thrust setting. Turbine inlet temperature (TET) was
known from its manual and was kept at a reasonable temperature according to material
limitations. Engine design mass flow rate at different flight conditions is generally not
available in technical manuals. However, for RD-93, engine mass flow operating line in
accordance with flight speeds was available form OEM data. The availability of mass flow
rate significantly enhanced the accuracy of analytical model and reduced the percentage
error in calculated result. Some of the general characteristics used for current research is
tabulated below:-
S No Parameter Value
1 Dry Weight 1055 kg
2 Hi Compressor Pressure Ratio 7:1
3 Low Compressor Pressure Ratio 3:1
4 By Pass Ratio 0.49
5 Turbine Inlet Temperature >1600 K

Table 4: General Characteristics of RD-93 Engine

6.5 Components Characteristics

Details of input considerations for different components of RD-93 engine are

presented below:-

1. Intake: The inlet mass flow rates and diffuser parameters were already known from
OEM data. Hence, a reliable input was obtained for analytical modelling.