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CC Pavement Design
Work: Construction of balance work of Widening, Strengthening & Reconstruction of Hazaribagh-
Barkagaon-Tandwa-Khelari-Bijupara (SH-7) Road on EPC basis.
(i) Design Standard Adopted (IRC Code) IRC:58-:2015
(ii) Pavement design for Road Hazaribagh-Barkagaon-Tandwa-Khelari-Bijupara (SH-7)
(iii) Location Hazaribagh, Jharkhand
(iv) Tied Concrete shoulders of width 1.5 m provided on either side of carriageway Yes
(v) Carriageway I width of pavement (m) 7
(vi) Lane width i.e. width of slab) (m) 3.5
(vii) Transverse joint spacing i.e length of slab (m) 4.5
(viii) Effective (design) CBR of subgrade (%) (report provided by the client deptt.) 8
(ix) Modulus of subgrade reaction, k, MPa/m (table-2 of code) 48
(x) Thickness of granular sub-base as desired by client deptt, mm 150
(xi) Thickness of DLC sub base over GSB, mm 150
(xii) Effective k over combined 'subgrade+GSB+WBM', MPa/m, (table-4 of code) 284.6
(xiii) Thickness of polythene sheet bet DLC and PQC, micron 125
Strength of Concrete 28-days 90-days
Compressive strength, MPa 40 48
Flexural strength , MPa 4.43
Adpoted 4.5 4.95


(i) Design life, n (years) 30
(ii) CVs in the year of completion in both directions with details as under,A 4248
No. of Tyres No. of CVs with rear axle Front Axles Rear Axles Total Axles

Single 866 866 866

Truck 841
Bus, Canter 20
Tractor Trailer 5 12335
10,12 Tandem 2925 2925 5850
14,18 Tridem 457 457 1371
Total Axles 4248 8087
(As per traffic volume data of 3-days count as given by the client)

Proportion in total axles (%)

Axle type
Calculated Adopted

Front (steering) axles 34.4 34.4

Single 7.0 7.1
Rear Axle Tandem 47.4 47.4
Tridem 11.1 11.1
Total 99.9 100.0

(iii) Growth rate of CVs, r 0.05

(iv) Total2-way CVs during design period, C = 365*A*{(1+r)"-1}/r 103014761.8
(v) Av no. of axles per CV (steering/single/tandem/tridem) as calculated 2.90
Adopted in design 2.90
(vi) Total2-way axle load repetitions during design period 298742809.3
(vii) Predominant direction traffic of total traffic 1
(vii) No. of axles in predominant direction 298742809.3
(ix) CVs with spacing between front axle & the first rear axle
< 4.5 m (spacing of tranverse joints),(%) 50
(x) CVs during night hours (6 PM-6AM), (%) 50.1
(xi) Design traffic, of predominant direction traffic 74685702.3
(xii) Night time design axle repetitions (12 hrs) 37417536.9
(xiii) Day time design axle repetitions (12 hrs) 37268165.4
(xiv) Day time 6-hr axle load repetitions 18634082.7
(xv) For Bottom up cracking analysis, design number of axle load repetitions 18634082.7
(xvi) Night time 6-hr axle load repetitions
(xvii) For Top-down cracking analysis, Night time 6-hr axle load repetitions
for CVs with wheel base < 4.5 m 9354384.3
Axle load category wise design axle load repetitions
Axle rep for bottom up Axle rep for top down
Axle Category Proportion
cracking cracking
Front Single 0.344 6410124 3217908
Rear Single 0.071 1323020 664161
Tandem 0.474 8832555 4433978
Tridem 0.111 2068383 1038337


Effective k over combined layers (, MPa/m, table-4 284.6

Elastic Modulus of Concrete, E (Mpa) 30000
Poisson's Ratio of concrete, 0.15
Unit wt of concrete, v (KN/m3) 24
Max day time temp differential in slab for BUC, t, °C (table-1} 16.76
Night time temp differential in slab for TDC = (t/2+5) OC 13.38

Trial Thickness of slab, h (m) 0.29

Radius of relative stiffness, (m) = [Eh3/12k(1-l.l2)] 0•25 0.6842
Design Flexural strength of concrete at 90 days, MPa 4.95
Beta Factor, B (0.66 for trans. joint with dowels, and 0.9 without dowels) 0.66

Axle Load Spectrum

The traffic volume data supplied by the client consists of a 3-day 24 hr count. It provides the number of single
axle, tandem axles and tridem axle vehicles but not their axle k>ad spectrum. In the absence of the axle load
spectrum data, the axle load spectrum as given in IRC:58-2015 has been adopted.

Trial Thickness, h (m) = 0.29

CFD Analysis for BUC tor Day Time (6•hr) Traffic & Positive Temp Differential
Rear Single Axles
Axle load Axle Load % of Expected Flexural Stress Allowable Fatigue
class axles Repetitions Stress Ratio SR Rep from Damage
kN kN from eq eq
Rear Single Axles
OK being less than 1
CFD Analysis for TDC for Night Time (6-hr) Traffic & Negative Temp Differential
Rear Single Axles
Axle load Axle Load % of axles Expected Flexural Stress Allowable Fatigue
class Repetitions Stress Ratio SR Rep from Damage
kN kN from eq eq

Rear Tandem Axles (stress computed for 50% of axle load)
Rear Tridem Axles (stress computed for 33.33 o/o of axle load)
OK being less than 1
Grand Total of Combined BUC & TDC 0.463
CFD for Combined BUC & TDC OK being less than 1
Note: For thickness less than 0.29 m,the CFD for Combined BUC & TDC is more than 1 & hence unsafe.
Thickness of slab, h {mm) 290
Bar Dia, bd (mm) 36
Concrete strength, fck (MPa) 48
Permissible Bearing Stress in concrete , Fb=(10.16-bd)fck/95.25 (Mpa) 33.06
Radius of relative stlff11ess,l (mm) =[Eh3/12k(1-u2)]0.25 684.2
Spacing of bars (mm) 340
Distance of first dowel from pavement edge (mm) 150
Length of dowel bar, mm 500
No. of dowel bars participating in load transfer, n = 1+l/ spacing 3
Max single axle load, kN 190
Max single wheel load (dual wheels) , kN 95
Load transfer factor of shoulder (tied shoulder=-0.7, simple shoulders= 1.0) 0.7
Max single wheel load for design kN 66.5
Max single wheel load adopted for design, P (kN) 66.5
Percentage of load transfer through dowel bars (%) 50
Load carried by the Dowel bars, Yx Pt
X = spacing of bars x (1+2+3+ upto fl-1) 1020
Y = (n •X / l) 1.509
Load carried by outer dowel bar, P1 = PxO.5/Y (kN) 22.03
MOl of dowel, l (mm4) 82448.0
Modulus of dowel support, kmds (MPa/m) 415000
E for dowel bar (MPa) 200000
Relative Stiffness of dowel embedded in cone, 13 = (kmds*bJ/(4EI*1000)0.25 0.0218
Joint width, z (mm) (20 mm for expansion joint,5 mm for contraction joint) 20
Bearing stress in dowel bar, Fbmax = Pt*kmds.{2+(13*z)}/4j33EI (MPa) 32.59
OK being less than Fb
Design for Plain M.S. Tie Bars
Lane width, b (m) 3.5
Thickness of slab, h (mm) 290
Coeff of friction, f 1.5
Density of concrete (kN/m3) 24
Allowable tensile stress in plain bars as per IRC:15-2011 , Sst (MPa) 125
Area of steel required per m length of joint to resist frictional force
at slab bottom, As= bfW/.Sst (mm2/m) 292.32
Bar dia (mm) 12
X-sec area of bar, A (mm2) 113.10
Perimeter of bar, Ptb (mm) 37.70
Spacing of tie bars, 1000*(NA ) (mm) 386.90
Provide spacing of tie bars c/c (mm) 380
Allowable bond stress for plain tie bars, B (MPa)
Lingth of tie bar, L = 2xSstAI(B*Ptb)+150 (mm)
Provide length of tie bars (mm) 580

Design for Deformed Tie Bars

Allowable tensile stress in deformed bars as per IRC:15-2011, Sst (MPa) 200
Bar Dia (mm) 12
A (mm2) 113.10
As (mm2/m) 182.70
Spacing of ties bars, (mm) 619.05
Provide spacing of tie bars c/c (mm) 610
Allowable bond stress for deformed tie bars, B (MPa) 2.46
Length of tie bars, l (mm) 637.80
Provide length of tie bars (mm) 640
(1) Transverse joints
(i) Expansion Joints (ii) Contraction Joints (iii) Construction Joints
Transverse joints on each side of the longitudinal joint shall be in line with each other and of the same
type and width. Tile arrangement of joints is shown in Fig .1 of Annexure-B.
(i) Expansion Joint
Expansion joint will be provided as per details given in Fig. 2 of Annexure-B. It will be constructed as per
MORTH / IRC 15-2011 specifications. The dowel bars (m.s. round, 36 mm dia, 500 mm length, 340 mm
clc) shall be covered by a thin plastic sheath for half the length plus 50 mm. A cap l00 mm long
consisting of waterproofed cardboard / PVC etc shall be placed over sheathed end of each dowel
bar. The expansion joints will be provided only at locations where cement concrete pavement abuts
against permanent structures like bridge / culvert / building, etc.
(ii) Contraction Joint
Contraction joints will be provided as per Fig. 3 when slabs are cast continuously and as per Fig. 4 if
alternate slabs are cast. The joints will be constructed as per MORTTH / IRC 15-2011 specifications. The
dowel bars (m.s. round, 36 mm dia, 500 mm length, 340 mm c/c) are provided as shown in Fig. 3 & 4.
(iii) Construction Joint
If a construction joint occurs at the site of a contraction joint or otherwise (whenever placing of
concrete is suspended for more than 30 minutes, or when slabs are constructed in alternate panels), the
joint shall be as shown in Fig. 4 with dowel bars.
(2) Longitudinal Joint
Longitudinal joint will be provided as per Fig. 5 when slabs are constructed lane wise, and as per Fig. 6
when entire width of the slab is constructed in one go. Tie bars (plain m.s. bars 12 mm dia, 580 mm
length, 380 mm c/c; OR deformed bars, 12 mm dia, 640 mm length, 61.0 mm c/c are provided as shown.
(3) Staggering f Joints in POC from Joints in the Sub base
Transverse and longitudinal joints in the pavement should be staggered from the transverse joints and
longitudinal joints of sub base (construction joints in case of DLC sub base) so that they are not
coincident vertically and are at least 1 m apart (transverse joint) and 0.3 m apart (longitudinal joint)
respectively. The contraction joints I longitudinal joint in the existing CC pavement be filled with cement
sand mortar I suitable material and surface properly finished before laying the separation membrane
and the PQC.

(4) The joint sealing compound

It shall be of hot poured, elastomeric type or polysulphide or silicon type.


(i) Sub-base: The GSB and DLC layers as shown in Fig 1 will extend by at least 30 cm on either side of the
PQC (Pavement Quality Concrete) slab of M-40 grade.
(ii) Separation Layer between Sub base and Pavement: A separation membrane shall be used between the
PQC concrete slab and the DLC sub base. It shall be impermeable plastic sheeting 125 microns thick
(white color I transparent) laid flat without creases as per IRC:lS-2011.
(iii) Concreting of Irregular Area I Around Man Holes: Curved slabs and skewed joints shall not be, provided
anywhere as far as possible. However, some panels may have acute angles because of some site
conditions. In such situation a bar-mat of 10 mm dia tor-steel bars at 150 mm centre to centre both
ways shall be provided at 50 mm depth below the top of slab in the entire panel to avoid cracking of the
acute angled slab. Around man-holes, or openings in the road, 12 mm thick Salitex or other premoulded
board as per IS:1838 shall be placed before concreting. Such panels with openings shall also have bar-
mat similar to the acute angled slabs.
(iv) Design strength of concrete for pavement to be constructed over the sub base should be such that the
flexural strength of concrete is not less than 45 kgflcm2 at 28 days and not less than 49.5 kgf/cm2 at 90-
days. This concrete mix corresponds to Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC) M-40. The mix should be got
designed as per relevant sections of the MORTH guidelines.
(v) The rate of camber shall be 1.7% (1 i.n 60) if annual rainfall is less than 1000 mm and 2.0% (1 in 50) if
annual rainfall is more than 1000 mm.
(vi) The relevant guidelines of IRC: 15 2011 'Code of Practice for Construction of Concrete Roads' and latest
MORTH Specifications for Road and Bridge Works shall be followed while constructing the pavement
and the joints.
The above design is applicable only for the soil and traffic data supplied by the client department and as
adopted in the design. The design has been evolved as per the discussion held with the officers of the
client depa1trnent. Relevant IRC I MORTH specifications regarding proper grade, camber, preparation
of existing surface before constructing the pavement and other quality controls during construction of
the pavement in the field shall have to be strictly followed for the designed performance of the