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NASA Technical Memorandum 84915 Revised January 1964 The Use of Oil for In-Flight Flow Visualization Robert E. Curry, Robert R. Meyer, Jr., and Maureen O’Connor August 1983, NASA National Aeronautics ang ‘Space Administration NASA Technical Memorandum 84915, Revised January 1964 The Use of Oil for In-Flight Flow Visualization Robert €. Curry, Robert R. Mayer, Jt, and Maureen O'Connor NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California 99523, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ‘Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research Facility Edwards, California 93523, Robert Es Curey,* Robert R. Meyer, ar-,* and Maureen O'Connort Dryden Plight Research Pacility ‘Raverda, ‘California O11 has been used to visualize inflight secon aynanke chacacteriatice auch ae boundary-Layer Exaneition, shock-wave location, regione of sep8- rated flow, and surface flo airection: The tech nique, which is siatler to wind-tunnel of l-flow Ceating, involves applying an oil mixture to the test aivcratt before takeot£. After takeoff, the aizplane clinbs imediately to the cost altiude fina photographs are taxen- Although this waa = Limited study, NASA has gained considerable exper ence with the technique under widely verying fight, conditions. sone of this flight teating waa com ducted specktieatly to develop the capabilities and versatility of the Aneflight ot l-flow technigu land there vas soae supplenental Laboratory testing. Phe devetopmental experience to summarized, severed Sented and discussed, and an approach for potential, sere of the technique Le recomended. Flow visualization {2 a very vsefol mspple- neat to other fluid wechanics analytical tech higues, such as pressure distribution weasurenents, tnd theoretical studies, Being able to see the example, where shock waves oecur and whether flows Se laminar, turbulent, of separated: Certain in flight floweviauelisation techniques have been developed, including the use tafea,! sublimation of chenteals,? and oll- ‘Since the sumer of 1960, NASA's Dryden Flight rh Facility (DFRF) has ‘conducted sone Limited festa on a variety of aircratt using ofl for 4 flight flow visualization: in these tests, an LL fixture ia applied ta the teat alrerate just. before Eakeott and the aircraft clinbe immediately to the East conditions; photographs of the flow patterns fare taten, either from a chase airerate of with & An Fo111 trangonte alzcraft technology (TACT) sircratt, which had a portion of the wing fitted “ith a natural Laminar'fioy atrfol section, was “sed in the first incelight of-flow study at Dryden. In that study, photographs of oll-flow patterns were compared, in terns of shock and Soundary-layer characteristics, vith reeules of pressure distribution and boundary-layer, meesure= Sents. The results of that comparison showed chat, Shook tocation and surface boundary-layer charae~ Flow photographe. Subsequently, otl-flow etuaie a variety of speeds and altitudes. Ae a resule of the experience gained, the ofl antares used and the test procedures have been retineds and the appticabitity and fexibiliey of the techaigue have ‘sEnvineering Student Trainee, ‘the primary porpone of thts paper Ls to atecuss tthe design of the teat plan and variout operationat ote Of thie In-flight visualization techniques United detalts of Laborstory and flight develop. nent tests and a recomended approach for potential liners are included, and examples of aarodynenic, characterietice observed in oLl-flow pactographe are ‘alecuasea. Deseription of Test Aircraft ‘The soven aircraft on which of -tlow studies ware conducted, as well at the oll-flow teat sec- Clone on each, are shown in Fig. t- Physical characteristics and specific {aforaation on the PrR-208 motor glider, Fo14 fighter, and T-38 euper- Sonic trainer are given in Ret: 3. the other Sireratt shova in Figs 1 were alter designed oF hodified for flight research purposes; they are ‘Sacuased briefly below: Pony sneer 1A natural Laminar Clow (HLF) aupercrities) at fol wee fitted over a portion of the wing panels fof the F-tt} TACT aircraft, which se described ia ets 4. the RLF sections vere constructed using & Eiheegiass/foan eandvich technique described in ef. 5. The spenaige width of the WLP atetotl #ece tone wae 1u83m (6 ft) on both the Left and right winge. ‘The AD-1 1s & lowepecd, oblique-ving research venicte.® rt has a high-aspect-ratio oblique wing nich can be pivoted trom OF to 60" sweep. The Bisplane hes @ Nigh-fineness ratio fuselage, tin Corbojet engines mounted on the fuselage aft of the Ving, flxea gear, and in constructed with « fiber~ ‘Glass-reinforced sandwich weparated by a core of rigid foam. ‘the drone for aerostructural testing (DAST) Le 4 modified Pireboe 11 drone, it 1 described in Refs 7 ‘The priaary external modification to the Firebee IZ contiguration is the qubstitution of a high-aapect= Fatlo, highly ovept wing plantorm with « mupereri- tleat atrfoll section for the basic wing. ‘he OAST wing vas constructed of fiberglass: rstoaere A vertical fin, referred to ae the flight test Eixture (PTF), was mounted on the Lover centerline of a ¥-104 single-seat fighter: The fixture ie Meed for local aerodynanie experimente at high ‘speeds. Thio configuration in referred to ae the Pot047ete and se Le denoribed in more detail in Ref. 8. The results presented in this report were obtained with the leading edee of the Ein nodified with a laminar-tiow atzfoll, which was constructed sing « ftbergiase/foam sandvich techniques