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Objective: The objective this thesis is to analyze the impact of social media on the fast-growing multinational business model of e-commerce and the definition of corporate objectives, using social media, and why they are taking it as a marketing strategy to achieve your long-term goals.

Methodological approach: This study used a qualitative approach, including primary and secondary data for research and collection of empirical data to evaluate the goals and objectives of the study and fill the gap that has not been sufficiently made up for previous studies. In this thesis it has been used several examples from the interviews with four international companies operating in the field of fast fashion in Sweden, Stockholm. It is companies such as Bik Bok, River Island, Monki and Vero Moda. The researchers used a full-time polling method, and the phone method. Only ten (10) interviews were conducted.

Results: The main conclusion of this study lies in the fact that the four e-commerce company used social media as a marketing strategy. After careful analysis, it was found that Instagram is the most dominant of all the social media platforms. The use of marketing in social networks is vital for these fast-growing e-commerce businesses, since they can have direct contact with their customers, attract new customers and to get acquainted with your target market. These four companies have opened e- commerce business to offer a product specification and to expand the market for niche products. However, social networks have also had an impact on a few of these e-commerce enterprises, using word of mouth to mouth.

restrictions: A limitation of this study is the lack of prospects for department managers of social networks. The work could be improved if the researcher had the opportunity to communicate with these people in order to better confirm the accuracy of the study. In addition, not enough resources or authors that are specifically covered the impact of social networks on the companies involved in the fast fashion e-commerce, and how they work. This can be regarded as a research gap.

Suggestions for further research: Since this study only covers the impact of social media in the fast fashion business in e-commerce. Further study may be conducted from the perspective of fast fashion e-commerce customer perspective. Moreover, the sample of respondents can be more than just a collection of data by 2-3 people from each company. Maybe there is the possibility, if elected

the sample was greater; researcher could conduct a more specific and thorough study.

1

Keywords: Social networks, e-commerce, fast fashion, retail, social marketing.

2

Content

Chapter 1 - Introduction

 

8

1.

E-commerce Business and Social Networking

8

1.1.

Fast fashion

11

1.3.

motivation research

13

1.4.

The purpose of the study and questions

14

1.5.

delimitation

15

1.6.

Location studies

15

CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW

 

18

2.

E-commerce

18

2.1.1. Global sales of e-commerce

 

21

2.1.2. Ecommerce Fashion Online

Store

22

 

2.2.

Fashion industry

25

2.2.1.

Fast fashion industry

26

2.3.

Social networks

28

2.3.1.

Users of social networks

 

30

 

2.3.1.1. Facebook

32

2.3.1.2. Instagramma

32

2.3.2.

The purpose of business organizations use social networks

34

2.3.2.1. Social Media Marketing

34

2.3.2.2. communication tool

36

2.3.2.3. Voice of word of mouth

38

2.4. The theoretical basis - The impact of social media on the activities of business

organizations

40

CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY

45

3.

Research approach

45

3

3.1.

research strategy

46

3.2. Topical research

 

47

3.3. Data collection method

49

3.3.1. primary data

 

50

3.3.2. secondary data

52

3.4. Presentation and analysis of data

53

3.5. Validity and

reliability

54

3.6. ethical considerations

55

3.7. Limiting methodologies

56

Chapter 4 - Empirical Evidence

56

4.1. Answers to interview questions on baykbok-side

57

4.2.

River Island Background

59

4.2.1.

Responses to the survey on river islands

59

4.3.

Monkey Background

60

4.3.1.

Responses to the survey in Monkey

60

4.4.

Vero Moda Background

62

4.4.1.

Vero Moda Interview Respondents

62

CHAPTER 5 - ANALYSIS / DISCUSSION

66

5. Determination of the social networks and the most used social networks

66

5.1. The company's aim to use social networks

67

5.2. Social Media Marketing

68

5.2.1.

Direct communication

70

5.2.2.

Is

free

71

5.2.3. Collection of information

71

5.2.4. Voice of word of mouth

72

Chapter 6 - Conclusion

 

73

4

6. The impact of social networks on the companies involved in the fast fashion e-commerce

 

73

6.1. Theoretical and managerial implications

76

6.2. Limitation of the study and reflection

78

6.3. Proposal for further research

79

referential SHEET

80

SENTENCE

93

5

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.

Increase the pace of development nineteen

of e-commerce

Table 2. The share of online purchases and the growth rate year on year by region and by industry for the year

Selected highly profitable nation

20

Table 3. Internet sources who have visited people to get information about a company, product

or brand

Table 4. People who reported that gave the information found on the Internet 34

Table

27

5.

List

of

authors

with

their

theories

37

Table 6. Details about the respondents

Table 7. Respondents Responses

56

45

6

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Social Media into e-commerce couture 36

7

Chapter 1 - Introduction

In this section, a general overview of the study will be presented. In addition, this section will also present the background to, and discussions on the problems of research, motivation research, research questions and, finally, the limitations of the study.

1. E-commerce Business and Social Networking

In previous years, the Internet, especially the Internet, has revolutionized the field of communication, which has given the opportunity to send and receive information across the world. As a result, the Internet has changed the way people live and work. Web portals can be regarded as content aggregators, through which they can provide effective information and online services (O'Murchu, Breslin and Decker, 2004). It is known that the Internet is an electronic gateways or entrances that provide some links to other Internet sites and information. In addition, they can also be the main focus and source of personalized information (O'Murchu, Breslin and Decker, 2004). In addition, the Internet allows people to have access to information and collect detailed information. As a result, the Internet plays a vital role among online communities, as users seek to gather more information. These users, both commercial and non-commercial organizations may have a valuable opportunity to reduce time-consuming tasks, such as dissemination of information and administrative tasks (O'Murchu,

Breslin and Decker, 2004).

The development of e-commerce has brought benefit to consumers, as there is no need of physical presence in transactions to purchase goods (Jahanshahi, Zhang and Brem, 2013). Consumers can now use the Internet for their purchases. Thus, this has led to changes in the retail trade and in the services sector (Jahanshahi, Zhang and Brem, 2013). With the help of e- commerce, consumers can remain in their homes and businesses to buy goods online. Consumers will also have the opportunity to see the products and goods on your digital device and read the information about how the products are produced by organizations (Jahanshahi, Zhang and Brem, 2013). E-commerce - it is basically the process of buying and selling goods

8

and services on the World Wide Web, or the buying and selling of goods, information and services,

(Yuliandr 2013).

In recent years, the commercial Internet was seen as a revolutionary technology that will completely change the way people interact with each other. Since the mid-1990s, rapidly growing sales in the field of electronic or online stores. The growth of e-commerce from business to consumer (B2C), consumers regularly buy or sell to other consumers on the Internet (Rotem-Mindali and Weltevreden, 2013). Retailing via the Internet or shopping online is also a form of e-commerce, which allows buyers to purchase goods or services directly from a seller through the Internet using a web browser. There are several online stores names: online store, online store, online store, virtual store and online store (Niranjanamurthy, Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar),

2013).

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) has become a well-known topic in the media, as well as in computer science circles. Consequences of e-commerce, is probably the most noticeable in the retail trade and financial services (Gunasekaran, Marri, McGaughey and Nebhwani, 2002). In a short time e-commerce has risen to a new level. These initiatives include online banking, online stock trading, retailing via the Internet and innovative smart cards to facilitate e-commerce, remote payments and electronic checks. People are accustomed to use the Internet and started to appreciate its ability to provide a variety of data from different parts of the world. Millions of websites are just one click away, opening up new opportunities for trade and exchange. (Gunasekaran, Marri, McGaughey and Nebhwani, 2002) Use of the Internet is no longer something new, it has become part of people's daily lives as well as telephones and television. Because people have experienced the growth of the Internet revolution, now people are going through the second Internet revolution - electronic commerce. The pace of growth in e-commerce is rapidly increasing as the 1997 global e- commerce market was estimated at $ 10 billion, which rose sharply to 200-300 billion dollars in 2002 (Gunasekaran, Marri, McGaughey and Nebhwani, 2002).

9

In recent years, thanks to the progress made on the Internet, the new systems become available for businesses, such as social networking. The Internet has given people the opportunity to use social networks to communicate on Twitter and Facebook and email to communicate with individuals without having to meet physically. This progress has contributed to the application Web 2.0 (Hajli, 2013). With the growth in online communities and social networks people can easily access and share information. Social networks provide a variety of value to the business, such as the promotion of oral communication, increase brand popularity, providing social support to consumers, increase sales and exchange of information in the context of the enterprise (Hajli, 2013). With the rapid development of Web 2.0 and social networking e-commerce from the environment, oriented product, it has become a social and consumer-oriented. As a result, consumers have access to the social experience and knowledge to help them better understand the purpose of buying on the Internet and make more informed and effective decisions about buying (Huang and Benyoucef, 2013). Social networks help companies ecommerce capture the behavior of their customers, giving them a better understanding of their expectations and experience of shopping. This will help the company develop an effective online business strategy for your organization (Huang and to help them better understand the purpose of buying on the Internet and make more informed and effective decisions about buying (Huang and Benyoucef, 2013). Social networks help companies ecommerce capture the behavior of their customers, giving them a better understanding of their expectations and experience of shopping. This will help the company develop an effective online business strategy for your organization (Huang and to help them better understand the purpose of buying on the Internet and make more informed and effective decisions about buying (Huang and Benyoucef, 2013). Social networks help companies ecommerce capture the behavior of their customers, giving them a better understanding of their expectations and experience of shopping. This will help the company develop an effective online business strategy for your organization (Huang and

Benyusef 2013).

In addition, the popular social network, which was created thanks to a new delivery platform in e-commerce. Social networks encourage users to share information with other users of the products on the Internet, or sell products or services through social networks (Liang, Ho, Li and Turban, 2012). Online customers can also consult with your social

10

community to obtain advice based on their purchasing decisions on the Internet (Liang, Ho,

Li

and Turban, 2012).

On the basis of what has been said in the first chapter, the Internet has grown to such

an

extent that it has changed the way of doing business. Using the Internet has helped many

different types of companies to enter this global market. E-commerce is one of the businesses

that have benefited from the use of the Internet and social networks. In addition, with the help

of

social networking e-commerce businesses can capture the behavior of their customers based

on

their shopping experience and expectations. In addition, with the use of social networking

electronic system starts to provide product information to their online customers.

In this chapter, we will continue to talk about how fast-paced e-commerce business will focus on how social media influence on this type of business. According to Parsons, (2011) The number of people using social networks grows, so companies such as fashion companies are struggling to find a way to use social networking sites to make millions of consumers who use social networking sites every day.

1.1. Fast fashion

На современном рынке моды становится конкурентоспособной отрасль, где индустриям моды необходимо постоянно менять ассортимент своей продукции. Это означает, что несколько ритейлеров модной одежды неизбежно будут увеличивать количество сезонов одежды в зависимости от сезона в году (Christopher, Lowson & Peck,

2004, 368). Например, в 1998In today's market becomes competitive fashion industry, where the fashion industry need to constantly change its product range. This means that a few fashion retailers will inevitably increase the number of seasonal clothes depending on the season of the year (Christopher, Lowson & Peck, 2004, 368). For example, in 1998 the volume of sales of consumer goods on the Internet has grown from 7.7 billion in 2003 to 108 billion (Brynjolfsson & Smith, 2000, p. 564). The term "fashion" can be described as a phenomenon

of consumer behavior, covering both non-material and material context in the sphere of social

influence and spread. Fashion also acts as a sign and helps differentiate social identity, taste and cultural capital (Watson and Yan, 2013). At the beginning of the company, engaged in

11

retail trade in fashion e-commerce, it is considered a failure, as customers had to try on clothes and touch her. However, the level of sales of shoes and clothing through the Internet has been growing steadily, with the result that in 2000 the income from the sale of fashion over the Internet increased from 25% to 30% (Rowley, 2009).

Over the past two decades, there was a fashion industry, and many retailers have started global expansion for the work at the international level. This prevailing trend has led to a change in the dynamics of the fashion industry, such as the demand for lower cost, reduced mass production, changes in the structural characteristics of the supply chain and the flexibility in logistics, design and distribution of (Mo, 2015). Fast fashion is the transformation of fashion design in the products that you can buy for the general public. The purpose of the fashion industry companies - how to attract more regular customers to the stores, so that they were able to increase the frequency of shopping fashion models (Turker and Altunas, 2014). Their objective can be achieved by the low price and low cost of clothing, which remains on the shelves for a smaller period of time, than in the conventional clothing industry. This leads to the fact that the market cycle is shorter, longer, longer seasons and requires a lot of organizational costs of procurement, such as the possibility of designing and manufacturing flexible, mixing trendy clothing raw materials and suppliers in the short term (Turker and Altunas, 2014).

Many fashion retailers identify themselves as being in a constant state of evolution and transformation. In recent years, the Internet has transformed many aspects of the fashion business in the way of fashion retailers interact with their customers, since the method of distribution of goods (Sands, Harper and Ferraro, 2011). Currently, social networks have changed the way retailers interact with their customers and vice versa. Social media is becoming a common marketing and communication strategy, and, according to forecasts, their annual growth of 34% in 2012, and by 2014 it will reach 3.1 billion US dollars (Sands, Harper and Ferraro, 2011). It was reported that about 70% of customers have visited social networking sites to gather product information, and 49% purchased products based on the information gathered in the social networks (Sands, Harper and Ferraro, 2011). In this regard, retailers are increasingly benefiting from the opportunities of use and social networking to improve their overall marketing strategy. Social networking gives retailers the opportunity to learn about the needs of their customers, and then actively respond to them. Customers are increasingly using

12

social networks to gather information on which they make decisions about buying (Pookulangara and Koesler, 2011). In addition, online customers are using various online formats, such as social networks, wikis, blogs, message boards and podcasts to share their views on a particular brand, service or product (Pookulangara and Koesler, 2011). With the help of social networks, retailers are using the technology to sell their products or services over the Internet,

1.2. research problem

In this study, the researchers discussed how development of the Internet has changed the way people interact with each other and how businesses do business. The authors also discussed using the Internet e-commerce companies use the method of social networking as a marketing strategy (Hensel and Deis, 2010). However, the main problem of this study faced by business organizations, is to ensure the privacy and security on the Internet for their online customers (Hensel and Deis, 2010). In addition, traders are worried that they will spend significant amounts of money to strengthen the trust of Internet users, to ensure that any information obtained from the page social networking company, will not be used for other purposes (Hensel and Deis, 2010).

1.3. motivation research

Traditional management and marketing enterprises of fast fashion has undergone a revolution in connection with the development of e-commerce. Since the advent of e- commerce in the world, firms can benefit from the Internet, reducing the costs associated with purchasing, streaming logistics and inventory, managing relationships with suppliers, as well as to gain a strategic advantage and implement effective business reorganization (Zhenxiang and Lijie, 2011). Over the past 20 years the fashion industry has undergone enormous changes with the advent of fast fashion, which revolved around the latest offers clothing as quickly as possible and efficiently at an affordable price (Hyunsook, Choo and Namhee, 2013). According Öztamur and Karakadılar (2014) firms that have started using social networking as a business strategy, use the unique quality of the network and changed its marketing strategy

13

on e-commerce. The Internet has become the most profitable tool for companies to promote their products and services in order to attract your target customers. Some of these firms have entered the market to become retailers of electronic goods, while others have become content providers, brokers, service providers or creators of the market.

Today, the perception of social media today is a priority issue for many business leaders. Decision-makers are trying to identify the ways in which companies can leverage application. It was found that the companies seem to behave comfortable when customers can freely express their opinions with each other. In addition, there has been growth in the number of firms that have less control over the information about them on the Internet (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). In addition, social networks allow businesses to interact with millions of users simultaneously. This feature allows you to quickly obtain information through feedback, which has a long-term impact on long-term relationships. This type of tool requires a small investment compared to other communications in marketing (Gamboa and Goncalves, 2014). Social networks are also of great benefit for all types of businesses, from the smallest electronic devices to the old and well-known organizations working with bricks and mortar, presented on the Internet. This is one of the reasons that companies are increasingly joining social networks (Gamboa and Goncalves, 2014).

In the end, this study will analyze the impact of social networks on the rapidly growing business of fashion e-commerce. In order to identify the problems, the study will study the four fast-fashion companies, who work in e-commerce and social networks. It identified a gap in the studies identified in this study. Based on my research, I discovered that other studies have not studied the impact of social networks on the fast-growing business in the field of e- commerce. As a result, it is considered as a research gap in this study because there are no other studies that have published this particular subject. Therefore, it gave me the motivation to focus specifically on this area. To fill the gap, the four companies,

Monkey were conducted.

1.4. The purpose of the study and questions

14

Since the gap is to use social networks in the fast fashion business e-commerce, the aim of this study is to analyze the impact of social networks on the fast fashion business e- commerce.

Two research questions will serve as a guide for the study of how quickly e-commerce fashion company's impact on this marketing tool. Determine the purpose and the research questions, the study will be able to fill the gap of this study, as well as to contribute to the literature. Two research question are as follows:

Why e-commerce companies use social media for their marketing strategy?

What type of social networking platforms use the enterprise e-commerce?

1.5. delimitation

The study focuses on four transnational companies operating in fast mode, which is based in Stockholm, Sweden, by means of qualitative interviews to achieve the objective of this study. Delimitation of the study is that in this study considered only those four companies which are based in Sweden. Prospects for the managers of these companies may differ in other companies located in another country. Those other companies who work abroad can use the other or that the business strategy for your business, instead of the use of social networks. This can be seen in the statement Phui-Wei and Yazdanifard (2014) that when an international business operating in different countries, he can either use the marketing standardization strategy for its business,

1.6. Location studies

This section provides an overview of research in order to represent the structure of the entire document and briefly describe each chapter.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

15

In this section, a general overview of the study will be presented. In addition, this section will also present the background to, motivation, discussion of problems, research questions and, finally, the limitations of the study. Chapter 2 - Literature Review This section will discuss the theory of the fast fashion industry, e-commerce and social networks as a basis for the study, during which will also be presented the theoretical basis.

Chapter 3 - Methodology In this section, methodological process of the study will be presented. To achieve the goal and address research questions of this study used a qualitative method of interviewing. The remainder of this section will also address issues of validity, reliability, ethnicity and methodological limitations.

Chapter 4 - Empirical Evidence In this section, researcher will explain the most important results of the study to four e-commerce businesses of high fashion (Bikbok, Monki, River Island and Vero Moda). In addition, this section will also briefly reviewed background information on each of the four fastest growing companies operating in the field of fashion. All the results of the interview the four companies will also be discussed and determined in order to determine the two research questions of this study.

Chapter 5 - Analysis / discussion In this chapter, the literature review will be linked to empirical data in order to analyze and determine the similarities and the relationship between these two chapters. Thus, this section will be divided into three sections: the definition of social networking, the goal of the Company for the use of social networking and social media marketing.

Chapter 6 - Conclusion This section will be answered on two research questions of this study, as well as identifying all the main findings of the empirical data and analysis. In addition, this section will also include the implications and limitations arising from this study.

16

CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW This section will discuss the theory of the fast fashion industry, e-commerce and social

networks as a basis for the study, during which will also be presented the theoretical basis.

2.

e-commerce

According Standifird (2001), under the e-commerce refers to any economic transaction in

which the buyer and seller together through electronic means of communication on the Internet

on the basis of a contract for the supply of certain services or products, and prices, as well as

the completion of the deal by delivering payments and services or products in accordance with

agreement.

In addition, e-commerce is e-commerce. This type of trade to raise standards among the

business community all over the world about the opportunities that e-commerce provides

business (Niranjanamurthy, Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). E-commerce - it is

not only transaction of electronic payments on the Internet, but also several other applications,

such as publishing activities, including marketing, distribution, management, electronic

distribution, banking and sales portals, covering the sale. There are three different types of e-

commerce from business to business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and consumer-to-

consumer (C2C) (Niranjanamurthy, Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). In addition,

the Gunasekaran, Marri,

However, e-commerce can be divided into four different categories: on-line commerce, trade

communications, business processes and services. The prospect of e-commerce is the ability

to buy and sell goods and information on the Internet and other online services (Gunasekaran,

Marri, McGaughey and Nebhwani, 2002). The prospect of communication in e-commerce is

to provide information, services / products or payments via the telephone line, the Internet and

any other electronic means (Gunasekaran, Marri, McGaughey and Nebhwani, 2002). Based

on the business processes of e-commerce, this type of technology prospects is the use of

technology to automate business processes and work (Gunasekaran, Marri, McGaughey and

Nebhwani, 2002). Finally,

18

Globalization has increased international economic competition and economic interdependence of national economies in the world thanks to the rapid growth of traffic expenses for services, goods, capital and technology (Yuliandr 2013, p. 206). Advances in technology has increased the competitiveness of companies and increased sales of products through the use of electronic commerce (e-commerce), which has helped bring to market a wide range of services or products, both digital and physical (Yuliandr 2013, p. 206). E- commerce has changed the way businesses buy and sell goods and services. In today's world, the concept of e-commerce has also changed the way of doing business organizations (Niranjanamurthy, Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). In addition, the e-commerce business is growing exceptional pace. Visa company, which is a company that produces credit cards, said that in 2000, their customers purchased online up to 13 billion US dollars (Gefen, 2000). In connection with the advent of e-commerce, many organizations in the retail sector took advantage of the huge opportunities of advanced technologies (Forbes, Kelley and Hoffman, 2005). Sharply increased growth of consumer online spending in the retail trade sector of electronic goods. In 1999, consumer spending online reached $ 19 billion, which has doubled and amounted to 38 billion dollars in 2000, and in 2001 rose to 54 billion dollars (Forbes, Kelley and Hoffman, 2005). Despite the fact that the hype around the revolution in e- commerce spending was asleep, the number of people who spend money on the Internet is growing,

2.1. Advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce

In connection with the development of communication and information technology and the popularity of the Internet e-commerce has covered the entire population of the globe with an irreversible trend. Ecommerce has many advantages for the commercial world, such as convenience and efficiency, but there are some disadvantages of e-commerce (Zhang, Deng, Wei and Deng, 2012). This e-commerce improves information flow and reduce inefficiency and transaction costs (Jahanshahi, Zheng and Brem, 2013). Despite the benefits that can derive the organization of e-commerce, the use of e-commerce is hampered number of barriers and restrictions. The main obstacles are doubts about the confidentiality and security, the high cost of customer support, as well as operating and maintenance costs, greater than expected levels

19

(Jahanshahi, Zheng and Brem, 2013). E-commerce is the rapid buying and selling procedure

in the Internet, as well as a way to easily find the products and is open 24 hours a day, 7 days

a week. Also, low operating cost and has a higher quality of service (Niranjanamurthy,

Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). Businesses do not need to be physically present at the creation of the company, they are also easy to open and operate. Finally, customers easily select products from different vendors without having to physically move (Niranjanamurthy, Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). Multinational organizations, such as the fashion industry can benefit from e-commerce in many different ways. First, the company can attract new customers both from overseas and from the domestic market. Secondly, it can improve

customer loyalty to a particular product, engaging them to hold. Third, reduce the costs of production, distribution, retrieval, storage and processing of paper-based data (Yuliandre 2013). In addition, the main advantage of online stores for consumers is the lack of information search costs and the possibility of fast, convenience and a wide range of information about products and stores on the Internet. Online users have an advantage in obtaining more than a simple product information, online store, brand and price compared to the offline buyers (Korgaonkar, Petrescu & Becerra, 2014). In addition, the main advantage of online stores for consumers is the lack of information search costs and the possibility of fast, convenience and

a wide range of information about products and stores on the Internet. Online users have an

advantage in obtaining more than a simple product information, online store, brand and price compared to the offline buyers (Korgaonkar, Petrescu & Becerra, 2014). In addition, the main advantage of online stores for consumers is the lack of information search costs and the possibility of fast, convenience and a wide range of information about products and stores on the Internet. Online users have an advantage in obtaining more than a simple product information, online store, brand and price compared to the offline buyers (Korgaonkar, Petrescu & Becerra, 2014).

In connection with a series of transactions between online store and customers can be a risky situation. The reason for this lies in the fact that consumers are likely to evaluate online transactions and check whether it is convenient to take a decision on the continuation of the product purchase (Hjort & Lantz, 2016). Some electronic sites online stores consume the money of their customers, and the company does not guarantee the quality of its products. Furthermore, mechanical disruption, may have unpredictable effects on all the processes

20

(Niranjanamurthy, Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). Since there is a minimal chance

for the company to have direct contact with their customers and customer loyalty is always

under control. Finally, the e-commerce site, payment gateways, services are always vulnerable

to attack, as there are many hackers, are looking for ways to hack these sites (Niranjanamurthy,

Kavyashree, Jagannath and Charhar, 2013). In addition, online shoppers have less opportunity

to inspect the products before buying on the internet, that can make a company's reputation is

even more important (Bronnenberg and Ellickson, 2015).

2.1.1. Global sales of e-commerce

It is reported that sales of e-commerce are growing rapidly in all corners of the globe. Number

of e-commerce stores is constantly growing due to the fact that these types of online businesses

eliminate the pressure on sales, make them more convenient and saves time. For example, in

Europe from 2009 to 2010, retail online stores have grown to 18%. In 2016 the European

online sales will grow the aggregate rate - from 96.7 billion euros in 2011 to 171.9 billion

euros per year (Chui, Tzeng and Li, 2013)

e-commerce business in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the USA, as well as the growing

number of online shoppers.

The table below shows the annual growth rate of

Table 1. Increase the pace of development of e-commerce

A country

Annual

growth

rate

(bln.

The share of online shoppers

Dollars. USA)

 

Great Britain

30.1 pounds (2011) - 51 Pound

75% (2011) - 85% (2016)

(2016).

Sweden

N / A

72% (2011) - 86% (2016)

United States

176.2

(2010)

-

278.9

(2015)

N / A

dollars.

Source: (Chui, Zeng and Li, 2013)

The following table also shows the share of total revenue from online transactions in high-

income countries, including their annual growth in 2004-2014 years. The table shows two

categories of greatest presence on the Internet: Clothes and footwear Electronics and

household appliances (Bronnenberg and Ellickson, 2015). After 20 years of growth in e-

commerce and the ubiquity of such companies like EBay and Amazon, online sales in high-

21

income countries still account for only a small share of total retail sales, with an average of 6% of total retail sales. However, this average is somehow misleading overall retail sales due to the fact that between the two countries there is a huge difference (Bronnenberg and Ellickson, 2015). For example, in the UK the share of retail trade via the Internet is 10% compared with less than 2% in Italy. In the industries of consumer goods e-commerce is largely concentrated in categories such as electronics and home appliances, as well as clothes and footwear, where online sales accounted for 15% and 20% of retail volume in high-income countries, reaching 18% and 30% in the US. Between 2004 and 2014, the share of online sales in all countries with a high level of income has increased by two digits (Bronnenberg and Ellickson, 2015). On the other hand, online sales are a small part of the retail food trade, estimated at 1% of the total sales made through the Internet. This is not surprising, since the products are purchased more frequently than any other category of retail trade,

table 2

frequently than any other category of retail trade, table 2 Source: (Bronnenberg and Ellickson, p 121,

Source: (Bronnenberg and Ellickson, p 121, 2015.).

2.1.2. Ecommerce Fashion Online Store

The popularity of online shopping has increased in the course of business, the number of enterprises, an online store (Ogonowski, Montandon, Botha and Reyneke, 2014). The

22

increasingly common practice for buyers becomes the purchase of goods and services in online retail, as it provides a convenient and fast environment for shopping, saving time and money, as well as the high quality of goods and services (Chui, Tzeng and Li, 2013) . Thus, online shopping has become an important channel for retailers, and many of them are already open, and continue to increase sales (Chui, Tzeng and Li, 2013). As a result, retail managers is extremely important to know how to run a business and marketing strategies, as the success of their online store depends on the effective management and the corresponding marketing strategy (Chui, Tzeng and Li, 2013). In addition, online shopping has become essential for online retailers, because they have become an integral part of the retail strategy. Thus, for online retailers is important to know the needs of their customers and how these online stores can meet these needs (Chui, Tzeng and Li, 2013). Online stores are well accepted, are clearly visible and are well-known type of electronic commerce, which buys and sells services and products via the Internet. Retail online stores are part of the retail channel and e-commerce, which includes e-shops, online shopping and online shopping,

Online fashion shoppers are encouraged by their feelings, which means that many of the online fashion shoppers feel that shopping online - this is the best way to shop than shopping in physical stores. Retail online stores reduce the possibility of high-risk clothing shop online through the use of features that allow online customers to feel that they interact with the product (McCormick and Livett, 2012). This path is becoming increasingly important for the success of e-commerce. There are many online shoppers, which analyze a number of factors that affect how clothes can be worn with other items of clothing, how it will look on themselves as well as sensory and aesthetic data (McCormick and Livett, 2012).

In addition, online shopping has become a vital channel or business model for many organizations. Internet retailers are shifting their attention to the use of their online channels for consumers motivation to re-purchase of products through these channels, as the market of online retailing is becoming more competitive (Chui, Wang, Fang and Huang, 2014). Online store can benefit from their customers, the average customer should shop four times in the Internet company. Therefore, it is important that traders understand the reasons why their customers are constantly make purchases in their online stores (Chui, Wang, Fang and Huang, 2014). Customer opinion, the value is the most important factor that allows to predict a repeat

23

customer intentions. Customers are looking for the Internet services, products and web sites,

of

value. It was pointed out that online shoppers are looking for a functional value, and 93%

of

them are in need of innovation, freshness and openness to meet their domestic needs (Chui,

Wang, Fang and Huang, 2014).

A growing number of Internet users are familiar with this environment, and activities such as

searching on the Internet to gather information about the product widespread. On the other hand, online shopping is not commonplace. This is due to the fact that about 70% of Internet users in 2000, searched, compared and searched for products (Sismeiro and Bucklin, 2004). However, more than 65% of them used the Internet to perform the actual purchase. Unwillingness to accept the Internet as a retail channel, combining a large number of people who visit it to search for information led to low attendance rate for the purchase of a conversion. It was found that the conversion ratio is less than 2% at 70% Evaluation of commercial Web sites, and that it usually ranges from 1% 4% (Sismeiro and Bucklin, 2004). Thus, a low conversion rate of visitors into buying refers to forecasting and understanding of online shopping behaviors is extremely important for e-commerce web sites for managers. Even a small change in the convention could lead to a significant increase in sales revenue (Sismeiro and Bucklin, 2004). However, little is known about the effects of what visitors are doing on the site and that visitors are exposed to the site on their propensity to shop online

(Sismeiro and Bucklin, 2004).

Online shoppers are showing great interest in view of the goods from different angles, as the online stores offer information about fashion, or use interactive image technology (IIT) to provide customers of sensory information in order to reduce the level of risk to make purchases online. The technology of interactive display of images is of particular importance in the retail clothing trade, as it enables the presentation of clothes to be as new as possible, to create a more stimulating experience on the Internet (McCormick and Livett, 2012). Brief information about the mode - is the collection of the fashion trends of the data. Websites of online shops are more successful in providing innovation for communication of garments to its customers with the latest trends and the exchange of best tips for fashion than physical stores. Internet retail offers retailers the opportunity to promote and share the products to end-users a more effective way than any other seller tips in physical stores (McCormick and Livett, 2012).

24

Regular information updates on fashion and became very useful and relevant to consumers. Functions websites apparel retailers such as online magazines, stylish tips, blogs and social networking sites, can enhance their awareness in relation to the mode of online buyers (McCormick and Livett, 2012). Regular information updates on fashion and became very useful and relevant to consumers. Functions websites apparel retailers such as online magazines, stylish tips, blogs and social networking sites, can enhance their awareness in relation to the mode of online buyers (McCormick and Livett, 2012). Regular information updates on fashion and became very useful and relevant to consumers. Functions websites apparel retailers such as online magazines, stylish tips, blogs and social networking sites, can enhance their awareness in relation to the mode of online buyers (McCormick and Livett,

2012).

2.2.

Fashion industry

About 30 years ago, when the traditional fashion luxury industry has long established itself in a stable structure, organizational changes started in the fashion industry. This type of fashion industry faced various challenges in the organization of its business, such as environmental change, especially globalization, changes in the customer base, as well as competitors' access to previously protected markets (Turker and Altunas, 2014). Until then, the fashion industry has followed a stable calendar of exhibitions and displays, representing the trends of the upcoming season. Due to the fashion industry markets were able to forecast the demand for the year up to the time of consumption, based on the latest sales data. Under the influence of certain factors, there was a fixed situation, when there is a new model, known as the "street fashion", "fast fashion" or "

Altunas 2014).

The market clothing retailers competition strategy is usually based on differentiation as a commodity, and prices, as there is a significant polarity between buyers who are more concerned about the brand and / or product and price. clothing market can be segmented into customers, non-fashion conscious and for fashion. Fashion can be defined as "a broad term that usually covers any product or market, where there is an element of style, which is likely

25

to be short-lived" (Hayes and Jones, 2006). Fashion can also be attributed to the accessories and clothes that fit the above definition. This definition means that the segment of the market, conscious fashion, most likely, will change rapidly, volatile and unpredictable. In recent years, retailers have relied on fashion forecast future trends, and not to use the data in real time to assess the needs and desires of its customers. It has been found that this process can begin within 18 months before the product is sold (Hayes and Jones, 2006).

In addition, the fashion industry can be divided into three sectors: the diffusion, high fashion, bridge and mass market. This mass market can also be called fast fashion market, which combines a focus on fashion and price. For example, H & M, Zara and Gap are known fastest growing fashion companies that have entered the market, to ensure the sustainability of clothing consumption at the international level, in spite of the previous economic crisis (Arrigo, 2010).

2.2.1. Fast fashion industry

Fast fashion system - a combination of high production efficiency with enhanced design capabilities, enabling you to create "hot" products that reflect the latest customer trends and achieving the minimum cycle time in accordance with the requirements, no doubt (Cachon and Swinney, 2011). Enterprises fashion industry, such as H & M, Zara and Benetton, deeply adhere to the philosophy of "Fast fashion" retailers. In particular, the system is fast mode is a combination of two elements (Cachon and Swinney, 2011). The first component is that the short production and distribution dates Facilitate compliance with suggestions of uncertain demand, and the second component - a very fashionable design products (Cachon and Swinney, 2011). Fast fashion retailers produce cheap fakes of most modern high-tech fashion and deliver them to customers every few weeks, but not in the fashion season. Due to low prices and hipness of clothing, consumers buy fast fashion and impulse buying more than ever (Hyun-Mee, 2014). In addition, the principle of fast fashion is to reduce the lead time from concept to customer. Fast fashion - a concept according to which retailers are adapting their organizational strategies to reduce the time of delivery of goods to the stores, working on seasonal procurement system to the range of goods is constantly updated during the season (Liz and Gaynor, 2010). but not in the fashion season. Due to low prices and hipness of

26

clothing, consumers buy fast fashion and impulse buying more than ever (Hyun-Mee, 2014). In addition, the principle of fast fashion is to reduce the lead time from concept to customer. Fast fashion - a concept according to which retailers are adapting their organizational strategies to reduce the time of delivery of goods to the stores, working on seasonal procurement system to the range of goods is constantly updated during the season (Liz and Gaynor, 2010). but not in the fashion season. Due to low prices and hipness of clothing, consumers buy fast fashion and impulse buying more than ever (Hyun-Mee, 2014). In addition, the principle of fast fashion is to reduce the lead time from concept to customer. Fast fashion - a concept according to which retailers are adapting their organizational strategies to reduce the time of delivery of goods to the stores, working on seasonal procurement system to the range of goods is constantly updated during the season (Liz and Gaynor, 2010).

Over the years, fast fashion has become the most well-known business model in the fashion industry for its outstanding achievements in the global market. In the 18th century, after the industrial revolution, it was formed several innovations and inventions for the development of the fashion industry as part of a complex system and the scope (Hyunsook, Choo and Namhee, 2013). Firms operating in the field of fast fashion, have developed their own supply chain management, retail technology and merchandising techniques, covering almost all aspects of the fashion business. With these competitive advantages of companies in the fashion industry, have achieved rapid growth in most countries (Hyunsook, Choo and Namhee, 2013). In recent years, the phenomenon of fast fashion has transformed the clothing industry. Changing consumer attitudes to clothing consumption, associated with low production costs and the receipt of materials from external industrial markets, has led to a culture of impulse purchases in the fashion industry, where every week the average consumers get access to new styles of clothing (McNeil and Moore, 2015). In order to retain customers, retailers regularly to identify new trends in this area, as well as weekly buy new products that came into the store and restock (Joy, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang and Chan, 2012). In addition, a fast fashion - is a modern term used by fashion retailers to recognize that the design moves from the catwalk to the shop as soon as possible, reflecting the current trends in the market. Clothes are designed and manufactured at low cost and quickly,

27

Thanks to its well-known business models, fashion companies now use social networks as a tool for their marketing strategy. Today we know that social media are everywhere in the world of marketing, and the growing importance of business quickly recognized (Phan, Thomas and Heine, 2011). Fashion companies have a clear understanding of what social media can do for their business, so they have developed a clear strategy on how they can improve the consumer experience and opinion about their brands (Phan, Thomas and Heine, 2011).

2.3. Social networks

According to Mohapatra (2013, p. 155 of the original text), the Internet has changed people's lives and how people interact with each other and conduct business. In addition, the Internet has also changed the advertising, promotional and marketing activities. Impact of the Internet on brand value increased slightly. Constantinides & Foutain (2007) has defined Web 2.0 as "a collection of open, interactive and user-controlled online applications to enhance the experience, knowledge and bargaining power users as participants in business and social processes." Web 2.0 applications support the creation of informal networks of users, facilitate the exchange of ideas and knowledge by ensuring the efficient generation, distribution, sharing and editing / correction of the information content. "

Social networks use web and mobile technology to create a highly interactive platform through which communities and people work together to create, discuss, share and modify user generated content. They are the ones who represent a social phenomenon, as well as those that are strongly influenced by sales, reputation and survival of enterprises (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre, 2011). In addition, social networks on the Internet are web sites where individuals can create their own home page to post photos, share ideas, writing blogs and connect to other interested their website (Lai and Turban, 2008). In recent years there has been a huge increase in user-generated content on the Internet through the use of a number of devices, It has been identified as social media, despite the use of other technology terms, such as Web 2.0 (Parra-Lopez, Bulchand-Gidumal, Gutierrez-Tano and Diaz-Armas, 2011). This area is the fastest growing segment of the network, which includes the social exchange of views through social photo and video, blogs and microblogging, social bookmarking, social

28

sharing of knowledge, and many other forms of user-generated content. This type of tool allows people to organize, search, annotate, share and contribute to the maintenance of joint efforts (Parra-Lopez, Bulchand-Gidumal, Gutierrez-Tano and Diaz-Armas, 2011). This area is the fastest growing segment of the network, which includes the social exchange of views through social photo and video, blogs and microblogging, social bookmarking, social sharing of knowledge, and many other forms of user-generated content. This type of tool allows people to organize, search, annotate, share and contribute to the maintenance of joint efforts (Parra- Lopez, Bulchand-Gidumal, Gutierrez-Tano and Diaz-Armas, 2011). This area is the fastest growing segment of the network, which includes the social exchange of views through social photo and video, blogs and microblogging, social bookmarking, social sharing of knowledge, and many other forms of user-generated content. This type of tool allows people to organize, search, annotate, share and contribute to the maintenance of joint efforts (Parra-Lopez, Bulchand-Gidumal, Gutierrez-Tano and Diaz-Armas, 2011). In addition, business organizations can assess the strategic development tools platform or applications or use them for marketing business. Businesses or marketers can create free content on social networks (Wienberg and Pehlivan, 2011). Subrahmanyam et al. (2008) also stated that social networks are the latest tool for online communication, which allows users to create online social networks and interact with other users in their networks. Communication Internet forums are varied and include applications such as email, instant messaging, chat rooms, and Internet sites, such as social networks, blogs, sharing sites photos and videos, such as YouTube (Weinberg and Pehlivan, 2011). Organization of small and large businesses, aware of their usefulness, involved in the work with social media groups. The company wrote on Twitter, creating a fan page on Facebook and post videos on YouTube. Today, many business firms recognize the importance of social networks, because they know that they are and will continue to be vital to their business (Weinberg and Pehlivan, 2011).

(Mohapatra, 2013) Furthermore, as consumers are increasingly using the Internet, experts use his strategies to create competitive advantage. The Internet has also changed the conditions of competition, which helped establish the brand in the online channel. As a result, e-commerce strategies are becoming increasingly attractive for experienced Internet users. Mohapatra (2013, p. 155) also stated that "In order to be relevant for online shoppers and make full use of the advantages of new media, e-commerce strategy professionals must rethink their

29

investment in the brand. They should be reasonable balance their brand strategies between the physical and online worlds. They must skillfully combine traditional media with online approaches

Furthermore, social networking sites are one of the most successful exchange of information elements in the social networks. There are many reasons why people use social networks, or to focus on a specific target, or to interact with other people in social networks (Bulut and Dogan, 2017). For example, Twitter is used as a microblog, and Instagram as a platform for sharing video and photos, while LinkedIn is used for placement on the business networking site. Almost all of the functions and services of social networks are free. This may be one reason for the growth of social networks around the world (Bulut and Dogan, 2017).

2.3.1. Users of social networks

Through the development of Internet technology to provide a unique interactive feature of social networks, through which he became an indispensable part of life saturated with competition. With the help of social networking sites people can share exclusive of pictures, information, news, data, etc. Using social networking sites, people from around the world, representing different cultures, nations and religions have the opportunity to share with the world their views, stories, news, etc. (Bulut and Dogan, 2017). Studies have shown that 58% of people use one of the social networks, according to the statistical data of the brain (Statistic Brain). This is 14% of people have LinkedIn, 56% - Facebook, 9% - Google+ profile, and 11% - Twitter. However, Facebook is known as the largest social network, with about 1, 5 billion users. On the other hand, more than 200 million users have Tumblr, Instagram, Google+, Baidu and Twitter.

(Bulut and Dogan, 2017).

The table below is an example of how social networks can be useful for both consumers and companies, as it can help consumers to gather information. As the table shows, 70% of customers use social networking sites, such as blogs and other social networking sites, as well as corporate sites to gather information about a brand or product. 60% of consumers indicated that they use social networks to transmit data (Kirtis and Karahan, 2011).

30

TABLE 3

TABLE 3 Source: (Kirtis and Karagan, page 262, 2011.). In addition, Öztamur and Karakadılar (2014) also

Source: (Kirtis and Karagan, page 262, 2011.).

In addition, Öztamur and Karakadılar (2014) also stated that the firms that have started using social networking as a marketing strategy, use unique quality of the network and changed its marketing strategy on e-commerce. The Internet has become the most profitable tool for companies to promote their products and services in order to attract your target customers. Some of these firms have entered the market to become retailers of electronic goods, while others have become content providers, brokers, service providers or creators of the market.

Improvement of social networking applications such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and Instagram particular, led to the emergence of a new e-commerce paradigm known as the social commerce (Kim and Park, 2013). Social commerce - a subset of e-commerce, using social networks and contributions to facilitate online shopping and sales of various types of goods and services (Kim and Park, 2013). In short, social commerce (s-commerce) - a combination of e-commerce and social networking online company that offers customers daily deals from local companies (Kim and Park, 2013).

31

2.3.1.1.

Facebook

Facebook is one of the most famous social network with more than 4 million active users. Firms are able to create their own personalized and profile page and share important information when creating their own brand of community, not just to offer different advertising programs. In addition, companies have the opportunity to work purposefully with their audience and create a two-way communication with the company and the consumers (Castronovo and Huang, 2012). It is known that Facebook is the most widely used social media platform through which retailers create something more than just e-commerce within Facebook. Over the last 2 years, many retailers were able to view part of selling their products on the company's page on Facebook, However, to complete the transaction, they usually rely on their e-commerce website (Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi, 2012). This is a step in the right direction, but to ensure that retailers can take advantage of Facebook, they should facilitate interaction between buyers on the site for promotions, products and reviews, as well as seamlessly buy products (Saravanakumar and other companies belonging to the network) .

Shugantalakshmi 2012).

Retailers are using Facebook as a way to communicate with their customers, since, according to available data, 600 million Facebook users. With this type of social networking retailers can reward his followers, giving Facebook users only discounts and spying for the new products (Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi, 2012). One example of such an effective promotion strategy is a strategy of Lowes. The Black Friday, this company held a campaign in Facebook, in which Lowes offered a limited number of goods at incredible prices only for his followers to Facebook. Most of the products at Lowes.com were in the range of 90% and were only available to the first 100 subscribers (Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi, 2012).

2.3.1.2. Instagramma

Boy and Uitermark (2016) stated that Instagram company was founded in 2010 and since then, the social network has quickly become the most popular social networking platform. It was reported that more than 200 million Instagram users around the world use this system, so that

32

70 million photos a day are transferred to share around the world. Smartphone users get information, focusing in daily life of the user, having a smartphone. According to Sheldon and Bryant (2016) Instagram is currently the fastest growing social network in the world, because it is a mobile phone for sharing photos and videos, as well as the services of social networks, allowing users to Instagram to make videos and photos, and then share them on other platforms. It has been reported,

(Sheldon and Bryant, 2016) In addition, Instagram allows individuals also involve social networking community. One way social inclusion is the practice of labeling hashes. All Instagram users can see the hash tags, causing them to contribute to the community of social networking sites. Sloane (2015) also stated that the company's e-commerce began to slowly develop Instagram, as this was the first marketing campaign, which could turn into the views of buyers with one click. (Sloane, 2015) In this way, retailers can link their pages with Instagram advertising. Instead of a button "Buy", Instagram allows marketers to more easily make reference to the checkout page online.

In March 2015 the company Instagram first launched the ability to create links when you run the carousel of advertising that allows you to place a slide show with pictures, ending the button to view additional content. The main goal is to allow retailers to send their customers directly to where they can buy what they see in advertising Instagram (Sloane, 2015).

It is reported that more than 58% of the 50 largest global companies place an average of 5.6 times per week on Instagram website. Nowadays, every person in this world goes with cameras in their pockets and in the future will be more use of visual social networks (Oren, 2015). It is not surprising that consumers are moving to image-making social networking sites such as Tumblr, Pin Interest and Instagram to document their lives and, therefore, the services and products they use (Oren, 2015). As a result, consumers are quick to react to trends in social networks, and the company also pass on these social networking sites for their brands. There is a vast number of consumers and companies, who realized that the stories are told through pictures in social networks. Retailers are numerous advantages of using Instagram to its business strategy (Oren 2015). One example is that when customers place on Instagram photo retail trade, it is an effective form of advertising of the product, so other users can view your

33

photos. Another example is the fact that its products are used in the new case, he can use that information and disseminate it through the company's own channels.

(Oren, 2015).

2.3.2. The purpose of business organizations use social networks

Rapid growth of the Internet has provided both firms and clients with many new features over the past few years. Attracted by the rapid penetration of social networks in society, the growing number of business organizations that use social networks as part of its efforts to create a brand and marketing (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014), significantly increased. Organizations using social networks, can benefit from the reach and brand awareness, communication with customers through referrals, transactions, and reputation management. In addition, businesses can also take advantage of the wisdom of its customers to share their experiences and knowledge, to attract prospects through customer evangelism and the ability for customers to help other customers (Neti, 2011).

Furthermore, social networks can help businesses promote their brands, provide useful information to their customers and increase traffic to the company's Web site (Montague, Gazal, Wiedenbeck and Shephard, 2016). There are also some companies that use social media to increase their sales by promoting and demonstrating its products on the Internet and increase brand awareness / output (Tchach, Lease and Barton, 2016). Social media can also increase sales when customers visit the company's home page, which can cause traffic to the site and increase sales through the Internet. For example, in 2012, Sony has received an additional income of a million pounds in sales through Twitter,

Dmitriados 2012).

2.3.2.1. Social Media Marketing

In connection with the recent global economic downturn, this has affected the marketing strategies of many commercial organizations, as well as the perception and behavior of consumers. During and after the global economic downturn marketing function plays an important role for companies, allowing them to survive, to remain profitable and to respond

34

quickly to customer needs (Kirtis and Karahan, 2011). With the help of social networking as a marketing tool has helped companies reduce their costs. Using social media to promote their brands and other marketing activities are not worth the money to firms (Kirtis and Karahan, 2011). It was the most convenient business approach for companies in marketing their products in the target market. Marketers make heavy use of social networks to their business strategy have been cheaper, because it is one of the most effective approaches in business practice (Kirtis and Karahan, 2011). Organizations are using social media, as they have a connection, the audience, the economic advantages and time. Social media can reduce costs as part of the distribution is in the media. However, access to the majority of social networking is free (and Kirtis Karahan)

2011).

Over the past decade, business marketing and promotion of products has undergone a radical change. The use of social networking as a marketing strategy has increased significantly, whereas the physical means of promotion such as billboards, radio, newspapers and magazines, declined. The network has been named the largest communication strategy ever invented before, which led to the rapid changes in the marketing environment, thanks to technological progress (Montague, Gazal, Wiedenbeck and Shephard, 2016). In this connection, companies had to transform the process of planning and implementation of their marketing messages to meet the growing demands of emerging communication technologies. Social Media - one of the largest modern marketing strategies, developed as a result of the growth of the digital market (Montague, Gazal, Wiedenbeck and Shephard, 2016). Social networks are now one of the best opportunities available for companies to establish contacts with potential customers. This innovation has won the trust of customers, establishing a very close relationship with them. In early 2010, social media marketing has become a mantra for several business organizations (Neti, 2011). In short, social media marketing - a method of which is to convince customers that their products and / or services are worthy of the use of social networks. This is done through social networks, online communities, blogging marketing and much more (Neti, 2011). Social networks are now one of the best opportunities available for companies to establish contacts with potential customers. This innovation has won the trust of customers, establishing a very close relationship with them. In early 2010, social media marketing has become a mantra for several business organizations (Neti, 2011). In short, social media marketing - a method of which is to convince customers that their

35

products and / or services are worthy of the use of social networks. This is done through social networks, online communities, blogging marketing and much more (Neti, 2011). Social networks are now one of the best opportunities available for companies to establish contacts with potential customers. This innovation has won the trust of customers, establishing a very close relationship with them. In early 2010, social media marketing has become a mantra for several business organizations (Neti, 2011). In short, social media marketing - a method of which is to convince customers that their products and / or services are worthy of the use of social networks. This is done through social networks, online communities, blogging marketing and much more (Neti, 2011). In early 2010, social media marketing has become a mantra for several business organizations (Neti, 2011). In short, social media marketing - a method of which is to convince customers that their products and / or services are worthy of the use of social networks. This is done through social networks, online communities, blogging marketing and much more (Neti, 2011). In early 2010, social media marketing has become a mantra for several business organizations (Neti, 2011). In short, social media marketing - a method of which is to convince customers that their products and / or services are worthy of the use of social networks. This is done through social networks, online communities, blogging marketing and much more (Neti, 2011).

Today, marketers view social media as a great opportunity to increase market share. In addition, marketers view social networks as a new set of channels for promotion and marketing of their products or services. Social networks have become a very important topic for many companies at the moment (Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi, 2012). This allows firms to establish communication channel with its customers, strengthen the brand's position to promote their products on the market and increase its reliability. However, these networking sites are a two-way channel, which requires a lot of attention and effort on the part of companies to be able to manage this communication (Saravanakumar and

Shugantalakshmi 2012).

2.3.2.2. communication tool

In addition, the use of social networking for companies can be an effective approach to enhance their confidence by providing useful information and can contribute to business development

36

through promotions, discounts and so on. Firms can show the quality of their work with the help of videos and photos, highlight special promotions, and offer customers a direct contact with the customer service of the company to solve the problem (Mazurkiewics, 2015). As social networks offer business technique to communicate directly with consumers and build relationships, it is essential that each organization to respond positively to the negative reviews. For example, if the customer wrote on social networks a negative review about a product or service of the company, the company must turn this negative feedback to positive criticism as an advantage (Minter, 2013). Besides the obvious use of communication and information retrieval without any restrictions, now people can use social networks to express their feelings and thoughts (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). Social Media - this is an opportunity for companies to communicate with their customers, using a rich media with great coverage. The interactive nature of digital media allows companies to not only communicate with their customers, but also to share it with their customers (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). now people can use social networks to express their feelings and thoughts (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). Social Media - this is an opportunity for companies to communicate with their customers, using a rich media with great coverage. The interactive nature of digital media allows companies to not only communicate with their customers, but also to share it with their customers (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). now people can use social networks to express their feelings and thoughts (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). Social Media - this is an opportunity for companies to communicate with their customers, using a rich media with great coverage. The interactive nature of digital media allows companies to not only communicate with their customers, but also to share it with their customers (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis,

2014).

Consumers actually increase the value of interaction, creating the content, which may lead to decisions about buying other people in the process of communication on a "peer to peer". Businesses can use social media to reach out to other customers, which can not be contacted (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). Furthermore, social networks can also help to create and increase brand awareness, as social networking equipment allows businesses to have access to millions of people. Since a large number of people visit social networking sites, the presence of the brand across the entire network can help people obtain information about the brand, to get acquainted with the company and increase its recognition (Tsimonis and Dmitriadis)

2014).

37

While social media can help companies communicate with their customers around the world, they also have an impact on the business in various ways, passing information by word of mouth (WOM).

2.3.2.3. Voice of word of mouth

Herr, Cardesse and Kim (1991) have confirmed that the communication "word of mouth" (WOM) often has a huge impact on customer decisions when purchasing goods or services. Chen, Fay and Wang (2011) also stated that the development of the Internet, particularly Web 2.0, social networking technologies have provided an unprecedented platform for users to publish and exchange views and experiences through customer reviews or "word of mouth word of mouth." There is ample evidence that the "word of mouth" online has a significant impact on the purchasing behavior (Chen, Fay and Wang, 2011). Communication "word of mouth" is a vital learning tool and can have a huge impact on the decision of consumers to buy. There are situations where this effect can be surprising,

Before the advent of the Internet distributor information "word of mouth" in the first place would affect the local group of friends and family members, and spread it to a wider audience would occur only gradually. However, electronic communication which is carried out through online review sites for consumers, allowed to provide immediate access to information to a much wider audience as a single message can affect your visitors. Recent empirical studies have shown that the amount and valence of online consumer reviews of a significant effect on product sales "(Chen, Fay and Wang, 2011). In addition, consumers are heavily influenced by the decisions and opinions of other consumers. Communication with the user can change the consumer buyer's decision to purchase, as it is considered a reliable and credible source of information about the product (Castronovo and Huang, 2012). It is known that in the process of marketing the exchange of information through "word of silence" plays a key role in the business process, as customers tend to rely heavily on the advice of other users when they make a purchase decision, especially when the purchase is associated with psychological or financial risks.

(Castronovo and Huang 2012).

38

The woman even more effective in making individual decisions to buy than traditional advertising channels, and support consumers for a long time (Castronovo and Huang, 2012). Customers are very interested in providing information through WOM-communication, when they are either dissatisfied or satisfied with the product and are very loyal to the company (Castronovo and Huang, 2012).

TABLE 4

loyal to the company (Castronovo and Huang, 2012). TABLE 4 Source: (. Kirtis and Karahan, page

Source: (. Kirtis and Karahan, page 263, 2011)

The above table illustrates the percentage of consumers who provided information that they found on the Internet. The table results are based on a study carried out in 2008. On the basis of this study, the researchers found that 60% of consumers surveyed use social networks to transmit information to other networks (Kirtis and Karahan, 2011). Among the 60% of consumers 45% of them were looking for information through social networking sites that worked with women, while 36% of them found the information on a news site or the company's website (Kirtis and Karahan, 2011).

39

2.4. The theoretical basis - The impact of social media on the activities of business

organizations

The figure below shows how social networks are used in the marketing strategy of the

organization of e-commerce. As shown below, there are two types of social media platforms

that are most used e-commerce: Instagram and Facebook. Thanks to these two types of social

media platforms, they help companies improve their e-commerce marketing tools. Using them

40

as a marketing strategy, it can benefit the company in several different ways, such as marketing / promotion, raising awareness of their brand, increase sales and increase traffic to the website of e-commerce companies. e-commerce companies can also be an advantage to attract new customers, and can also keep in touch with your existing customers by using social networking as a marketing tool. In addition, the use of social networking as a marketing tool is free. However, offering information about your online products to customers can be beneficial both for the company and for the customer at the same time, e-commerce can be influenced by rumors.

Figure 1. Social media in fast mode of e-commerce

Social networks Instagramma Facebook Fast fashion (E-trade) marketing tool Increase sales Attraction of new clients
Social networks
Instagramma
Facebook
Fast fashion
(E-trade)
marketing tool
Increase sales
Attraction of new clients
Marketing / promotion
Keep in touch with existing customers
rumors rumors
Keep in touch with existing customers rumors rumors suggest a intelligence Brand recognition Is free

suggest a

intelligence

Brand recognition

Is free

Increase website traffic

Brand recognition Is free Increase website traffic Source: Own construction For further development of the
Brand recognition Is free Increase website traffic Source: Own construction For further development of the

Source: Own construction

For further development of the theoretical foundations of the researcher used the other important writers in support of the theoretical model, which has been shown above. First of all, social media serves as a tool to promote intra- and inter-organizational activities of consumers, individuals, organizations, and business partners, such as the joint development of

41

products, corporate dialogue with financial institutions, the establishment of community knowledge-sharing, joint training and creativity, marketing strategy brand management (Ngai, Tao and Moon. 2015). In addition, the development of social networks based on the Internet has made it possible for people and organizations to interact with hundreds or even thousands of other people about the products and the companies that provide them. One of the most popular methods of communication, used by organizations to communicate with their target audiences, is an integrated marketing communications (IMC) (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). This type of communication is trying to control and coordinate the various types of promotional activities, such as personal selling, advertising, direct marketing, product promotion, advertising and public relations. IMC uses these elements to create a single message, customer-oriented, and as a result reaches the various organizational goals (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). However, with the advent of social networks (Mangold and Faulds, 2009) strategies and communication tools with customers have changed considerably. This type of communication is trying to control and coordinate the various types of promotional activities, such as personal selling, advertising, direct marketing, product promotion, advertising and public relations. IMC uses these elements to create a single message, customer-oriented, and as a result reaches the various organizational goals (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). However, with the advent of social networks (Mangold and Faulds, 2009) strategies and communication tools with customers have changed considerably. This type of communication is trying to control and coordinate the various types of promotional activities, such as personal selling, advertising, direct marketing, product promotion, advertising and public relations. IMC uses these elements to create a single message, customer-oriented, and as a result reaches the various organizational goals (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). However, with the advent of social networks (Mangold and Faulds, 2009) strategies and communication tools with customers have changed considerably. and as a result achieves various organizational purposes (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). However, with the advent of social networks (Mangold and Faulds, 2009) strategies and communication tools with customers have changed considerably. and as a result achieves various organizational purposes (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). However, with the advent of social networks (Mangold and Faulds, 2009) strategies and communication tools with customers have changed considerably.

Table 5. List of authors with their theories

42

The authors

McCormick and Livett (2012), Kirtis and Karahan (2011), Ostamur and Karakadilyar (2014), Montagu, Gazalm, Vaydenbek and Shepard (2016), Mazurkiewicz (2015), Saravanakumar and Sugantalakshmi (2012) and Miner (2013), Tsimonis and Dimit

(2014).

Mohapatra (2013), Neti (2014), Weinberg and Pelivan (2011), Chach, rental and Barton (2016) and Kirtis and Karahan (2011), and Dogan Bulut (2017).

Boy and Uitermark (2016), Sheldon and Bryant (2016), Sloane (2015), Oren (2015), Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi (2012)

Chen Fei and Wang (2011), Castronovo and Juan (2012).

Reasons to use a quick e-commerce fashion Social networks

Marketing: Product information, promotion and communication

Marketing: Product information, promotion and communication Competitive Advantage: Free Installation and Facebook Voice

Competitive Advantage: Free

Installation and Facebook

Voice word of mouth (female)

Source: Own construction

According to McCormick and Livett (2012), the advantage of the website (e-commerce) is that

it provides the best innovations for transmitting information about the clothing, promotion and

interaction with their customers than the usual shops. Regular fashion information and updates

become useful and relevant to online consumers. In addition, the McCormick and Livett (2012)

also mentioned that the functions on the websites of fashion retailers can focus on their fashion

consciousness for online customers. Kirtis and Karagan reported.

(2011) that 70% of consumers use social networks to gather information about a product or brand.

Social media has become a market strategy for many e-commerce businesses, since it is one

of the most profitable tools to promote their products and services, as well as to attract their

target customers. It also allows users to share information with their customers (Oztamur and

Karakadilar, 2014; Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi, 2012; Tsimonis and others.

Dmitriadis 2014).

43

The use of social networks for retailers can be seen as a competitive advantage, since the platform is free, and less costly for businesses (Weinberg and Pehlivan, 2012; Kirtis and Karahan, 2011). Due to the fact that social networking sites are not worth it for them to grow all over the world (Bulut and Dogan, 2017). This type of marketing strategy for businesses has also become a competitive strategy for these companies because it helps brands to online channels, and consumers are becoming more attractive to the Internet (Weinberg and Pehlivan (2011). In addition, companies can use social media to increase brand awareness and reach of the brand, and finally, to increase their sales (Neti, 2011; Tchach, Lease and Barton, 2016);

Montagu, Gazalm, Vaydenbek and Shepard, 2016; Tsimonis and Dmitriadis (2014).

The company Instagram is known as the fastest platform of social networks around the world, with around 200 million users. People use this type of social networking for video capture and upload photos for personal and business use. Instagram also used as a business strategy for my business organizations because they can upload their products online, so that consumers can see it through advertising their brands (Boy and Uitermark, 2016; Sheldon and Bryant, 2016; Sloane, 2015; Oren 2015). However, according to Chain store age (2012) and Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi (2012), Instagram and Facebook are the most popular social networks in the world, which allows users to share photos and comment on posted them. It was also reported,

In addition, the use of social networking online has also enabled customers to talk about their purchases orally (WOM). This type of method influences the purchasing behavior and decisions of potential buyers (Chen, Fay and Wang, 2011; Castronovo and Huang, 2012). In the marketing process, word for word is critical to any organization's business processes, as clients, communicate with each other, can have a strong influence on consumer decision- making.

44

CHAPTER 3 - METHODOLOGY

In this section, methodological process of the study will be presented. In order to achieve the objectives and research questions of this study it was used a qualitative method of interviewing four multinational companies operating in the field of e-commerce couture (Vero Moda, Monki, River Island and Bik Bok). The remainder of this section will also address issues of validity, reliability, ethnicity and methodological limitations.

3. Research approach

45

Since the purpose of this work is to study and illustrate the impact of social media in the fashion business in the field of e-commerce within the quality research method uses an inductive approach.

Qualitative methods are aimed at clarifying and developing a specific topic / subject, instead of trying to get a general idea of the study population. In each case a qualitative method gives conclusions, which take into account the specific phenomenon (Hyde, 2000). Moreover, the reason for choosing a qualitative method for the study, in particular, is to obtain detailed information about a small number of people (Hyde, 2000).

There are two basic methods for analyzing qualitative approach: deductive and inductive (Burnard, Gill, Stewart, Treasure and Chadwick, 2008). One of the reasons for this study used an inductive approach, instead of deductive, consists in that an inductive approach consists in analyzing the data with a limited amount or absence of predetermined theories framework or structure and uses themselves evidence to determine the analysis of structure ( Burnard, Gill, Stewart, Treasure and Chadwick, 2008). This method is considered to be a comprehensive, time-consuming and the most common approach used for the analysis of qualitative data. This qualitative method best suited where little is known about the phenomenon of the study (Burnard, Gill, Stewart, Treasure and Chadwick,

3.1. research strategy

To achieve the objectives of the study and a response to the questions posed method of exploratory research was developed. The reason for the selection of exploratory research for this study lies in the fact that it is carried out to identify potential business opportunities or clarify ambiguous situations. This study is the first step, which is carried out in the hope that further studies to obtain more conclusive evidence. Sometimes he carried out in order to guide and clarify the follow-up study (Zikmund, Babin, Carr and Griffin, 2013, p. 52). One of the main methods of data collection is to conduct exploratory research. Survey data are held on

46

specific research projects for which relevant data are not available. The main purpose of the research study - to shed light on the nature of the situation and determine whether the researcher should collect additional studies (Neelankavil, 2007, p 104.). In addition, this type of research method uses a qualitative research approach, which helps to understand the processes of subjective thinking and get an idea of perception and attitude. Finally, it is also useful for identifying problems and generate ideas for execution (Neelankavil, 2007, p. 104).

Furthermore, the focus of research in this method is the detection of ideas. Researchers are committed to this technique a significant part of their work only when a matter under consideration, little is known. The basic idea of the use of the research study is to clarify the concepts and conduct more extensive research (Majumdar, 2005) p. 23). In addition, the advantage of exploratory studies is that they require less time and lower costs. Finally, another reason for conducting the research study is a survey of knowledgeable people, analysis of several cases, along with an extensive scan of secondary research (Majumdar, 2005, p. 23).

In order to perform this research study, the researchers decided to use a case study to better understand the real situation, which is a four multinational companies operating in the field of e-commerce high fashion.

3.2. Topical research

"A case study is an empirical study that explores the modern phenomenon in the context of real life, when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are evident and when using multiple sources of evidence" (Zainal, 2007). case study method allows researchers to carefully examine the data relating to a specific phenomenon. In most cases, this method involves drawing a small geographic area or a very limited number of people as the object of study (Zainal, 2007). Case study should be carried out, when the center of the research focus is on

47

questions of "why" and "how", and when the researcher wants to capture the contextual conditions, because it believes that they are relevant to the study of the phenomenon (Baxter and Jack, 2008). In addition, the case study explores and investigates contemporary real life context by means of a detailed contextual analysis of a small number of events or conditions and their relationships (Zainal, 2007). Case study research method can be used in many different situations in order to contribute to our knowledge of the individual, organizational, group, political, social and related phenomena. This method is an accepted method of research in political science, social work, education, anthropology, public planning, and most importantly, business (Yin, 2013). Whatever the area of interest, the desire to understand complex social subject area makes a special need in the method of analysis of specific examples. Briefly, this method allows researchers to focus on the "business" and to preserve the integrity and the real world, for example, in the study of organizational and management processes (Yin, 2013). to contribute to our knowledge of the individual, organizational, group, political, social and related phenomena. This method is an accepted method of research in political science, social work, education, anthropology, public planning, and most importantly, business (Yin, 2013). Whatever the area of interest, the desire to understand complex social subject area makes a special need in the method of analysis of specific examples. Briefly, this method allows researchers to focus on the "business" and to preserve the integrity and the real world, for example, in the study of organizational and management processes (Yin, 2013). to contribute to our knowledge of the individual, organizational, group, political, social and related phenomena. This method is an accepted method of research in political science, social work, education, anthropology, public planning, and most importantly, business (Yin, 2013). Whatever the area of interest, the desire to understand complex social subject area makes a special need in the method of analysis of specific examples. Briefly, this method allows researchers to focus on the "business" and to preserve the integrity and the real world, for example, in the study of organizational and management processes (Yin, 2013). This method is an accepted method of research in political science, social work, education, anthropology, public planning, and most importantly, business (Yin, 2013). Whatever the area of interest, the desire to understand complex social subject area makes a special need in the method of analysis of specific examples. Briefly, this method allows researchers to focus on the "business" and to preserve the integrity and the real world, for example, in the study of organizational and management processes (Yin, 2013). This method is an accepted method of research in political science, social work, education, anthropology, public planning, and most importantly, business

48

(Yin, 2013). Whatever the area of interest, the desire to understand complex social subject area makes a special need in the method of analysis of specific examples. Briefly, this method allows researchers to focus on the "business" and to preserve the integrity and the real world, for example, in the study of organizational and management processes (Yin, 2013).

Once the research questions have been identified and they are the best answers through a qualitative case study was given. The study should consider the type of case study (Baxter and Jack, 2008). The choice of a particular type of case study plan will be determined by the overall objective of this study. These types can be holistic case studies, individual case studies and numerous case studies (Baxter and Jack, 2008).

Since this study, in particular, contains more than one example, several case studies have been conducted. Reason for multiple case study is that it will allow researchers to analyze the situation in each case and in different conditions (Baxter and Jack, 2008). This case study looks at various examples in order to understand the differences and similarities between the examples. Numerous case studies can predict the result of the contrast, but with a predictable end, and predict similar results (Baxter and Jack, 2008). In addition, an approach based on multiple case studies, allowing researchers to compare the results to determine whether the result is simply unique to a single case, or he, usually played in different cases. This study creates a more robust theory due to the fact that the deeper assumptions are based on a variety of empirical data (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007). Finally, the construction and relation more clearly defined, as it is easier to determine the precise definition and design abstraction levels of the plurality of cases (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007).

3.3. Data collection method

In order to complete the methodological approach to this work, both primary and secondary data were conducted using the method of qualitative research. Based on the initial data, the method of full-time survey and telephone survey was conducted within the framework of the questionnaire method and included several open and closed questions. In addition, secondary data cover literature review. Selected company researcher who conducted numerous case studies - a Monkey, River Island, Bik Bok and Vero.

49

Fashion.

3.3.1. primary data

Since the objective of this study was to identify and illustrate how social networks affect the multinational industry of fast fashion e-commerce, quality intramural survey and telephone survey was conducted to determine the research questions of this study. Questions for the interview consisted of questions 6 and 9 unstructured structured transferred profiles, which in total consisted of 15 questions.

The first step taken by the researcher for the study was to establish contact with all four stores located in Stockholm, on the phone to find out when the store manager will be in the store before you go to the store directly. Since the workers indicated a specific date and time, the researcher visited the store at this time to meet with the store manager. All respondents interviewed researcher wondered how not to participate in this study because the researcher told them that this is a student project. Since the interview was held in full time to evaluate the in-person interview process takes no more than 30 minutes, because the questions were very simple and was given only a few profiles, for which respondents were easy to answer.

Finally, to better understand this section, the researcher explained briefly below the main data in more detail.

Primary data - it is the raw data that were collected during the study. Usually, this can be represented as the use of a statistical method (Glass, 1976). The reason for choosing a qualitative market research for this study lies in the fact that, according to Gill et al. (2008), qualitative methods such as interviews, provide a better and deeper understanding of social phenomena. Gill et al (2008) also mentioned that there are three fundamental types of interviews, such as unstructured, semi-structured and structured interviews. Structured interview is an oral questionnaire with a list of questions that should be asked. This method of analysis is considered quick and simple and can easily be explained by any individual respondent misunderstood issues. In addition, Chen & Weng (2009) described the questionnaire as a data collection method that the respondent fills in writing. These closed

50

questionnaire can be a list of mutually exclusive categories, as well as a list from which respondents could choose more than one answer from a list of categories.

While unstructured interviews - is open or narrow an interview, during which the interviewee can control the course of the interview. Interviewer and interviewee share experiences, coming together to create a legacy of colloquial context in which the interviewee would feel comfortable answering questions (Corbin and Morse, 2003). Semi-structured interviews - this in-depth interviews, during which interviewees must respond to predetermined open-ended questions, with this method of interviewing is conducted only once and takes from 30 minutes to over an hour.

(Jamshed, 2014).

One of the reasons of a personal interview for this study lies in the fact that Irwin, Drew and Sensberi (2012) stated that this method of interviewing requires a narrower spoken communication, nonverbal communication and courtesy between the interviewer and the respondent, as well as ways to better express his points of view. In addition, during the personal interview interview, the interviewer may provide additional information that may be added to the respondent's answer to the question (Irvine, Drew and Sainsbury, 2012).

Personal interview in qualitative research is often used rather than the telephone interview in qualitative research. Though a telephone survey can be regarded as "universal" data collection tool. It is known that, in conducting this type of qualitative research respondents are more relaxed and ready to communicate freely and disclose information (Novick, 2008). In addition, telephone data are also bright, saturated, detailed and high quality. Advantages telephone survey for qualitative researchers compared to full-time survey are to reduce costs (Novick, 2008). In addition, it is also expanding access to geographically dispersed subject, increases the safety of researchers, reduces the need for space and, finally, the interviewer can discreetly monitor (Novick, 2008). However, the methods of a telephone survey may cause respondents to experience more discomfort when discussing sensitive issues on the phone than in person (Szolnoki and Hoffmann, 2013). It is also believed that many of the respondents prefer face to face interviews, telephone surveys than as participants in the survey can be monitored environment (Szolnoki and Hoffmann, 2013).

51

Table 6. Details of respondents

respondents

Position

Company

Address

 

date

Type

Time

 

of

respondent 1

Manager

vero Moda

Drottingingatan (T

 

22/11/2016

FtoF

20

Sentalen)

minutes

respondent 2

Manager

River

Drottingingatan (T

 

22/11/2016

FtoF

15

Isle

centralen)

minutes

respondent 3

visual merchandiser

Monkey

Sergel ( Thi

22/11/2016

FtoF

15

Manager

centralen)

minutes

respondent 4

Manager

River

Hamnsgatan

(T

22/11/2016

FtoF

20

Isle

Sentalen)

minutes

respondent 5

Manager

Bik Bok

Galerianka

(T

22/11/2016

FtoF

27

centralen)

minutes

respondent 6

Manager `s assistant

Bik Bok

Shopping center in Scandinavia

22/11/2016

FtoF

24

min

respondent 7

Manager

vero Moda

galerianka

(T-

23/11/2016

FtoF

24

min

centralen)

 

respondent 8

Manager

Monkey

Kungsgatan

(T-

24/11/2016

Phone

15

centralen)

minutes

respondent 9

Manager

Bik Bok

Hamnsgatan

(T-

24/11/2016

FtoF

18

centralen)

minutes

respondent

Manager `s assistant

Monkey

Sergel

24/11/2016

FtoF

22

min

ten

 

3.3.2. secondary data

Source: Own construction

Secondary data - is information that already exists and is published, such as surveys, qualitative research, surveys conducted by the national government and the state (Rew, Koniak-Griffin, Lewis, Miles, O'Sullivan, 2000). In addition, secondary data are also a set of research projects that use existing data to answer questions that may or may not have been offered during the baseline data collection (Rew, Koniak-Griffin,

Lewis, Miles, O'Sullivan, 2000).

52

On the basis of this study were collected secondary data collection and analysis of information in the review of the literature on how social networks influence the fashion business in the field of e-commerce. Moreover, thanks to this method of research helped to gather reliable and valuable literature. Secondary data collected are articles in Google Scholar scientific journals, e-books in Google Books and websites, such as background information about companies.

3.4. Presentation and analysis of data

Analysis and data collection take place in an iterative process, which is known to be beneficial to the researchers, because it allows you to develop a theory based on empirical data. In addition to the development of categories and detailed description of the data to determine the behavior or the process that turned out to be vital in the process of data analysis (Kohlbacher, 2006). The data can then be grouped in some subjects, the central issues and key topics, and then, finally, the data must be examined to determine whether they match or do not match the expected category (Kohlbacher, 2006). In addition, data analysis includes tabulations, research, testing, categorization, or recombination of both qualitative and quantitative data for the formulation of the initial proposals of the study.

In this study, a literature review and interview questions were divided into three categories:

the most commonly used social networks, social media marketing and the reasons for the use of social networks, in addition to marketing. Since this method will help researchers identify the most important aspects of the interview questions and review of the literature. The researcher also tied together with each question and answers with the companies. After all the questions were answered by all respondents, the researcher was able to identify similarities and differences between the respondents. For example, in questions 8, 10, 11, and 12 issues have not been put in a questionnaire, as in other matters. Therefore, in order that the researcher can analyze their data, the researcher collected the responses that were similar to each other or used terms having the same meaning, and that the other respondents to be able to identify patterns. Thus, the researcher was able to determine similarities and differences in patterns of behavior and use them as evidence for empirical studies and discussions.

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3.5.

Validity and reliability

According to Golafshani (Golafshani, 2003), the researcher designs a study, analyzing the results and assesses its quality, it is important that any qualitative researcher considered him trustworthy and reliable. However, Brink (1993) stated that many qualitative researchers try to avoid using the term "validity and reliability" and use terms such as value, trust, usability, reliability, credibility, corroboration, consistency.

In a qualitative study of the validity of the term means "adequacy" of processes, tools, and data (Leung, 2015. This means that you need to know whether the research questions the desired result, whether a methodology is correct, whether the methodology selected for the answer to the research question the suitability sampling and analysis, and finally, the results and conclusions of the study are valid for sampling and context (Leung, 2015). The researcher made sure that he responded to the right interview questions that have been e ystvitelny for this study. were not so many questions that he realized that they were not relevant to the subject (social networks) and have no relationship to it on the basis of the questions asked in the interview, the researcher.

According to Brink (1993), "the reliability associated with the sequence, stability and repeatability informants stories, as well as to the ability of investigators to collect and record accurate information." This refers to the study of the method ability to consistently get the same results over repeated testing period. In other words, it is required that the researcher using the same or comparable methods of getting the same or comparable results each time he uses the methods according to the same or comparable art. "In other words, Roberts, Priest and Traynor (2006) stated that the reliability describes how far a specific tool, procedure or test, such as a profile, give similar results under different circumstances, assuming that nothing else has changed.

Responses to the questions were easy, as the answers to many questions, so all the leaders taking the time to answer the questions honestly as possible, without haste. Moreover, the answers given by four companies, can be considered as a reliable source, but their answers may change in the future. This is due to the fact that social media are a kind of platform on

54

which the development of new technologies continues to grow. In the near future may see yet another platform that e-commerce companies can use to their business strategy.

3.6. ethical considerations

According to Burton and Stina (2004.p.52), it is imperative that each student-researcher in the writing of his study took into account the ethics of their research. However, ethical considerations are also important both for administrative and professional level. Either of doctoral thesis, or master, there are standards regarding the expected corresponding method, or structure and research report (Burton and Steane, 2004.p. 52). In most universities it is expected that the research students will pay attention and justify ethical considerations, since the university where students are taught, is a formal structure, from which the student is involved in the research (Burton and Steane, 2004.p. 52). Consequently, student-researcher is the public face of the university is as a student conducting research and how people relate to them (Burton and Steane, 2004.p.52). Based ethical reasons, researchers should be useful not unreasonable demands put forward to parties, and participants must be based on the informed contents / agreement (Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls and Ormston, 2014, p. 77). Furthermore, confidentiality and anonymity of participants must be observed, and these participants must be voluntary and free from pressure or force (Ritchie, Lewis, Nicholls and Ormston, 2014, p.

77).

In this study, the researcher has applied the ethical considerations and has also taken it seriously, as the researcher is aware how vital it is to acknowledge the ethical considerations. Before, conducting the research, the researcher introduced herself as a student from Gavle University in order to assure all the participants that their data would not be published on the internet. As the participants agreed to participate into the researcher's study project, some of the interviewees wanted their name to be private. Therefore, all the respondents have been named anonymously in order to respect their privacy. Moreover, in chapter 4 (empirical findings) no personal data of the researcher have been including only the information of the respondents. This is done to gain reliable and valuable data and to be completely honest with this research study.

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3.7.

Limitation of the Methodology

The limitation of this study is the lack of having the perspective of managers in the department of social media. The work could have been improved if the researcher was able to be in contact with those people in order to have a better validation of this research study. As other managers that are responsible of all social media platform of their company might probably know the statistics of their followers and which social media is most valuable for their company for instance. Additionally, the e-commerce business might have better insight of the influence of social media into their online store. Based on some questions there were few respondents that would give reasons for their answers that's why in the table of the empirical findings in the answer column is blank.

CHAPTER 4 - EMPIRICAL FINDINGS

Under this section the researcher will explain the most important findings of the research results and a brief background history of each company. According to Drotar (2009) this

section is vital as it would illustrate and determine the key findings of the gathered results. Moreover, it would also make it easier for the reader to understand the result findings of the primary data of this research study. Based on the results, the findings will be based on how social media has influenced fast fashion ecommerce multinational business (Bik Bok, Monki,

56

River Island and Vero Moda). To discuss and examine the findings of the participants, a primary face-to-face interview and telephone interview of data collection through the method of qualitative research method have been conducted.

4. Bik Bok Background

Bik Bok is comprised by one of the biggest and leading textile companies in Scandinavia with approximately 11,000 employees and 1500 stores in eight countries that represent this company including Norway (Varner.com). Furthermore, Bik Bok is an international fast fashion business for young women that are both an online store and a retail store. Bik Bok was first launched by two Norwegians in 1973 where the owners first had an idea to only create fashion jeans brands for young girls (Bik Bok.com) .By only focusing on jeans in those days the Bik Bok jeans started to become popular throughout the whole city in Norway and Sweden (Bik Bok.com). Due to their jean success, Bik Bok started to create an entire women collection and opened their first store in Oslo in 1978. Currently, Bik Bok have opened 200 stores in Finland, Denmark, Sweden,

4.1. Bik Bok Interview Responses

The three respondents defined social media as a famous way for customers to be up to date of products being sold and also a way to communicate with customers. Bik Bok uses Instagram, Facebook and Snapchat, however Instagram is the most valuable social media function for this company which the company have been active by the use of social media since approximately 3 years. Bik Boks aim of using social media is to keep in touch with existing customers, attract new customers and to also for marketing and promotion purposes. One of the reasons why social media marketing is important for Bik Boks e-commerce is to have direct contact with their customers. As a result, social media is the best way for this company's marketing approach. This is because many people use social media such as Instagram which is known to be the one of the best method to reach out to their customers. By doing that Bik Bok can display the products which the company have both in store and online. According to all respondents social media have influenced their ecommerce business by the use of word of

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mouth because many people buy their products when they see it on social media. According to the respondents in the world we live in, the majority of the people nowadays check products on social media and then they tell their friends about the products that Bik Bok have on their online store. According to all respondents social media have influenced their ecommerce business by the use of word of mouth because many people buy their products when they see it on social media. According to the respondents in the world we live in, the majority of the people nowadays check products on social media and then they tell their friends about the products that Bik Bok have on their online store. According to all respondents social media have influenced their ecommerce business by the use of word of mouth because many people buy their products when they see it on social media. According to the respondents in the world we live in, the majority of the people nowadays check products on social media and then they tell their friends about the products that Bik Bok have on their online store.

Moreover, the interviewees also mentioned that the staff members at Bik Bok try do their best to make their customers happy by pleasing them, in another word Bik Bok react to the negative comments with positivity. Bik Bok checks and stay on top of the latest updates on social media by following up the trends and check what customers want to see. Moreover, the respondents have agreed that the use of social media have also increased Bik Bok's sales. However, based on how social media have helped the company's e-commerce business, the three respondents had different answers. Respondent 6 and 9 mentioned that equip customers with information have helped their e-commerce business while the other manager stated that it has helped the e-commerce business to drive conversions and sales. furthermore,

Finally, on the last question all respondents had agreed that Bik Bok have opened an e- commerce site in order to expand the market for niche products. Additionally, respondent 6 and 9 had another similar answer on the second choice which stated that Bik Bok have an e- commerce business to offer product datasheet while the other manager chose recording the buying habits their customer. Based on the last option all three managers had different reasons on why Bik Bok have opened an online store. According to respondent 6 is to comprise warranty information while respondent 5 and 9 wrote for the customers to have different variety of product choices which is available for them 24/7 whereby they can shop online in their homes.

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4.2. River Island Background

River Island is a family business that started their clothing business in 1948. However, this multinational company first started by selling knitting wool, vegetables and fruits on market stool in a Blitz damaged North London. In 1988, the owners opened their first fast fashion retail store in London (Business of Fashion, 2015). Due to their early success and being the first fashion retailer to target teenage market in the United Kingdom, this family business became part of a history for innovation across two other brands (Business of Fashion, 2015). These are Chelsea Girl and Lewis Separates. Additionally, in 2015 River Island has over 300 stores, 40 of those stores are situated in abroad; Middle East, Continental Europe and Australia (Business of Fashion, 2015). River Island launched their first online store in 2013 alongside with an IPad and IPhone app (River Island, 2013). This is to make it easier for customers to shop everywhere they are located in the world and to also be able to be up to date with the products that River Island offers

(River Island, 2013).

4.2.1. River Island Interview Responses

According to respondent 2 and 4 social media can be defined in several ways. These are to reach out to their customers, give out information about new in and upcoming products. However, the main factor of social media is on how River Island can be active for their customers. River Island uses different types of social media which are Facebook (little), Instagram and their main company website. However, these two respondents stated that Instagram is the most valuable function of social media that the company uses the most. Based on the answers of the interviewees, River Island have been active by the use of social media for 5 to 6 years approximately. Moreover, the aim of River Island to use social media is to attract new customers, to market and promote their products and also to keep in touch with their existing customers.

Additionally, is it also the best marketing strategy whereby respondent 2 stated that nowadays people have switched up from paper magazines to digital whereby by most of the people use their smart phones to check on products. On the other hand, respondent 4 stated that social

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media have made it easier for customers to be able to see the products that the company offer. It is believed that the word of mouth have influenced River Island by the use of social media. One of the main tasks of the employees at River Island is to interact with their customers in stores to make sure the customers say positive comments about their stores to other people. On the other hand, 2 respondent and respondent 4 stated that River Island use the negative comments from their customers as a positive critic therefore the company is careful on how the business organisation treats and please their customers. 4 According to respondent, in order for River Island to be able to stay up to date on the new platforms in social media, the company have a specific group team to keep on track on what their customers are using.

Both of the interviewees agreed that the use of social media have helped River Island to boost up their sales and have also helped the company to equip customers with information and increase their brand awareness. However, based on the last question of why River Island have opened an e-commerce site, the respondents have given two similar answers which is to record the buying habits of the customers and to expand market for niche products. Based on the results, according to respondent 2 the other reason why River Island have an e-commerce site is to reach out to customers in all around the world and contrary to respondent 2, respondent

4 mentioned it is to offer product datasheet.

4.3. monki Background

Monki is a clothing retailer that first opened their store in 2012. This retail business is owned by a famous Swedish Company called H & M (Milne, 2012). Currently, Monki has more than 200 stores in 12 countries in Asia and Europe and also an online store that ships to 18 EU countries (Hunstig, 2016). This year the H & M owned young fashion business celebrated their 10th anniversary of success (Hunstig, 2016).

4.3.1. Monki Interview Responses

Based on the first question on how Monki defines social media, all three respondents agreed that social media is a way of communication by reaching out to their customers. Monki have

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been using social media for up to 3 years where they both have an Instagram and Facebook account. However, according to respondent 3 Monki also have a YouTube account whereby people can also go there to check up for their latest clothes. However, the main valuable social media for Monki is Instagram. All three interviewees chose all of above of the three options on what's Monkis main aim of social media. Those options were attract new customers, keep in touch with existing customers and marketing / promotion and also stated that social media marketing is important for their e-commerce business because it enables Monki to have direct contact with their customers.

Moreover, respondent 10 stated that promoting and rewarding their followers on social media is also another vital social media marketing tool for their online company. The interviewees also stated that social media is the best marketing tool for Monki as the company do not do any other advertisement apart from social media. This marketing strategy allows Monki to illustrate the products that they offer both online and in store. Additionally, the respondents agreed that social media have not influenced Monki's e-commerce business by the use of word of mouth as the social media is stronger than the word of mouth because many people have a social media account. Customers use their digital devices to check clothes online rather than taking the words of people and by doing that Monki have had a campaign whereby every customer that follows Monki on Instagram would get a 10% discount of every product item online. Monki try to respond to the negative comment of their customers by taking their comments into consideration and try to answer their negative comment as much as they can with positive feedback.

Well based on one of the interview questions on how Monki check and stay on of the latest updates and the new platforms in social media, responded 3 could not answer to it. However, on the other hand respondent 10 mentioned that Monki check on what social media their customers are most on and respondent 8 said that Monki does nothing to stay on top of the latest social media. Based on the increased sales of Monki the respondents agreed that social media has helped Monki to have an increased of sales. Additionally, on one of the questions respondent 10 mentioned all of the four points which have helped Monki's e-commerce business by the use of social media, whilst respondent 3 and 8 mentioned equip customer with information.

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However, respondent 3 also mentioned that the driven of conversions and sales have helped Monki's online website while respondent 8 chose the boost of brand awareness. Additionally, all respondent agreed on two reasons why Monki have opened an e-commerce business. Those reasons are to record the buying habits of their customers and to expand their market for niche products. Based on the third chosen option, respondent 10 8 and chose that Monki have an ecommerce business because they want to offer their customers with product datasheet while respondent 3 stated it is to reach their potential customers that do not have Monki store in their city.

4.4. Vero Moda Background

Vero Moda is a leading EU fashion business that is owned by a Danish family business under the brand company of Bestseller. In 2012, Vero Moda operated in 22 countries with 650 large stores in all around the globe (Claeys, 2012). Vero Moda was first launched in Denmark in 1987 and was one of the first brands that Bestseller opened. However, this fashion company first opened their store in Oslo, Norway in 1989 (Lucy, 2013). All the products and brands of Bestseller including Vero Moda are available online. This company is 100% owned by Anders Holch

Povlsen who is the CEO and the Holch Povlsen Family (Bestseller, 2016).

4.4.1. Vero Moda Interview Respondents

According to the interviewees social media is defined as a free advertising method. This company uses both Facebook and Instagram for about 2 to 3 years but Instagram is the most valuable social media for the Vero Moda. Respondent 7, stated that Vero Moda's aim of using social media is to attract customers, marketing and promotion, and to keep in contact with their customers. However, respondent 1 stated did not mention keeping in touch with their existing customer is the aim of Vero Moda to use social media. Moreover, according to respondent 1 the social media marketing is important for their company's e-commerce business is it free of charge whereby social media is the best marketing strategy for this company as it shows the customers the clothes that Vero Moda sells.

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On the other hand, respondent 7 stated that social media marketing is vital for Vero Modas ecommerce Company because it is free of charge as respondent 1 said and to have direct contact with the customers, to promote and reward their followers and also to get to know the company's target market. Respondent 7 had a different view if social media is the best marketing tool for their company. The answer was no because there are many other customers that buy their products because of the TV Commercials that the company does. However, both of the managers at Vero Moda agreed that social media have influenced their company's ecommerce by the use of word of mouth. According to respondent 1, the customers buy both of their products in store and online based on the pictures that these people have seen on Instagram. Moreover,

These two managers did not have an answer on how Vero Moda try to stay on top of the latest social media platform. However, respondent 1 stated that social media have helped the organisation to increase their sales and social media have also helped Vero Moda e-commerce to equip their customers with information by the use of social media. On the other hand, as respondent 7 stated that social media is not the best marketing tool for Vero Moda therefore it have not helped the business to increase their sales. However, the respondent 7 mentioned that social media have helped Vero Moda e-commerce to boost brand awareness. In the final question both of the managers stated that for Vero Moda to be able to record the buying habits of their customers and to expand market for niche products are known to be the two main reasons why this company have opened an e-commerce business. On the other side respondent 1 also mentioned for Vero Moda to offer product datasheet while the other manager stated to comprise warranty information is the other reason why Vero Moda have opened an ecommerce business.

Table 7. Respondents Answers

Company

respondent

Answer

   

Definition of social media:

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

To reach out customers

River Island

2

& 4

To reach out customers To reach out customers

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

free Advertising

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Companys social media:

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Instagram, Facebook and Snapchat Instagram

River Island

2

& 4

& Facebook Instagram, Facebook & Youtube

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

Instagram & Facebook

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Most valuable social media and how many years social media have been used:instagram; 3 years

River Island

2

& 4

instagram; 5 to 6 years instagram; 3 years

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

instagram; 2 to 3 years

   

Aim of using social media:

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Keep in touch with existing customer, attract new customers & marketing / promotion

River Island

2

& 4

Keep in touch with existing customer, attract new customers & marketing / promotion Keep in touch with existing customer, attract new customers & marketing / promotion

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

Keep in touch with existing customer, attract new customers & marketing / promotion

   

Social media marketing importance:

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Direct contact with customers

River Island

2

& 4

Direct contact with customers & free of charge Direct contact with customers

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

Direct contact with customers, free of charge, get to know their target market & promote and reward their followers

   

Reason why social media is the best marketing approach:

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

To update their products to customers in both online and stores

River Island

2

& 4

To update their products to customers & paper magazines switched to digital To update their products to customers as no other advertisement used

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

Social media not best marketing approach; TV Commercials best method

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Has social media influence your e-commerce firm by the use of Word of Mouth? Yes; Products are bought when customers tell other customers based on what they saw on social media

River Island

2

& 4

Yes;

(NO REASON)

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

no; Customers check on their social media account rather than the word of mouth

vero Moda

1

& 7

no; Customers check on their social media account rather than the word of mouth

   

How does the company react to negative comments from customers?

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Negative comments as a positive critic and try to please their customers

River Island

2

& 4

Negative comments as a positive critic and try to please their customers Try to respond back with positive feedback by acknowledging their comments

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

Try to respond back and acknowledge their comments to make them happy

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

How to check and stay on top of the latest updates and new platforms in social media? Following the latest trend and check what their customers use the most

River Island

2

& 4

Specific group teams to keep on track on what their customers use Check what social media their customers use

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

 

(NO ANSWER)

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Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

Has social media helped your e-commerce business to increase sales? Yes

River Island

2

& 4

Yes Yes

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

No

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

How has social media helped your e-commerce business? Equip customers with information, drive conversions and sales & boost brand awareness

River Island

2

& 4

Equip customers with information & boost brand awareness Drive conversions and sales & boost brand awareness

Monkey

3, 8 & 10

vero Moda

1

& 7

Equip customers with information & boost brand awareness

Bik Bok

5, 6 & 9

What is the reason to your company have opened an e-commerce site? Expand market for niche products, offer product datasheet & different variety of product choices available 24/7

River Island

2

&

Record the buying habits of customers & to expand for niche products Record the buying habits of customers, expand for niche products & offer product

Monkey

March 4,

vero Moda

8 & 10

datasheet Record the buying habits of customers & to expand for niche products

1 & 7

Source: Own construction

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CHAPTER 5 - ANALYSIS / DISCUSSIONS

This chapter will link the literature review with the empirical findings in order to analyse and determine the similarities and connection between these two chapters. By doing that, this section will be divided into three sections; definition of social and most used social media, company's aim of using social media and social media marketing. The reason for dividing the parts into three sections is to make it easier for the reader and researcher to be able to identify the aim of the research study and the two research questions.

5. Definition of Social Media and Most Used Social Media

Based on the research findings social media can be defined in many different terms, however, most of the interviewees defined social media as a tool to reach out to their customers and to advertise their brand / product. This definition can be agreed by the Mohapatra (2013) who mentioned that social media is a network tool which allows companies to communicate with their potential customers. Additionally, Subrahmanyam et al. (2008) also agreed that social media is one of the newest online communication strategy which allow online users to communicate with one another.

The most social media platform that these four fast fashion multinational e-commerce businesses use are both Instagram and Facebook, but the most social media platform that is used by these online retailers is Instagram. According to Sheldon and Bryant (2015) and Sloane (2016) Instagram is currently the most used social network in this world. Businesses have realised how effective this platform is and have become one of the most quickest used of social media for businesses. As soon as Instagram was launched in 2010, this social media platform spread worldwide (Boy and Uitermark, 2016). This is an example of the three companies (Monki, Bik Bok and River Island) who have started to use social media for about for about 4 to 6 years. According to Oren (2015) more than 58% of the global 50 top business organisations use

Instagram whereby they post 5, 6 times per week.

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5.1. Company's Aim to use social Media

According to Montague, Gazal, Weidenbeck and Shephard (2016) social media aid business companies to promote their business brands by offering useful information to their consumers and also to drive more traffic on their company's website. Bik Bok, River Island and Monki agreed that social media help their e-commerce business to increase their sales. This also results in customers going to their websites which increases web traffic. Tsimonis and Dimitriados (2012) also agreed that social media increases the sales of businesses when customers visits their company's page and then it causes traffic. Most likely, all of the respondents mentioned that they use social media as their business strategy to attract new customers, marketing / promotion and to keep in touch with existing customers. This can be agreed by Öztamur and Karakadılar (2014) Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi (2012) and Boyd and Ellison (2008). These authors mentioned that social media is an effective business strategy for many individuals especially businesses and most particularly retailers. This is because according to the researchers social media is a tool that helps both retailers and consumers to interact with one another concerning their purchase product or to gain more information about the brand or product. Moreover, Minter (2013) also stated that social media is also a method for businesses to attract new customers. Although, these two are the part of the aims of all four companies, according to many researchers social media marketing is very important for all type of businesses. These authors mentioned that social media is an effective business strategy for many individuals especially businesses and most particularly retailers. This is because according to the researchers social media is a tool that helps both retailers and consumers to interact with one another concerning their purchase product or to gain more information about the brand or product. Moreover, Minter (2013) also stated that social media is also a method for businesses to attract new customers. Although, these two are the part of the aims of all four companies, according to many researchers social media marketing is very important for all type of businesses. These authors mentioned that social media is an effective business strategy for many individuals especially businesses and most particularly retailers. This is because according to the researchers social media is a tool that helps both retailers and consumers to interact with one another concerning their purchase product or to gain more

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information about the brand or product. Moreover, Minter (2013) also stated that social media is also a method for businesses to attract new customers. Although, these two are the part of the aims of all four companies, according to many researchers social media marketing is very important for all type of businesses. This is because according to the researchers social media is a tool that helps both retailers and consumers to interact with one another concerning their purchase product or to gain more information about the brand or product. Moreover, Minter (2013) also stated that social media is also a method for businesses to attract new customers. Although, these two are the part of the aims of all four companies, according to many researchers social media marketing is very important for all type of businesses. This is because according to the researchers social media is a tool that helps both retailers and consumers to interact with one another concerning their purchase product or to gain more information about the brand or product. Moreover, Minter (2013) also stated that social media is also a method for businesses to attract new customers. Although, these two are the part of the aims of all four companies, according to many researchers social media marketing is very important for all type of businesses.

There are also some other businesses that use social media to increase their sales by promoting and displaying their products on the internet and to create more brand / product awareness (Tchach, Lease and Barton, 2016). With this statement, all four clothing companies that have been interviewed mentioned that one of the main reasons why their company use social media, is because it helps their e-commerce business to boost brand awareness. Moreover, Bik Bok and Monki also mentioned another factor on how social media have helped their e-commerce business which is to drive conversions and sales.

Business organisations that use social media is to reach out to other customers that can not be reached and to also increase brand awareness to have an access of millions of people (Tsimonis and Dimitriadis, 2014). River Island and Monki stated that one of their reasons that they have an e-commerce business is to be able to reach out to other customers that are living abroad who do not have their store in their city.

5.2. Social Media Marketing

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The business marketing and promotion have changed, whereby social media have been increased as a marketing strategy while physical means of promotion such as radio, magazines and newspapers have decreased (Montaguem Gazal, Weidenbeck and Shephard, 2016). This statement have been supported by River Island that social media is the best marketing strategy. It have been mentioned that nowadays people have swift from paper magazines to digital (smart phones). Moreover, organisations that use social media as a marketing tool can be very helpful for business organisations to build a strong relationship with their customers and to promote their brand (Öztamur and Karakadılar, 2014). Therefore, social media marketing is known to be the best method of marketing for business organisations to attract customers (Neti, 2011). Moreover, there is a high growth of business organisations that use social media as part of their marketing activities and brand building (Tsiminos and Dimitriadis, 2014). Firms that use social media can benefit from brand reach and awareness and customer communication (Neti, 2011). During the interview all the respondents of each fashion company (Vero Moda, Bik Bok, River Island and Monki) all mentioned the reasons why social media marketing is vital for their e-commerce business. The respondents either mentioned that it is because to have direct contact with their customers or because social media is free of charge or to get to know their target market or to promote or reward their social media followers. Firms that use social media can benefit from brand reach and awareness and customer communication (Neti, 2011). During the interview all the respondents of each fashion company (Vero Moda, Bik Bok, River Island and Monki) all mentioned the reasons why social media marketing is vital for their e-commerce business. The respondents either mentioned that it is because to have direct contact with their customers or because social media is free of charge or to get to know their target market or to promote or reward their social media followers. Firms that use social media can benefit from brand reach and awareness and customer communication (Neti, 2011). During the interview all the respondents of each fashion company (Vero Moda, Bik Bok, River Island and Monki) all mentioned the reasons why social media marketing is vital for their e- commerce business. The respondents either mentioned that it is because to have direct contact with their customers or because social media is free of charge or to get to know their target market or to promote or reward their social media followers.

Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshimi (2012) also stated that nowadays, marketers see social media as a great opportunity for their business to increase their market share figure, to promote and market their good and services. Firms are now able to interact with their customers, build

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brand equity, market their products and increase customer loyalty. According to all of the respondents that were interviewed, all of them mentioned that one of the reason why their clothing company have opened an e-commerce business is to expand their market for niche products.

5.2.1. Direct Communication

More and more consumers are surfing therefore businesses use the internet to create a competitive advantage for their firm. This has helped e-commerce businesses to establish their brands in online channels as they have noticed that consumers are attracted to the internet (Mohapatra, 2013). When the interviewer asked the store managers why social media marketing was important for their e-commerce businesses, they all most likely responded to have direct contact with their customers. Similarly to Mazurkiewics (2015) social media can help organisations to promote their products and for the company to have direct contact with their customers and to attract customers in a new and unique way. Social media is the best marketing tool for all four fast fashion companies, as it is a method to reach out to customers and for customers to gather product information. The effect of social media have influenced Bik Bok, Vero Moda, River Island and Monkis e-commerce business, due to the fact that many customers use social media and recommend it to their friends to purchase products from their online retail store. Social media is one of the most effective sharing elements. That is why many people in all around use social media to interact to one another or to share their photos, opinions and information's (Bulut and Dogan, 2017). Social media is one of the most effective sharing elements. That is why many people in all around use social media to interact to one another or to share their photos, opinions and information's (Bulut and Dogan, 2017). Social media is one of the most effective sharing elements. That is why many people in all around use social media to interact to one another or to share their photos, opinions and information's (Bulut and Dogan, 2017).

Saravanakumar and Suganthalakshmi (2012) also stated that retailers that have social media, use it as a communication tool to communicate with their customer. For instance, it have been reported that in 2012 there were 600 million Facebookers in all around the globe whereby retailers used it to interact with their consumers. With this type of social media the retailers are also able to reward their followers or customers by giving them discounts. This can be

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viewed in the response of Vero Moda as they also use social media to reward their followers or even Monki. Monki gives each of their followers 10% discounts on every product that is displayed on their online store if they follow them on Instagram.

Based on one question on how these clothing companies respond or react to the negative comments of their customers, they all had the same respond. All the respondents mentioned that they try their best to respond back to the negative comments of their customers with positive responses. By acknowledging their negative comment, their aim is to please their customers therefore they take their negative comment as a positive criticism. As social media offer businesses a technique to be able to communicate directly with their customers and to build relationships it is vital for every firm to deal with negative comments from their customers positively (Minter, 2013). Customers that have written negative feedback on a company's social media account about their specific product or service,

5.2.2. Free of Charge

According to River Island and Vero Moda one of their other reason why they use social media as a marketing tool is because it is free of charge. Kirtis and Karahan (2011) and Weinberg and Pehlivan (2011) mentioned that firms create or use social media as a marketing approach help those business organisations to decrease their business cost. When businesses use social media to promote their brands and other marketing activities their cost less or even free. Most of the social media outlets are accessed free of charge.

5.2.3. Gather information

According to Mazurkiewics (2015) the usage of social media for business organisations can be an effective method to enhance their business credibility by providing useful information

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and to generate business through discounts and promotions. Firms can show the quality of work via videos and pictures. Firms also offer their customers a direct line to be in contact with them. Moreover, Kirtis and Karahan (2011) social media is both useful to consumers and firms as it help them to gather information. 70% of the customers have used social media to gather brand or product information. Bik Bok, River Island and Vero Moda said that social media help their business to equip customers with their product information and also to offer product datasheet (Bik Bok and Monki).

5.2.4. Word of Mouth

According to Tsiminos and dimitriadis (2014) social media does not only allow companies to interact with their customers but is also allow the customers to share information among themselves. Based on the results in the empirical findings, Bik Bok and River Island stated that social media have influenced their company by the use of word of mouth. The respondents have mentioned that customers buy their clothes based on the information that other customers give them. This means that all the items that have been displayed on their social media, the customers spread information to one another which can have an influence into their buying decision. chen, Furthermore, Castronovo and Huang (2012) stated that consumers are highly influenced by the decisions and opinions of another consumer. The communication between consumer and consumer can change the buying decision of a customer whereby they consider those information reliable and valid sources of product information. Additionally, the word of mouth is more effective into peoples buying decision than traditional advertising channels. On that note Kirtis and Karahan (2011) also stated that 60% of consumers have been reported that they use the social media to transfer data to other people or customers. On the contrary, the other two companies, Monki and Vero Moda stated that their company is not influenced by the use of word of mouth. This is because people rather make their buying decision based on what they see on social media rather than what other people comment or say. Chen, Fay and Wang (2011) also stated that there are some situations where the influence of word of mouth can be privately ignored instead of people entirely rely on the information that people inform.

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With all been said to link the answers with the theoretical model, it have been discovered that fast fashion multinational e-commerce businesses use social media as a marketing tool in order to be in touch with their potential customers. Another reason is for their business to be more successful and all the above that have been mentioned on the theoretical model. Although, using social media to be part of their marketing strategy it might influence the business such as the word of mouth. The word of mouth is believed to be the strongest influential factor that online customers listen the most. This factor can have an influence into an online customer's buying decision either in a positive or negative way. However,

Based on all the findings of this research study, the gap can be fulfilled. As the gap was lack of academic studies that have covered all three terms (e-commerce, fast fashion and social) together. This research study was able to combine all three terms and was able to find out how social media influences fast fashion e-commerce multinational businesses.

CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSION

This section will be answered on two research questions of this study, as well as identifying all the main findings of the empirical data and analysis. In addition, this section will also include the implications and limitations arising from this study.

6. The Influence of Social Media on Fast Fashion E-commerce Firms

The development of internet has helped many fast fashion e-commerce businesses to use social media as a business strategy. The growth of e-commerce businesses in every type of business sizes have increased over in the last past years. E-commerce businesses use this type of business in order to be able to attract new customers and most particularly to reach and sell products both internationally and domestically. Opening online stores for businesses have become a very famous way for e-commerce firms to provide goods and services online to their

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potential customers as this has also become a vital retail strategy. It is very important that every type of business or size to react to their customers negative comments on social media with positivity. All of these four companies acknowledge how important their customers comment is even if it is negative. These companies always try to respond back to the negative comments of their customers with positivity. Fast fashion e-commerce all view it as a positive criticism that why they all try their best to make their customers happy in order to avoid their negative comments in the future. To go more further, this section will divide the section into two headings according to the research questions in order to identify and determine the aim of the study.

What type of social media platform do e-commerce enterprises? To answer this question, the researcher discovered that e-commerce companies have a social media account to be part of their marketing strategy. The most common social media platform that e-commerce companies use the most for their e-commerce business is Instagram. However, apart from Instagram, Facebook is also been used. These two social media platform are the most used in this world whereby there are millions of people that either have Instagram or Facebook. Instagram have been introduced into the world since 2010 which have permitted people especially retailers to display their products or services on the internet. This is done by sharing pictures and videos for their customers to see and a way to attract them.

With the success of Instagram and any other social media platform it have been discovered ecommerce companies have been using social media for about 3 years now. However, there are some other e-commerce companies have been using the social media platform especially

Instagram for more than 5 years for their marketing strategy.

Why e-commerce companies use social media for their marketing strategy? It have been founded that there are many different reasons why e-commerce firms have been using social media for their marketing strategy. However, most of the e-commerce companies use social media to attract new customers and to keep in touch with their existing customers. One of the main factors that have been discovered is that e-commerce companies have acknowledge how important social media is to their business and marketing strategy whereby other e-commerce companies stated that social media is not as vital as a marketing strategy

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than traditional advertising although they also use it as a marketing tool. On that note e- commerce companies aim of using social media is to market and promote their business. The reason why social media marketing is important for their e-commerce business is to have direct contact with their customers. On the other hand, few e-commerce firms also mentioned that it is free of charge. When businesses open a social media account, it helps those firms to reduce their business cost when marketing their brand or products. Due to their reasons of using social media as a marketing tool, these firms agreed that social media is the best marketing tool / strategy for their business. As social media have helped these companies to update their products on the internet by informing their customers more about the clothing products that these companies offer both in stores and online. Companies have noticed that customers have swift from traditional advertisement such as radio or paper magazines to digital media (smart phones). Contrary to some e-commerce companies, social media is not the best marketing tool for their business as most of their customers buy their products based on what is shown on TV commercials than any other social media platform. As a result, the social media have not helped this e-commerce firm to increase their sales.

Due to the advance of technology especially in the field of social media, it has influence few ecommerce firms by the use of word of mouth. Customers are highly influenced based on what other customers tell them about a specific product or brand. They can easily be influenced into their buying decision either positively or negatively. There are many customers that spread product information to other customers and among customers they strongly rely on each other's comments as the customer to customer interaction is considered as a reliable and valuable source of product information. On the other hand, other e-commerce firms stated that social media have not influenced their e-commerce business by the word of mouth.

Moreover, social media have helped these online businesses to equip their customer's information and to boost brand awareness. Social media help business organisations to expand their brand name and products globally. E-commerce firms also provide their customers information about a specific product whereby they have also mentioned that offering product datasheet is one of the reasons why they have opened an e-commerce site. This is to provide more detail about the product. By doing that some of the companies also mentioned that the purpose for also opening an e-commerce business is to expand their business for niche products.

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6.1. Theoretical and Managerial Implications

Several implications in this research study have been identified. According to Ang (2014, p. 273) the first implication that covers the contribution of a research study is the theoretical implication. In this section it is important for the researcher to ensure the theoretical implication is aligned with the aim of the research study. Firstly, in the theoretical implication it have been discovered that social media have different meaning and purposes for any type of business organisations. This means that it is used differently into their business strategy. The researcher also found out that within the social media platform Instagram and Facebook are the most common social media network in all over the world. However, it is believed Instagram is the most used and valuable for these retail e-commerce businesses (Monki, River Island, Bik Bok and Vero Moda). Business organisations aim for using social media is to attract new customers, keep in touch with existing customers and for marketing and promotion purposes. There are some businesses use social media as a marketing tool in order to have direct contact with their customers, to get to know their target market, promote and reward their followers. Some businesses also use social media for marketing to decrease their spending cost as this approach is free of charge. With the use of social media it has helped other businesses to increase their sales however it might not be the case for other businesses. The use of social media has influenced some e-commerce businesses or any other normal businesses by the use of word of mouth. This means that the communication process between customers is strong and influential. Between customers they listen to one another and strongly consider their comment about a specific product or brand. As a result this can influence their purchasing decision either they will continue to buy the product or not.

Based on the Managerial implications is it how other managers would use the research findings. This is by relating this to the outcome and independent variables. The outcome variables are what the managers should try to achieve. Moreover, the managerial implications should connect with the relationship that have been discovered in the research study and also to advise managers on how they can improve the independent casual factor to work towards

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the desired and better outcome (Ang, 2014, p. 273). To link this theory with the researchers managerial implications, is that other managers from different online business organisations can learn that social media have been considered to be one of the best methods for marketing. As it is believed that Instagram and Facebook are the world most known social media platform, therefore the researcher would recommend other managers to use these two social media platforms when marketing their business. This is because nowadays, there are millions of people such as online customers that use these two social media platforms daily basis either for their personal lives or to gather information about a specific product or brand. However, based on this research study other managers in other companies can learn that even though social media can bring success into a company's goal it can also be influenced by the word of mouth of other online customers. there are millions of people such as online customers that use these two social media platforms daily basis either for their personal lives or to gather information about a specific product or brand. However, based on this research study other managers in other companies can learn that even though social media can bring success into a company's goal it can also be influenced by the word of mouth of other online customers. there are millions of people such as online customers that use these two social media platforms daily basis either for their personal lives or to gather information about a specific product or brand. However, based on this research study other managers in other companies can learn that even though social media can bring success into a company's goal it can also be influenced by the word of mouth of other online customers.

Based on the contribution of this study the researcher has discovered that no other academic studies have fully discussed the influence of social media in fast fashion multinational ecommerce businesses. This means that other authors have only done researches on fashion companies or e-commerce businesses in general rather that specifically focusing on fast fashion e-commerce or fashion e-commerce businesses. Therefore, other studies can use this research for their future research to determine how social media can influence fast fashion e- commerce businesses. However, the main contribution of this research is that other researchers can use this research into their future studies knowing that social media positively influences this type of businesses in particular. The main social media platform that fast fashion e- commerce use apart from Facebook is Instagram which have helped these companies to be able to have direct contact with their customers, promote, attract new customers and also to

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able to study their target market. Although, it have been mentioned that social media positively influences fast fashion e-commerce businesses, it also have some negative influences such as the word of mouth of online customers. If other future researchers want to study how social media can influence fast fashion e-commerce businesses by the word of mouth, they can use this study research to find the answers of their future studies as no other academic studies have specifically discussed fast fashion e- commerce. attract new customers and also to able to study their target market. Although, it have been mentioned that social media positively influences fast fashion e-commerce businesses, it also have some negative influences such as the word of mouth of online customers. If other future researchers want to study how social media can influence fast fashion e-commerce businesses by the word of mouth, they can use this study research to find the answers of their future studies as no other academic studies have specifically discussed fast fashion e- commerce. attract new customers and also to able to study their target market. Although, it have been mentioned that social media positively influences fast fashion e-commerce businesses, it also have some negative influences such as the word of mouth of online customers. If other future researchers want to study how social media can influence fast fashion e-commerce businesses by the word of mouth, they can use this study research to find the answers of their future studies as no other academic studies have specifically discussed fast fashion e- commerce.

6.2. Limitation and Reflection of Study

The limitation of this entire study is that there were no enough resources or authors that have specifically covered the influenced of social media on fast fashion e-commerce firms and what are their purposes to use social media as a business strategy. The only resource that could be found was general information about how business organisation's use social media rather than how fast fashion e-commerce businesses use social media and how they are influenced by this. Additionally, there were no scientific articles have discussed fast fashion e-commerce businesses. The only articles that exist is either fast fashion or e-commerce but no other articles have combined these two together. Therefore, this can be seen as the research gap of this study. Another limitation for this research study is that based on question 10 and 12 of this interview questions there were few respondents of these fast fashion e-commerce companies managers

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did not explain their reasons for their responses. This can be seen as a limitation because one of the possible reasons why those respondents did not give their answers could probably be because they might not be permitted to give answers based on those questions or they did not have the answer for their reasons.

Based on the reflection of this study, the researcher has learnt that if the study did also include a quantitative approach rather than only conducting a qualitative approach. The research study could have been better; this is because according to Hussein (2009) a triangulation method a mixture of qualitative and quantitative method can help the researcher to increase the wider and deep understanding of the study phenomenon and also to increase the credibility of the study. Another aspect that the researcher would have done differently in this research study is by adding the customers' perspective too. By doing that the researcher would have also known some information outside the box besides the views of the managers. For instance, what are the reasons why customers check on e-commerce firms' social media account before purchasing their products and how do they trust their webpage when making a payment. Adding the perspectives of the customers into this research study, more information can be gathered and different views can be obtained on how social media influence fast fashion e- commerce business. However, these points that have been mentioned can also be used in suggestion for further research.

6.3. Suggestion For further Research

As this research study only covers the influence of social media on fast fashion e-commerce businesses. Further study can be conducted on the perspective of fast fashion e-commerce customer's perspective. Moreover, a bigger sampling of respondents can be collected rather than only collecting data from two or three people from each company. There might be a possibility if the chosen sampling was bigger; the researcher could have had more concrete and solid research study.

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