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 To understand the robotic technique of balancing an unstable platform

 To learn Arduino programming, that has a vast amount of applications.
 To complete basic signaling processing which will be required in making a payload stabilizing
platform for Sounding Rockets .


1. Interface MPU6050 Gyroscopic sensor with the ATmega microcontroller used in Arduino UNO.
2. Interface L293d motor driver with Arduino UNO.
3. Power the motor driver with li-ion battery.
4. Power the Arduino with 9v carbon-zinc battery.
5. CODE the Arduino.


As our ultimate goal is to build a payload stabilizing platform, and keeping that in mind we needed to
first clear the basics of PID tuning and Arduino programming. So the Self Balancing Robot(MINI-E) had to
be our first task. We did learn many things while building it.


The website is

the inception of what we have accomplished. Though the code needed to be edited for some different
wiring configuration, it was useful and we learned a lot from it.

PID Control System:

The control algorithm that was used to maintain it balance on the autonomous self-balancing two wheel
robot was the PID controller. The proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller, is well known as
a three term controller.

The input to the controller is the error from the system. The Kp, Ki, and Kd are referred as the
proportional, integral, and derivative constants (the three terms get multiplied by these constants
respectively). The closed loop control system is also

referred to as a negative feedback system. The basic idea of a negative feedback system is that it
measures the process output y from a sensor. The measured process output gets subtracted from the
reference setpoint value to produce an error. The error is then fed into the PID controller, where the
error gets managed in three ways. The error will be used on the PID controller to execute the
proportional term, integral term for reduction of steady state errors, and the derivative term to handle
overshoots. After the PID algorithm processes the error, the controller produces a control signal u. The
PID control signal then gets fed into the process under control.
The process under PID control is the two wheeled robot. The PID control signal will try to drive the
process to the desired reference setpoint value. In the case of the two wheel robot, the desired set-
point value is the zero degree vertical position. The PID control algorithm can be modelled in a
mathematical representation.

PID is used to calculate the ‘correction’ term :

Correction = Kp*error + Ki* ∫error + Kd* d/dt(error);

Kp , Ki and Kd are constants which are set experimentally.


We would like to thank our team mentor KK Sir, MK SIR. We would also like to thank Wikipedia,
Electrical Stack-exchange, and Simon Monk for guiding us to complete our project in time and providing
a chill learning experience.