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SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY

A MINI PROJECT REPORT ON

EMBEDDED ACCESS CONTROL AND SECURITY SYSTEM


USING RFID

SUBMITTED TOWARDS THE


PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF

BY

Mandar Chaudhari B150484210

Omkar Chandanshiv B150484209

Neel Shevatkar B150484289

Under the Guidance of


Prof. K. Munde

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING

PVPIT,
Bavdhan

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Padmabhooshan Vasantdada Patil Institute of Technology

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project Entitled

EMBEDDED ACCESS CONTROL AND SECURITY SYSTEM


USING RFID

Submitted by

Mandar Chaudhari B150484210

Omkar Chandanshiv B150484209

Neel Shevatkar B150484289

Is a bonafide work carried out by Students under the supervision of Prof. K. Munde and
it is submitted towards the partial fulfillment of the requirement of Fourth Year
Engineering (Computer Engineering) Project.

Date:

Place: Pune

Prof. K.Munde Prof. Dr. B. K. Sarkar


Subject In-charge H.O.D.
Dept. of Computer Engg. Dept. of Computer Engg.

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INDEX
1. Abstract 4

2. Introduction 5

3. Existing technologies & need for RFID 6

1. RFID technology
2. Working of RFID Tags
3. Packaging
4. 4. Tag Assembly and Architecture 7
5. Active and Passive Tags
6. Tags Communication and Pin Details
7. Features
1. Overview of RFID Based Door Access Control System
2. Access Control System Components and Block Diagram
5. 14
3. Factors that affect the operational range and system block
diagram
1. Criteria for choosing a Microcontroller
2. Features
3. Pin Configuration
6. 4. Block Diagram 18
5. Memory Organization
6. Internal Memory Block
7. Microcontroller Configuration

7. Liquid Crystal Display 25

8. Relay 25

9. Monitor and Control of Green House Environment 26

10. Power Supply 28

11. Applications 29

12. Conclusion 30

13. Reference 31

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ABSTRACT

The ongoing growth of technology has necessitated the use of more simple
and effective systems as a replacement to the existing ones.

Our project is based on automating the access control and security


operations involved in an organization. Earlier, there was the conventional
swiping system using bar code readers. Now, it can be carried using non-contact
devices, with the help of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). RFID cards are
provided to employees, these cards carry their own identification number in a
coded format, which can be retrieved by the reader only. By means of this the
authentication of the employees can be verified. Then is the access control at
various points inside the organization. In order to avoid tress passing and in cases
of theft of cards, we have added a keypad for entering a password. Thereby it
achieves a two-level security.
Acting as a substitute for security personnel, this gives a better reliability and
ease of use, both for the employees and the operator.

It finds quite an important application in Pay roll calculation, libraries;


defense weapons storage places (where only certain persons are authorized to
enter), industrial monitoring and so on. Our primary application that we have
focused on is access control of employees of different grades inside the same
building.

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INTRODUCTION

• The concept of access control is brought about using a card, a corresponding


card reader and a control panel interfaced with the server.
• The card is a proximity card with a unique identification number integrated
in it. The reader reads the data and sends it to the control panel, which is
the micro controller.
• This controller checks the validity of the data with the server, which bears
the database.
• The server is loaded with the details about the employee for that number,
such as the name, designation, his access locations in the organization and
other necessary details.
• The employee enters it using a keypad interfaced with the controller. The
controller again checks it with the server for authenticity. If the employee
is authentic, then he/she is allowed access in the particular entrance.

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EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES & NEED FOR RFID

• We have seen the security personnel checking the employees’


identification cards at the entrances to avoid illegal entry. The
employees sign a register at the entrance before getting in. This is still
being practiced in most of the companies.

• However, the disadvantages are that, when there is a necessity of


providing control at many locations inside the company, a person at
each point will not be an economical way of implementing it.

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RFID TECHNOLOGY

• RF technology is used in many different applications, such as television,


radio, cellular phones, radar, and automatic identification systems.
• Radio frequency (RF) refers to electromagnetic waves that have a
wavelength suited for use in radio communication.
• a range of 10 to 30 kHz, to extremely high frequency (EHF), which has a
range of 30 to 300 GHz.
• RFID is a flexible technology that is convenient, easy to use, and well
suited for automatic operation.
• RFID is similar in concept to bar coding. Bar code systems use a reader
and coded labels that are attached to an item.

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WORKING OF THE RFID TAGS

• The RFID tags based on the mode of operation are classified as Active and
Passive tags.
• The classification is done on basis of the tags ability to transmit the code
embedded in it. Hence an active tag is capable of transmitting to a reader
independently, whereas the passive tag needs an external excitation for to
transmit the code.
• The reader usually provides the excitation. Further each of the tags either
active or passive has their own frequency of operation.
• We have used the passive type of tag operating at a frequency of 125 kHz
in our project.

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PACKAGING

• Tags are manufactured in a wide variety of packaging formats designed


for different applications and environments.
• The basic assembly process consists of first a substrate material (Paper,
PVC, PET...); upon which an antenna made from one of many different
Conductive materials including Silver ink, Aluminum and copper is
deposited.
• Next the Tag chip itself is connected to the antenna; using techniques
such as wire bonding or flip chip.
• Finally, a protective overlay made from materials such as PVC
lamination, Epoxy Resin or Adhesive Paper, is optionally added to allow
the tag to support some of the physical conditions found in many
applications like abrasion, impact and corrosion.

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BASIC TAG ASSEMBLY

BASIC TAG IC ARCHITECTURE

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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TAGS

• Passive tags use the reader field as a source of energy for the chip and for
Communication from and to the reader.
• The available power from the reader field, not only reduces very rapidly
with distance, but is also controlled by strict regulations, resulting in a
limited communication distance of 4 - 5m when using the UHF frequency
Band (860 MHz – 930 MHz).
• Semi-Passive (battery assisted backscatter) tags have built in batteries and
therefore do not require energy from the reader field to power the chip.
• This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels,
resulting in greater distances of up to 100 meters. Distance is limited
mainly due to the fact that tag does not have an integrated transmitter, and
is still obliged to use the reader field to communicate back to the reader.
• Active tags are battery-powered devices that have an active transmitter
onboard. Unlike passive tags, active tags generate RF energy and apply it
to the antenna. This autonomy from the reader means that they can
communicate at distances of over several kilometers.

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How Tags Communicate

TYPICAL PIN DETAILS OF THE CHIP INSIDE THE RFID CARD

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FEATURES

• Factory programming and memory serialization.


• One-time contactless programmable (developer kit only)
• Read-only data transmission after programming
• 96 or 128 bits of One-Time Programmable (OTP) user memory (also
supports 48 and 64-bit protocols)
• Typical operation frequency: 100 kHz-400 kHz
• Ultra-low power operation (5 µA @ VCC = 2V)

RFID BASED ACCESS CONTROL

• Managing access to resources is assuming increasing importance for


organizations everywhere, from small entrepreneurial companies to large
corporate enterprises and government bodies of all sizes.

• Administering access to resources means controlling both physical access


and logical access, either as independent efforts or through an integrated
approach. The Physical access control protects both tangible and
intellectual assets from theft or compromise. Logical access control
enables enterprises and organizations to limit access to data, networks
and workstations to those authorized to have such access.

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OVERVIEW OF THE RFID BASED ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

The access control system is composed of three elements:

• A card (an identity credential) that is presented to a door reader.


• A door reader, which indicates whether the card is valid and
entry, is authorized.
• A door or gate, which is unlocked when entry is authorized.

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ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

The system is made up of the following components

• ID credential
• Door reader
• Door lock
• Control panel
• Access control server
• Software
• Database

Block Diagram of Access control

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Factors that affect the operational range are:

• Antenna shape
• Number of antenna turns
• Antenna material
• Surrounding materials
• Credential orientation to the reader
• Electrical parameters of the chip
• Anti-collision features
• Field strength of the reader

Block Diagram of System

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The system is constructed by means of the following major components:
• 125 KHZ RFID card
• 125 kHz Proximity card reader
• At89S52 Micro controller
• 3 X l matrix keypad
• 16 X 2 LCD module
• Relay control
• RS 232 interface cable
• Server

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CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING A MICROCONTROLLER

The basic criteria for choosing a microcontroller suitable for the application
are:

1) The first and foremost criterion is that it must meet the task at hand
efficiently and cost effectively. In analyzing the needs of a microcontroller-
based project, it is seen whether an 8- bit, 16-bit or 32-bit microcontroller can
best handle the computing needs of the task most effectively. Among the other
considerations in this category are:
(a) Speed: The highest speed that the microcontroller supports.
(b) Packaging: It may be a 40-pin DIP (dual inline package) or a
QFP (quad flat package), or some other packaging format. This is
important in terms of space, assembling, and prototyping the end
product.
(c) Power consumption: This is especially critical for battery-
powered products. (d) The number of I/O pins and the timer on the
chip.
(f) How easy it is to upgrade to higher –performance or lower
consumption versions. (g) Cost per unit: This is important in terms of
the final cost of the product in which a microcontroller is used.

2) The second criterion in choosing a microcontroller is how easy it is to


develop products around it. Key considerations include the availability of an
assembler, debugger, compiler, technical support.

3) The third criterion in choosing a microcontroller is its ready availability in


needed quantities both now and in the future. Currently of the leading 8-bit
microcontrollers, the 8051 family has the largest number of diversified

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suppliers. By supplier is meant a producer besides the originator of the
microcontroller.

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FEATURES:

The basic architecture of AT89C51 consists of the following features:

• Compatible with MCS-51 Products


• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
• Watchdog Timer
• Fast Programming Time
• Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)

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PIN CONFIGURATION

Fig. 4.16 Pin diagram of AT89S52

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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MEMORY ORGANIZATION

• Program Memory: If the EA pin is connected to GND, all


program fetches are directed to external memory.

• Data Memory: The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on- chip


RAM. The upper

128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function


Registers.

Internal memory block

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MICROCONTROLLER CONFIGURATION USED IN
THE SET-UP

LCD mode selection switch in order to switch between two modes of display:
1) Sensor output display
2) Actuator status display

Port details:
• Port 0: Interfaced with the LCD data lines.
• Port 1: Interfaced with the ADC data lines
• Port 2: Interfaced with the LCD Control lines and AC Interface
control
• Port 3: Interfaced with the ADC control lines

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LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

• A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of


any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light
source or reflector.
• Each pixel consists of a column of liquid crystal molecules suspended
between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the
axes of polarity of which are perpendicular to each other.
• Without the liquid crystals between them, light passing through one
would be blocked by the other. The liquid crystal twists the
polarization of light entering one filter to allow it to pass through the
other.

RELAYS

• A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of
another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by
an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was
invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control
an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be
considered
• to be, in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier.

• Despite the speed of technological developments, some products prove


so popular that their key parameters and design features remain virtually
unchanged for years. One such product is the ‘sugar cube’ relay, shown
in the figure above, which has proved useful to many designers who
needed to switch up to 10A, whilst using relatively little PCB area.

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MONITOR AND CONTROL OF GREENHOUSE
ENVIRONMENT

When it is low, data is written to the LCD. When it is high, data is read
from the LCD.

Register select (RS)

With the help of this line, the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. When
it is low, an instruction is being written to the LCD. When it is high, a character
is being written to the LCD.

Writing and reading the data from the LCD:

Writing data to the LCD is done in several steps:

1) Set R/W bit to low


2) Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character)
3) Set data to data lines (if it is writing)
4) Set E line to high
5) Set E line to low

Read data from data lines (if it is reading):

1) Set R/W bit to high


2) Set RS bit to logic 0 or 1 (instruction or character)
3) Set data to data lines (if it is writing)
4) Set E line to high
5) Set E line to low

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PIN DESCRIPTION

Most LCDs with 1 controller have 14 Pins and LCDs with 2 controller has 16
Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections).

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POWER SUPPLY CONNECTION

• The power supply section consists of step-down transformers of 230V


primary to 9V and 12V secondary voltages for the +5V and +12V power
supplies respectively. The stepped down voltage is then rectified by 4
1N4007 diodes.
• The high value of capacitor 1000 µF charges at a slow rate as the time
constant is low, and once the capacitor charges there is no resistor for
capacitor to discharge.
• This gives a constant value of DC. IC 7805 is used for regulated supply of
+5 volts and IC 7812 is used to provide a regulated supply of +12 volts in
order to prevent the circuit ahead from any fluctuations. The filter
capacitors connected after this IC filters the high frequency spikes.
• These capacitors are connected in parallel with supply and common so
that spikes filter to the common. These give stability to the power supply
circuit.
• As can be seen from the above circuit diagrams, the rectified voltage
from the 4 diodes is given to pin 1 of the respective regulators.
• Pin 2 of the regulators is connected to ground and pin 3 to Vcc. With
adequate heat sinking the regulator can deliver 1A output current.

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APPLICATIONS

The RF Identification is finding its application in many fields and some of them
are described briefly below:

Pay-roll calculation:
The employees’ in time and out time can be noted and their attendance can be
maintained. This in turn helps in calculating the salary that they have to get for the
last month.

Human checking:
When somebody has to be traced inside a building, it can be done with the
information about the location he/she had recently checked-in inside the building.
Also, in case of closing the gate for the day, accidental or deliberate presence of a
person can be found by noting the employees’ checkout information.

Vehicle Identification:
Commercial trucks are fitted with RFID systems to monitor access and egress from
terminal facilities by fixing the RF ID tags in the vehicles.

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CONCLUSION

The implementation of RFID based system in access control and security operations
are bound to increase in the future. The advantages, efficiency and reliability of the
system have made it manifest itself over the existing systems. The system achieves
a two-level security making the incorporating firm more secure.

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REFERENCE:
- https://www.hackster.io/user8523373/rfid-based-automatic-door-system-
7b2065
- https://www.hackster.io/Aritro/security-access-using-rfid-reader-f7c746
- https://www.hackster.io/sarful/rfid-based-door-lock-system-using-arduino-
05ccc2
- https://www.hackster.io/sarath-p/security-system-and-access-control-with-
arduino-and-rfid-f201e9

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