Abstract  With the increased use of HVDC transmission the system planner and designer would be interested to know if
systems in power systems, situations have arisen and will be even analytical techniques developed for and findings accrued from the
more frequent in the future, where several HVDC systems are singleinfeed HVDC system case are valid for multiinfeed HVDC
located in the vicinity of each other. It is evident that interactions system scenarios. At the outset there is strong inclination to
between the different HVDC systems will occur in such believe that the interaction phenomena and associated problems
configurations, and it is of importance to analyze such systems in for the multiinfeed HVDC system are closely related to the sin
a systematic way to ensure that there are no risks of adverse gleinfeed HVDC system case, but the question is how close are
interactions. A method of analysis to cope with this task is their correspondence and under what conditions do they differ. A
presented and motivated in this paper. This method is host of other questions arise and therefore it becomes clear that a
demonstrated by application to a system with dual HVDC
systematic and analytical exposition of the basic nature and mech
converters, and using the identified factors influencing the
anisms of these phenomena need to be developed.
interactions, its practical realization is also illustrated.
KEYWORDS Voltage stability, multiinfeed HVDC system. Therefore the objective of our work is to present a general and
eigenvalue decoyposition. systematic method for the voltage/power stability analysis of
multiinfeed HVDC systems. Naturally, this method has consoli
1. INTRODUCTION dated many conceptual ideas developed for the singleinfeed
In the past, situations have arisen where the HVDC link is termi HVDC system since the latter is the forerunner to the multiinfeed
nated at a single AC system location of low shortcircuit level rel HVDC system. Thus, this method has its basis from the single
ative to the power rating of the HVDC link. Such single HVDC infeed HVDC system case while at the same time is also a general
converter feeding into an AC system is generally termed as a sin ization of the latter.
gleinfeed HVDC system. When the AC system is relatively weak, The outline of the paper is as follows. Section 2 gives a short
the interconnected ACDC system brings concomitant problems summary of the work done concerning the singleinfeed HVDC
relating to voltage and power instability. Therefore over the last system. In Section 3 the eigenstructure based methods are intro
years, much research focus had been on problems of such nature duced and they are applied to a general multiinfeed HVDC sys
for the singleinfeed HVDC system such as in [ I ] where a compre tem. Of particular importance and interest in this context are the
hensive and systematic analysis of all important ACDC interac modelling aspects, which are also discussed in this section. It is
tions for the singleinfeed HVDC system were given. Others, [2], also shown here that quantities introduced in Section 2 are particu
[3], [4], worked on the various theoretical, computational, and lar cases of the general concepts introduced through the eigen
other aspects of the problem. structure based methods. The proposed method of analysis is now
applied to a dual HVDC converter system in Section 4. Besides
As tht: use of HVDC systems continues to develop, situations demonstrating the virtue of the method, crucial parameters and
will also arise with two or more HVDC converters feeding into system characteristics determining the stability of this system are
AC system locations that are electrically in close proximity. identified. Conclusions and suggestions for further work are pro
Already such systems are being planned or in existence such as vided in Section 5 .
those in Scandinavia, India, Southern California, Manitoba, and
2. ANALYSIS OF SINGLEINFEED HVDC SYSTEMS
Quebec. Such systems, termed as multiinfeed HVDC systems, are
expected to usher in new phenomena concerning interactions The system analyzed in [I] is shown in Fig. 1 where the notation
between the various AC and DC systems, particulary when the AC of the relevant quantities and parameters is also introduced. The
system is again relatively weak. Naturally and quite appropriately shortcircuit ratio, SCR, of this system is defined as
1
SCR =  (1)
96 SM 44165 PWRD A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Z
Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power
Engineening Society for presentation at the 19% IEEWPES Summer
Meeting, July 28  August 1, 1996, Denver, Colorado. Manuscript
submitted December 29, 1995; made available for printing May 21,
with all quantities expressed in P.u., and the nominal DCpower
1996. and nominal AC voltage as base power and base voltage, respec
tively. Another useful variable is the Effective Shortcircuit Ratio,
ESCR, defined as
ESCR = S C R  Q C N
08858977/97/$10.00 0 1996 IEEE
1310
with QcN,the total MVA rating of AC filters and shunt capacitors HVDClinks have been presented.
connected at the AC commutation bus, in p.u. of nominal DC In this paper, a general method for analysis of multiinfeed
power. HVDC systems based on eigenvalue decomposition technique will
For a more detailed discussion on and the motivation of using be presented. Before specific application of the method, some of
this model, the reader is referred to [I]. The purpose of this model its central concepts are first developed in the following section.
is to study phenomena in the time scale slower than the current
control of the HVDC system but faster than the response of the 3. I Eigenstructure Based Methods
conventional voltage control in the AC system.
In principle two approaches have been presented conceming the It was found in [9] that the voltage stability of a power system
analysis of the stability of the power control loop or, more general, was closely related to the properties of the powerflow Jacobian,
the voltage stability of system in Fig.1. The first approach was so that if the Jacobian was close to becoming singular this would
introduced by Ainsworth et al. in [2] in which the maximum DC indicate a power system with small voltage stability margin. Much
power achievable by the inverter, operating in constant y control work followed in this area as in [IO] and [ I l l . In [12] a method
mode, as the direct current ncreased, is taken as the power sta was presented based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the Jaco
bility limit of the interconnected ACDC system. The resulting bian at the steadystate operating point given in;
curve of Pd versus ld is known as the Maximum Power Curve
(MPC). A very important concept in this analysis is the Critical
Effective Shortcircuit Ratio, CESCR. Under nominal conditions, (4)
i.e., 1 p.u. of DC current, AC voltage, etc., if the actual initial
operating point corresponds to the maximum of MPC, then the
ESCR is said to be critical, CESCR. where,
The second approach was first introduced by Hammad in [ 3 ] . U, AQ= vector of incremental chang in bus active, reactive
There, the ratio between the voltage change, AU, and a reactive power, respectively.
power Injection, AQ, causing this voltage change was used as a AU, A8 = vector of incremental changes in bus voltage magnitude,
stability indicator, called voltage stability factor, VSF, defined as; angle, respectively.
AU In (4) the Jacobian, J , has been partitioned into four submatri
VSF =  (3)
AQ ces with selfexplanatory notation. Also here, AU is used but in
our subsequent work AUIU would be used instead as the elements
However i n this paper, VSF will be referred to as voltage sensi of Jpu, JQu would then have more natural expressions.
tivity factor. A small and positive value of VSF indicates a stable
operation and an increasing value of VSF corresponds to a In order to decouple the bus angles from the bus reactive power
decreasing stability margin. When VSF becomes infinite, transi incremental change equations of (4), though not by neglecting
tion to the unstable region occurs, and a negative value of VSF i s them, it was suggested in [IO] to set AP =0, i.e., no active power
found in the unstable region. injections, thus giving;
The relation between the two methods was first pointed out in AU
AQ=J 
[4] where i t was shown that at the maximum of MPC, VSF RU
becomes infinite, for the inverters operating in constant power
where,
control mode.
I I
where,
A = diagonal matrix with diagonal elements equal to eigenvalues
Fig. I : Sitnpl$ed model of an HVDC converter Atatcon connected of J,
to an AC network.
1311
f= matrix with columns equal to left eigenvectors of J , which is the equivalent to (9), is given by
e= matrix with columns equal to right eigenvectors of J ,
If the modal decomposition of J , , (S), is applied to (3,it can “ti
AQ . = h .
be written as 11 ut;
and the voltage stability of the multiinfeed HVDC system can
AUi
thus be determined by the quantities h,. The relationships in (IO)
A Q . = h. (9) and (1 1) will serve as the basic tools for the subsequent voltage
1 ’ U;
stability study of multiinfeed HVDC systems. It is not only the
where,
quantities hli that are of importance and carry information of the
A Q . = the ith mode of incremental changes in bus reactive system. The modes AV,, and AQ,; contain information about the
power. most severe disturbances and these are of course also of great
AUi = the ith mode of incremental changes in bus voltage mag value.
nitude.
The criterion of voltage stability is that all eigenvalues of J , are 4. VOLTAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTIINFEED
positive, as from [12]. It can be seen from (9) that if h, is posi HVDC SYSTEMS
tive, the incremental change in bus voltage magnitude is “in
4. I Modelling
phase” with the incremental change in reactive power, increasing
bus vollage magnitude when positive reactive power increments
When studying complex systems such as a multiinfeed HVDC
are applied and viceversa. This physically corresponds to voltage
system interconnected with a large AC network, it is often essen
stable siituations. However when h, is negative, then the incre
tial to abstract a simplified model from the complex system while
mental change in bus voltage magnitude is in “antiphase” with
the incremental change in reactive power, decreasing bus voltage retaining the underlying topological structure. This would con
magnitude when positive reactive power increments are applied ceivably preserve the fundamental system response, behaviour,
and viceversa. This physically corresponds to voltage unstable and properties of the original system but now making it easier to
situations. At the boundary of stable and unstable operating point, study, expose, and elucidate them. At the same time, since this
A, becomes zero and physically this means that any infinitise work is a generalization of the singleinfeed HVDC system case,
mally small change in reactive power causes infinite modal volt there is strong motivation to use a model analogous to the single
age variation and therefore bus voltage instability. infeed HVDC system apart from being representative of the multi
infeed HVDC system, so that parallels between them can be
drawn. With this framework in mind, the simplified model of Fig.2
The significance of the modal, or eigenvalue decomposition of
is used in this work to demonstrate the method. In this model the
J , should thus be clear.
converters are both inverters operating in the constant gammdcon
stant power control mode. In general one or both could be rectifi
3.2 Incorporation of HVDC Converters
ers operating in a variety of control modes, e.g., constant gamma/
The analysis developed in Section 3.1 is applicable to all sys constant power, constant gammakonstant current, constant DC
tems whiere the equations and relations determining the behaviour voltage, etc. Further, it should be noted that our choice of inverters
can be llinearized to a form as in (4). For an integrated ACDC and control mode does not cause the method to lose its generality,
power system the HVDC converter equations have to be incorpo it being applicable to any Nconverter multiinfeed HVDC system
rated and this is still possible by treating the PQ load of the HVDC operating in any control mode. The nomenclature used in the fig
converter as voltage dependant active and reactive power loads, ure and in this paper is similar to that of the singleinfeed HVDC
where the voltage dependence is determined by the control mode system of Fig.1, but now with the subscript 1 and 2 denoting the
of the converter, i.e., constant power or current, constant y , etc. A correspondance of each parameter with the constituent ACDC
derivation of the Jacobian for different control modes can be found subsystem 1 and 2, respectively.
in [13].
The situation of interest in this paper could be described as quasi 4.2 Definition of Terms
steadystate [l], which means that the tools applicable to power
flow analysis can be used when due consideration has been taken First, the following are defined;
to the modelling of the different power system components [14]. Power Base Ratio, PBR, as the ratio of DC power ratings of
If the focus of the analysis is on the HVDC converters, all AC HVDC subsystems 2 and 1 given by;
buses except the converter AC buses could be eliminated in a sim
ilar way as the active power injections were eliminated from (5). ‘dm2
Then ( 5 ) would become; PER =  (12)
AU ‘dn 1
A Q = J t (10) Effective Short Circuit Ratio I , ESCRI, of the constituent ACDC
tR U , subsystem 1, which has the same meaning as (2),as;
where an index t has been used to denote that only HVDC con
1
verter AC buses are included. The modal decomposition of (lo), ESCRl =   b
2, cl
1312
JtR
AC subsystem 2 U2/62
Fig.2: DualConverter HVDC System
where zI, b,, are in per unit on a Pdnl base MVA and UR base voit
age. P,, is taken as the common system MVA base.
Effective Short Circuit Ratio 2, ESCR2, of the constituent AC/DC The elements of J,R of (17) are functions of a,, a2, a?,A, for
subsystem 2, which has the same meaning as (2), as; given system loading conditions. In turn, al, a2, a?,A are all alge
braic functions of (ESCRZ, ESCR2, PBR, ~ ~ 2The ) . expressions for
1
ESCR2 =   I c 2 (14) the elements of J , and definitions of a,, a2, a.?, A are given in
z'2 appendix 7.2. The voltage dependant terms of the HVDC con
where z ' ~ , Uc2 are in per unit on a Pdnz base MVA and UR base verter loadswhich appear in the elements of the JtR, for two com
mon HVDC control modes, are given in appendix 7.3.
voltage. While it is more meaningful to specify the Effective Short It can be seen from the expressions of J*R in appendix 7.2, that
Circuit Ratio according to base MVA of individual constituent as 212 tends to infinity, J , , , J 2 1 approach zero and J l I , J22 are
ACDC subsystems, it is more convenient to specify impedances independent of each other, meaning that the dualterminal multi
in per unit on the common MVA base. Thus from (12) and (14); infeed HVDC system decouples into two singleinfeed HVDC
systems, as one would expect. When z12 tends to zero, the situa
tion is more complex but it can be shown that the elements of JIR'
,the inverse matrix of JtR, are all equal. The value of each of these
where 22, bc2, are now in per unit on a Pd,,l MVA base and U R matrix elements is equal to the VSF corresponding to the parallel
voltage base. impedance of the AC subsystems 1 and 2, as one would again
expect. These results provide a check on the method presented and
4.3 Application to DualConverter NVDC System as well as illustrating that the dualconverter multiinfeed HVDC
system is a general case of the singleinfeed HVDC system.
4.3. I Jacobian Matrix
Since a l . a2, a j act like containers of the parameters (ESCRI,
Referring to Fig.2 ana (4), the Jacobian matrix of the dualcon ESCR2, PBR, z12 ) and in tum they appear in a compact form as
verter HVDC system after eliminating the Thevenin equivalent terms of the elements of J,R, the eigenvalues of JtR are also certain
source buses of AC subsystems 1 and 2 as described in Section functions of (ESCRI, ESCR2, PBR, 212). This fact together with
3.2, can be written as; the voltage stability criteria of the next section will be used for the
 practical realization of the method in Section 4.3.4.
aApt 1 aAp*1 4.3.3 Voltage Stability Criteria
U l T u 2 q
In principle. the expressions of 3, in appendix 9 2 can be aub
JP6 = IPU =
stituted into ( 17) and applying the eigenvalue decomposition of
aApt2 aApt2
U U (8) on this resulting ReducedJacobian matrix, analytic form of its
1 au, 2a u2
  eigenvalues in terms of (ESCRI, ESCR2, PBR, z12) could also be
obtained. Using symbolic terms instead, the eigenvalues, h , h
r r
2'
are found from the characteristic equation of the ReducedJaco
bian matrix of (19), and they must be positive fnr voltage stable
systems. This leads to the following criteria.
(1 8)
0.15
AC subsystem I HVDC subsystem 1 ETCR2=3 0 ESCRI=I 06 PBR=O 5

0.1
4 0.05 
AC subsystem 2 HVDC subsystem 2
J5.:k<
  Planned HVDC 0
......
link
AC/DC subsystem 2
3.2
3
..............
2.8
............
2.6
2.4
0 1.5
5. CONCLUSION
within the stable region of Fig.7 while PEsCRand PZl2are both in A general and systematic method based on eigenvalue decom
the unstable region. Fig.8IO show the response of the commuta position technique, for analyzing the voltage stability of multi
tion AC bus voltages after a small disturbance of reactive power at infeed HVDC systems has been presented.
one of the commutation AC buses, simulated by the tripping of a
shunt capacitor, was applied at time t=O. 1 second. Using this method and the simplified model of Fig.2, it is shown
that voltage stability can be related to basic parameters such as the
effective shortcircuit ratio of and coupling impedance between
the constituent ACDC subsystems, and the DC power base ratio
between the constituent HVDC subsystems.
Y l Y I
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‘I ‘1
Syrichronous Compensators for DC Transmission Converters
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%
where i = 1,2 and y, pi‘ ai are the HVDC system parameters which
1316
are selfexplanatory.
Denis Lee Hau Aik (M’88)  was born in Kuching, East Malaysia.
He received his BE degree from the National University of Singa
pore in 1984. In 1984 he joined the Sarawak Electricity Supply
Corporation (SESCO), East Malaysia. Since 1987 he has worked
as an electrical engineer on high voltage transmission and large
power plant projects for SESCO. Currently he is on study leave to
pursue postgraduate studies at the Royal Institute of Technology,
Sweden, under a Swedish Malaysian Scholarship program.