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Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

Distress Analysis and Remediation of

Under Water Concrete Members
in Coastal Structures

General Manager (Maintenance, Repairs and Retrofitting Division)
BBR (India) Ltd., Bangalore 560 052


Concrete with the embedded steel in it undergoes different deterioration processes

depending on its position with respect to tidal levels in the marine environment. The
distress of wide range of structures such as bridge piers, berthing structures in the harbours
and river defences necessitates their rehabilitation, rather than replacement as the later
is time consuming and expensive. These repairs often need to be carried out in under
water conditions. The civil engineering industry has extensive experience of repair of concrete
structures above water. Many of the techniques used on land can, often with minor
modifications, be used under water. Nevertheless, the materials used may not perform
well when used under water. In view of this, the methodology of repair and specifications
of materials are of special nature when used under water. The important areas being,
access to the repair site, surface preparation, equipment to be used and problems like
washout of cement when cementitious materials are used and problems associated with
curing when resin based materials are used. The paper essentially reviews the mechanism
of deterioration of concrete in the marine environment, access options, the materials and
techniques of underwater repairs.


Concrete either reinforced or prestressed is a popular material used for marine

applications. It has been used in berthing structures, jetties, and lighthouses etc. Of late,
in the off shore oil platforms the concrete has been in use to greater marine depths of
over 100m. Concrete with embedded steel in it, will be subjected to various attacks in
the marine environment challenging its durability.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005


The marine environment can be sub divided into three principal zones as shown
in the fig.1

Splash Zone

The zone exposed to the atmosphere above high tide level. The concrete is exposed
to salt spray and cycles of wetting and drying. This zone is most prone to chloride-induced
corrosion of embedded steel resulting in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover.

Tidal zone

This zone is between the low and high tide levels. The concrete undergoes wet and
dry cycle of seawater exposure. Chloride induced corrosion of steel and frost action can
cause cracking and spalling. Mechanical action of waves with abrading particles results
in loss of material. Chemical decomposition of cement hydrates is also likely in this zone.

Submerged Zone

The part of structure below the low tide level, which is always submerged in seawater,
is primarily vulnerable to chemical attack by the salts in the seawater on the cement
hydration products. This can result in loss of both material and strength of concrete.
Seawater in this zone lacks dissolved oxygen to fuel corrosion of reinforcement and the
same is not a problem in this zone. The hydrostatic pressure caused by the depth of
seawater is likely to result in rapid diffusion of chlorides into concrete.

Chemical composition of seawater

The salinity of seawater is around 3.5% of inorganic salts, the principal compounds
being sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. The typical ionic concentrations of these
ions in Indian oceans are given in table 1.The concentration of dissolved oxygen in seawater
varies with temperature, depth and turbulence of the sea. It is approximately 10 ppm at
the surface decreasing to about 3 ppm at 100m depths. In comparison the oxygen concentration
in air is about 210 ppm. As already mentioned earlier, the low oxygen concentration in
the seawater is the main reason for reinforcement corrosion being uncommon in submerged

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

concrete. The steel is most prone to corrosion in the splash zone where both chlorides
and oxygen are freely available.

Marine fouling

The marine organisms can be characterized into two broad categories namely, soft
and hard fouling organisms. Examples for soft organisms are, Sponges, Sea Squirts and
seaweeds. Hard fouling organisms include barnacles, mussels and tubeworms. The distribution
of these organisms on typical marine structures has been found to be: algae in tidal zones,
barnacles extending to below low tide level and mussels from mid – tidal zone to the base
of the structure at the sea bed level. The contribution of marine growth to concrete decay
appears to be insignificant. In fact, the sealing of concrete surface by marine growth may
act as a barrier to the diffusion of oxygen and chemical ions through concrete cover, thereby
preventing deterioration. However marine fouling may cause degradation of concrete surface
and impede subsequent repairs of the structures.

Chemical attack

The hydration products of the cement are vulnerable to chemical attack by seawater
that causes decomposition by the aggressive components such as CO2, MgCl2 and MgSO4.

Carbon dioxide

The effect of Carbon dioxide on concrete is well documented. The amount of CO2
dissolved in seawater from the atmosphere is negligible. However the presence of decaying
organic matter increases its concentration in the seawater resulting in pushing the pH
of the seawater to the acidic range with values < 7. The possible chemical reactions of
carbonation, which may take place, are as follows:
1) CO 2 +Ca(OH) 2 → CaCO 3 + H 2 O
2) CO 2 +{Ca(OH) 2 +3CaO.Al 2 O 3 .CaSO 4 .18H 2 O } → 3CaO.Al 2 O 3 .CaCO 3 .xH 2 O + CaSO 4.2H 2 O
3) 3CO 2 +3CaO.2SiO 2..3H 2 O → 3CaCO 3 +2SiO 2. .H 2 O

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

The liberated CaCO3 as shown in reaction (1), will be converted into Calcium hydro
carbonate, Ca(HCO3)2, in seawater containing large amounts of CO2 . Calcium hydro carbonate
and gypsum produced by above reactions are soluble in water and hence will leach out
of concrete resulting in loss of material and strength.

Magnesium Salts

The dissolved Mg Cl2 content in seawater is sufficient to cause chemical attack by

Mg++ ions. The Calcium hydroxide hydrate in the cement will react with MgCl to yield
a precipitate of brucite, Mg(OH)2

MgCl2 + Ca(OH ) 2 → Mg (OH ) 2 + CaCl2

Caclium Chloride is leached out of concrete resulting in material loss and softening.

Sulphate Attack

Sulphate ions from seawater react with hydrates of cements resulting in deterioration
of concrete follows:

MgSO4 + Ca(OH ) 2 → Mg (OH ) 2 + CaSO4 .2H 2O

The high concentration of NaCl in seawater increases the solubility of gypsum and
prevents its rapid crystallization. It also increases the solubility of Ca(OH ) 2 . Leaching out
of these compounds from concrete will render it weak. The formation of ettringite can
cause expansion and cracking especially in above water concrete. However, in marine
environment, expansion and cracking are generally prevented owing to the solubility of
ettringite in seawater that will eventually leach out of concrete along with gypsum. Another
difference relative to sulphate attack on above water concrete is that the presence of magnesium
sulphate in seawater breaks down the structure of cement paste by attacking tricalcium
disilicate hydrate leaving behind a soft and brittle concrete. This is further aggravated by
presence of Chlorides in seawater. Sulphate attack in the submerged zone is slower than
the higher zones, where alternate wetting and drying accelerate the deterioration process.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

Chloride attack

Chloride attack is one of most serious attacks on steel embedded concrete, be it above
or under water. The mechanism of pitting corrosion of rebars by chloride irons through
electrochemical process is well documented. The anodic and cathodic reactions taking place
in the electrochemical process are as follows:
Fe → Fe 2 + + 2e −

At the anode, a process involving the dissolution of iron, i.e. positively charged ions,
passing into solution. Hence steel corrodes sacrificially at the anodic sites. At cathodic sites,
the surplus electrons generated from the anode combine with water and oxygen to form
hydroxyl ion. In this zone concrete is protected by the formation of hydroxyl ions as follows:
2 O2 + H 2O + 2e − → 2(OH ) −

The corrosion of reinforcement may be considered negligible in conditions where concrete

is either dry or totally saturated with water, as this restricts oxygen supply. But the steel
corrosion will be severe in the splash zone where the concrete is subjected to periodic dry
and wet cycles.

Acid attack by bacterial action

Concrete deterioration due to bacterial action is very common in crude oil off shore
platforms. Oil in storage tank rests on the stagnant seawater. The temperature at the water
and oil interface is of the order of 45-50° C. At this temperature microbiological activity
occurs in the presence of organic matter freely available in the seawater. Both aerobic and
anaerobic conditions are considered to be necessary for the microbial activity that generates
substantial quantities of H2S at the oil-water interface. Consumption of oxygen by the growth
of aerobic bacteria will generate CO2 and reduces pH. This provides a conducive atmosphere
for anaerobic bacteria to grow and produce H2S. Low pH and H2S both are potentially
aggressive to reinforced concrete. Further H2S dissolves in water producing Sulphuric acid.
The cement paste {Ca(OH)2} is gradually dissolved by H2SO4 resulting in progressive
deterioration of concrete.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005


Inspection Techniques

The deteriorated concrete and steel are repaired suitably after assessing the extent
of damage. The damage assessment is carried out by various means of inspection of
concrete in underwater condition. This involves visual inspection, tactile inspection, CCTV,
free swimming divers, usage of ROV’s and submarines. Various techniques of non-destructive
testing are made use of in the inspection process. UPV and UPE methods used for the
in-situ assessment of damage such as deep laminations and cracks. Impact hammer modified
for under water use is often used for rapid surveys of concrete surface hardness. However,
suitable positive corrections need to be applied to the readings obtained in under water
conditions, as the underwater readings are generally higher than the comparative reading
for the data obtained in dry conditions. In addition to the above non-destructive methods,
sampling of concrete from the structure is also carried out for destructive testing and
inspection. This is accomplished using special equipment for extraction of concrete cores
powered with hydraulic or pneumatic core cutters.

Access to the repair site

A primary step in repairing concrete in the underwater condition is to gain the access
to the damaged area. Two options exist for accessing the repair site: (i) Either the water
can be excluded from the area or (ii) the repair can be carried out in submerged condition.
A range of approaches to gain access to the repair site is of late developed.


In certain applications particularly when the depth of water is quite shallow, cofferdams
are used to exclude water from the repair site. Sheet piling or earthen bunding will be
resorted to, to create the cofferdams. Fig 2 (a). Repairs shall then be carried out in the
similar way as done in above water condition.

Atmospheric Caisson

An atmospheric caisson consists of a pre-fabricated chamber with water seals abutted

against the surface of the structure to be repaired. The chamber has a top access tube

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

projecting above water level. Manpower, machines and material are sent in the chamber
through this access. The caisson is attached to the structure by means of anchors or fastening
straps. The inflatable water seal is provided in the form of a rubber gasket fitted around
the perimeter of the chamber. Once the caisson has been attached and sealed to the structure,
the water can be pumped out of the chamber to allow the repair work to be carried out
in the dry condition. Fig. 2(b).

Pressurized dry habitat

This is similar to atmospheric caissons except that diver access is provided from the
bottom. The habitat is attached and sealed to the structure and then pressurized to displace
water. As there is no access tube to the surface, the pressurized dry habitat can be used
at greater depths than the atmospheric caissons, generally over 200m. Fig. 2 (c).

Wet habitat

Wet habitat consists of a chamber, which can be attached to the structure. Water is
not pumped down from the wet habitat. Provision of wet habitat for a diver is of great
benefit for prolonged or complex works particularly in the situation of high currents. The
prime objective of providing wet habitat is to provide a stable working platform. In order
to prevent the wave forces, the wet habitat is positioned below the level of the wave troughs.
Fig. 2 (d).

Free-swimming divers

The free-swimming diver is the right options where access chambers are not suitable
to be used due to the complexity of the structures. As divers can move fast underwater,
simple repair tasks can be carried out without a need to move the chamber to different
location of the same structure. Free-swimming divers are not suitable for carrying out repairs
in the splash zones where the wave action is very violent. Below splash zone, the wave
action will be considerably less. Hence the diver could be expected to work for longer duration
and can undertake more complex task.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005


Surface preparation is an important step in underwater repair too, as in the case of

above water repairs although the former is more difficult owing to the complexities in accessing
the repair site and marine growth. Thorough removal of the marine growth is essential
both from the point of view of assessing the damage and promoting the bond between
the repair material and the substrate. Surface preparation involves removal of deteriorated
concrete and rebars.

Equipment and tools

Handheld mechanical equipments, such as mechanical wire brushes, needle guns or

scabbling tools are used for cleaning localized areas. Pneumatically or hydraulically powered
tools are suitable for underwater works, as electrically powered tools tend to become bulky
due to need for providing heavy body for effective electrical insulation.

Concrete removal

Repair of reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete often demands removal of concrete

without damaging the embedded steel. This can be accomplished by using water lancers,
hydraulically powered diamond drills and saws, and splitting techniques.

Water lancers or high power water jets consist of directing a fine, high-pressure stream
of water at the surface of concrete. The water pressure will be of the order of 70 to
120 Mpa. The reaction of the jet on the surrounding water generates a considerable force
on the equipment. To balance this, the equipment is provided with a dummy jet of an
equal and opposite force. When concrete alone need to be cut only water is used in the
jet. However, abrasive slurry or silica sand is introduced in the jet, when steel has to
be cut.

Mechanical cutters such as hydraulically powered diamond drills and saws are used
to cut both concrete and steel. Generally these equipments are used to provide square
edges to the broken out area to ensure good interface between the substrate and the
repair material by avoiding featheredging.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

Splitting Techniques

A number of holes are drilled in to the concrete section along the line where the
concrete is to be cracked. When an internal pressure is applied to the inside of the hole,
the surrounding concrete fails in tension. Various types of bursters are available, hydraulic-
the plunger bursters and wedge bursters, Chemical and gas bursters. The plunger bursters
consist of a hollow control body, often square in cross section, with a series if plungers
set into opposite faces. The bursters are inserted into the predrilled holes with a steel
liner and pressurized to 125 Mpa. This causes the plunger to extend and split the concrete.

The wedge bursters consist of steel wedge, which is forced under hydraulic pressure
between the two tapered liners. When inserted into predrilled holes, and pressurized, the
liners are forced against the inside face of the hole and lead to splitting of concrete.

Chemical bursters consist of expansive cement slurries, packed into the pre-drilled
holes. The slurry slowly expands over a period of 12-24 hours to split the concrete.

The gas bursters consist of cartridges of compressed carbon dioxide to create internal
pressure. These cartridges are introduced in the predrilled holes with a non-explosive
chemical mixture and energized by an electrical current. This raises the pressure of carbon
dioxide, which escapes into the holes causing cracking.


Various options of repairs used in above water conditions are applicable to under
water repairs also. The only difference lies in the techniques used for the execution
of these options. The design objective of the repair largely dictates the technique employed
in a project. Minor spalling and cracking can be repaired by simple surface patch or crack
injection system, which is adequate to provide protection to the reinforcing steel. For major
damage, where the load carrying capacity element is compromised, the repair may either
reestablish the strength of the original element or establish a new load path around the
damaged area. The severity of the damage often determines the type of surface preparation,
formwork, reinforcement detailing, and repair material used for the repairs. The principal
options available are:

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

• Patch repairs of spalled cover concrete by polymer modified mortars and resin mortars
using hand application technique.
• Strengthening of weak concrete members by free flow micro-concrete filled steel sleeves.
• Repair and rebuilding using pre-placed aggregate concrete
• Underwater concreting with chemical and mineral admixtures and cement replacing
• Tremie concrete
• Pumped concrete and grout
• Free dumped concrete through water
• Underwater epoxy grouts and
• Epoxy injection technique etc.
• Electro chemical repairs.
These techniques are briefly explained in what follows.

Patch repairs

The small isolated areas of deteriorated concrete is repaired by patching used hand
placed polymer mortar may be preferable to other methods. As with other repair methods,
the surface preparation should be done before placing the new material. Generally free-
swimming divers with scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) are used for
the application of the materials. Repairs using this method may not be as durable as with
other methods, but it is an economical option.

Cementitious mortars

Rapid setting pre-packed polymer modified cement mortars can facilitate quick ap-
plication and setting of the patch-repaired materials. These materials are conveyed to the
divers in dry condition in plastic bag with twist ties that will be opened and mixed under
water by divers just before application.

Epoxy mortars

The multi-component epoxy mortars made with water- insensitive epoxy resin systems
and silica sand fine aggregates, are also applied by hand by divers as explained above. These

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

materials are typically mixed above water and lowered through the water to the work area
below in a covered bucket.

Steel sleeved repairs

One of the major operations of repairing of RCC piles or columns affected by corrosion,
is to break out the damaged concrete, often to deeper sections. This operation will weaken
the member considerably and can pose a structural problem at the time of repair. An
alternative method of repair is to provide a rigid confinement to the structural member,
without breaking the concrete, by providing a steel sleeve around the pile. This is akin
to FRP wrapping, to enhance the axial load carrying capacity. The sleeve can be designed
to accommodate further corrosion of rebars that can cause reduction in the cross section
area. To achieve this, the sleeve wall must be sufficiently thick and it must extend above
and below the damaged length of the pile. Load is then transferred to and from the
sleeve by shear. The typical arrangement of steel sleeve repairs is shown in figure 3.
The method of repair will comprise the following steps.
• Surface preparation by removing marine growth and loose sections of concrete.
• Provision of temporary support/sealing ring around the pile below the damaged area.
• Fastening together two semicircular sections of the sleeve around the pile by bolting.
• Pumping of underwater repair material through the bottom inlet of the sleeve to displace
the water.
• Removal of temporary support/sealing ring followed by application of corrosion protection
to the sleeve.

Pre placed aggregate concrete

Preplaced aggregate concrete is defined as the concrete produced by placing coarse

aggregate in a form and later injecting sand cement grout usually with admixtures to
fill the voids between the coarse aggregate particles. Of late, fabric-forms, known as fabri-
forms, fitted with zippers and bottom and top sealing rings are used advantageously as

All damaged or weakened concrete is first removed to a pre-determined depth or to

sound material which ever is latter. The corroded reinforcement if any, are either replaced

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

or supplemented as per design. The fabriforms are erected in place as shown in the figure
4. Single sized coarse aggregate is packed inside the formwork and as the process continues,
the zip is pulled up until the aggregates are held inside the formwork till the required
level. Finally, free flow under water micro concrete is pumped into the pre placed aggregate
starting at the lowest point displacing water. When the formwork is full, the micro concrete
will overflow in the top vent. The concrete is allowed to cure to a hard mass.

Tremie concrete

Tremie concrete is the concrete placed under water using a pipe commonly referred
as tremie pipe. The cementitious content and high workability. Anti washout admixtures
and plasticizers are often used in the concrete mix. The efficient placement of concrete
using a tremie depends on keeping the concrete away from the contact of water as much
as possible. Once the placement is started, the mouth of the tremie must remain embedded
in the concrete to prevent concrete from dropping directly through water and getting dispersed.

Pumped Concrete and grout

Pumped concrete is mixed above water and pumped into place under water during
repair. This concrete is conveyed in a pipe through pressure of the concrete or gravity
or combination of both. Pumping underwater has the advantage of eliminating the equipment
associated with a tremie placement. Grouts are more fluid than concrete and generally
do not contain coarse aggregate. Most of the grout will contain fly ash and silica fumes.
Premixed proprietary grouts will contain selected admixtures for pumping adhesion, ac-
celeration, dimensional stability, anti washout property, etc.

Free dumped concrete through water

Free dump through water is the placement of freshly mixed concrete by allowing it
to fall through water without the benefit of confinements such as tremie pipe or pump
line. Anti washout admixtures are used in such concrete in association with silica fume.
Freedom method is used for placing concrete for the repair of surface open cavities or
in rebuilding the new sections. This technique is generally used in shallow water application,
where self-levelling concrete is not required. The concrete is batched and mixed using
conventional concrete plants above water and placed directly into water.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

Under water epoxy grouts

These are generally used for repairing concrete in splashed zones and submerged zones.
The materials typically consist of a water insensitive epoxy resin either with or without
aggregate for narrow void grouting. Sometimes mixed with silica sand in addition to coarse
aggregate. Epoxy grouting is used for repair of corroded or structurally damaged splash
zone concrete or under water concrete structures. Sometimes it is also used for packing,
surfacial imperfections, and protecting the reinforcement steel. The epoxy should be carefully
mixed according to the manufacturers specification and with specified amount of sand and
coarse aggregate. The mixed material is placed either by pouring or by pumping into the
jacket or cavity and displacing all water. Narrow voids, however are grouted with formulations
of neat epoxy resins placed by a positive displacement pump.

Epoxy injection

It is a very widely used technique for repairing of cracks and honeycombs in concrete
in under water condition. The purpose of crack injection is to restore the integrity of
concrete or to seal the cracks. Honey combed areas within the concrete also can be repaired
by injection process. The injected epoxy’s fill the crack and bond the surfaces together,
restoring the concrete original integrity and preventing any further water intrusion into
the structure. Generally, low viscosity water insensitive epoxy resins are used in injection
techniques. Several types of epoxy pumping systems are used such as positive displacement
pumps, pressure pots, progressive cavity pumps etc. The crack shall be thoroughly cleaned
by high pressure water blasting or by mechanical means. Entry ports are used as inlets
to carry epoxy injection resin into the crack or void. The entry ports can be attached
to the concrete surface and bonded into place with hydraulic cement or epoxy paste. Ports
may also be established by drilling into the crack and setting an entry port into the drilled
hole at a designed spacing and sealed. The epoxy injected at the lowest entry port and
injection continuous until all air, water, and epoxy mixed with water is forced out of the
next adjacent pour with clear epoxy resin. This process continues until the entire crack
length is injected.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005


External Zinc anodes with FRP jackets

Concrete damage due to rebar corrosion is very common in under water structures.
Of late, a new technique for preventing corrosion of rebars by electrochemical process has
been developed. This process will address the root cause of the problem, as corrosion being
an electrochemical process. This essentially comprises of providing an effective galvanic
protection to the structures from corrosion and also strengthening of the weak concrete.
Galvanic protection is achieved by creating a current flow from a sacrificial anode made
of Zinc, a metal that is higher on the galvanic series to the reinforcement steel. When
connected in a common electrolyte – saturated concrete, the sacrificial anode and the
reinforcement form an electrical circuit. The current flows from the Zinc anode to the
steel, until the reinforcement becomes sufficiently polarised. The system protects the submerged
portion of piles etc. in the splash zone and immediately above it. The system consists
of a standard fibreglass pile jacket provided with an internally placed expanded zinc mesh
anode, an additional bulk zinc anode installed below low tide region and the reinforcement
is electrically connected to anode. The fibreglass forms are directed to encompass the pile
to be repaired leaving an annular space between the surface of the concrete and the inner
side of the form. The forms are provided with interlocking seams and internal cover blocks
to establish uniform annular space around the pipe. The filling material is a rich sand
cement grout, with about 560 kg/cu.m of cement content. When cast, the grout fills the
space between the form and the pipe, making contact with the anode and replaces any
delaminated concrete, thus providing an excellent lateral confinement to the member. This
not only reinstates the deficiency, but also increases the axial load carrying capacity of
the member. Meanwhile, because of the galvanic action, the reinforcement is always maintained
at the cathode potential preventing it from further corrosion. The typical arrangement of
the system is shown in fig.5


With the advent of modified techniques and materials the under water repair of steel
embedded concrete has become possible in the recent times. The quality, durability and
speed of repairs carried out under water can be achieved equivalent to the repairs carried

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

out, above water. This obviates the need for replacement of expensive infrastructure, thereby
saving resources and time required for reconstruction.

1. Allen, W. L. (1989) Underwater inspections, Conc. Int. Des. Construct., 11, No. 9, 37-40.
2. American Concrete Institute (1991) Guide for Making Condition Surveys of Concrete in
Service ACI 201,. 2R ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part I., American Concrete
Institute, New York.
3. Mehta, P. K. (1980) Durability of Concrete in the Marine Environment – a Review,
ACI Publication SP-65, pp. 1-20, American Concrete Institute., Detroit , M.I.
4. Taylor, H. F. W (1990) Cement Chemistry, pp 396-398. Academic Press, New York.
5. Mather, B. (1966) Highway Res. Rec. No.113.
6. Molloy, B. T.(1990) Steel fibre and rebar corrosion in concrete under marine curing,
PhD Thesis. Aberdeen University, Aberdeen.
7. Scanlon, J. M., Jr (1980) Applications of concrete polymer materials in Hydrotechnical
construction, in Applications of Polymer Concrete, ACI Special Publication SP – 69 pp,
45-62, American Concrete Institute, Detroit.
8. American Concrete Institute (1998) Guide to Underwater Repair of Concrete
ACI 546.2R ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, American Concrete Institute.
9. CIAS Report: 01-1, July 2, 2001, Galvashield Embeded Galvanic Anodes for repair of
Concrete, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.
10. Richard J Kessler, et al, Zinc Mesh anodes cast into concrete pile jackets.
MP/December 1996.

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

Ions Concentration g/cm3

Sodium 1.310
Potassium 0.067
Calcium 0.050
Magnesium 0.148
Chloride 2.300
Sulphate 0.400
Total 4.275

Fig. 2

Proceedings of National Seminar - REDECON 2005

rc member

wired connection to zinc mesh

Expanded zinc anode placed

inside FRP jacket (Sacrificial

FRP Jacket
Tidal Zone

Bulk zinc anode (Sacrificial Anode)