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0 Aufrufe13 SeitenIn this paper, the effectiveness of textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), as a means of improving the punching behavior of reinforced concrete flat slabs were numerically investigated. Finite element (FE) model using ABAQUS computer program was developed to analyze eight half-scaled slabs, in terms of load-carrying capacity, ductility, stiffness, and crack patterns. These eight specimens were divided into two groups (G1 and G2) with four specimens for each of them.

Apr 13, 2019

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In this paper, the effectiveness of textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), as a means of improving the punching behavior of reinforced concrete flat slabs were numerically investigated. Finite element (FE) model using ABAQUS computer program was developed to analyze eight half-scaled slabs, in terms of load-carrying capacity, ductility, stiffness, and crack patterns. These eight specimens were divided into two groups (G1 and G2) with four specimens for each of them.

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In this paper, the effectiveness of textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP), as a means of improving the punching behavior of reinforced concrete flat slabs were numerically investigated. Finite element (FE) model using ABAQUS computer program was developed to analyze eight half-scaled slabs, in terms of load-carrying capacity, ductility, stiffness, and crack patterns. These eight specimens were divided into two groups (G1 and G2) with four specimens for each of them.

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Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 336–348, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_035

Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3

ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

PUNCHING BEHAVIOR OF RC FLAT SLABS

STRENGTHENING BY TRM AND FRP

Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim

Department of Civil Engineering, Babylon University, College of Engineering, Babylon, Iraq

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the effectiveness of textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and fiber-

reinforced polymer (FRP), as a means of improving the punching behavior of

reinforced concrete flat slabs were numerically investigated. Finite element (FE)

model using ABAQUS computer program was developed to analyze eight half-scaled

slabs, in terms of load-carrying capacity, ductility, stiffness, and crack patterns. These

eight specimens were divided into two groups (G1 and G2) with four specimens for

each of them. Specimens of G1 was similar to that of G2 in all details but differ in the

eccentricity of the applied load. Specimens of G1 were tested with concentric load,

while these of G2 were tested with 150 mm eccentricity. For each group, one specimen

was built as control (unstrengthened), one was strengthened by FRP-sheet, and the

other two was strengthened by TRM-jacket with two different mesh opening (10 and

20 mm). The results obtained from FE analysis showed that the efficiency of TRM in

increasing the punching shear capacity of strengthened slabs was less than that of

FRP. In addition, the slabs strengthened by TRM showed stiffer behavior than that

strengthened by FRP, but lesser ductile. TRM effectiveness was sensitive to the mesh

size of the textile. When the mesh size decreased, stiffness was increased and ductility

was decreased.

Key words: flat slab, punching sheer, stiffness, ductility, TRM, FRP.

Cite this Article: Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim, Numerical

Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and

FRP, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp.

336–348.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION

The flat plate is a two-way framing systems composed of uniform slabs supported directly by

columns without drop panels or capitals. This type of system has many applications in the

construction industry due to many advantages that it offers, which include the simplified

formwork, fast construction, reduction of story heights and architectural flexibility. Park and

Gamble (2000) [1] indicated that for each ten stores in a structure, an additional store may be

added automatically for the same overall height in the flat plate systems, as compared to the

Numerical Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and FRP

other systems having the same height. Despite of these benefits, there are many drawbacks

with using of this system. The important one is punching shear failure at the slab column-

connection that is caused by shear transferring and the supporting column moments. In nature,

punching shear failure is brittle and maybe leads to building progressive collapse. In general,

two types of punching can be distinguished: symmetrical punching and non-symmetrical. It

can be said that the punching is symmetrical if the geometry, the load, the bearing conditions,

and the composition of the structural element (concrete and reinforcement) can be considered

symmetrical with respect to the two axes of symmetry. If one of these conditions is missing, it

will be possible to enter the term of non-symmetrical punching. In this case, it is still possible

to distinguish between two different types: non-symmetrical punching without eccentricity

and non-symmetrical punching with eccentricity. The difference between these two types is

that, in case of eccentric punching, the conditions of non-symmetry lead to generate a bending

moment transfers from the slab to the column, and that what called by the unbalanced

moment [2]. The phenomenon of transmission of the moment between the slab and the

column is one of the main problems of the study of eccentric punching.

Existing reinforced concrete (RC) slabs have usually been designed without shear

reinforcement. Previous design codes have made possible to assume that the shear capacity of

regular reinforced concrete was sufficient. Punching strength in slabs can become insufficient

due to several reasons such as changes of building usage and loading, need of installing new

services that requires openings in the slabs, and in the relevant updated design codes [3]. Over

the past decade, a number of research has dealt with various strengthening techniques for RC

flat slabs in order to increase the punching shear capacity. These include enlarging the

supporting area by adding concrete capitals or steel collars at the connection zone [4], [5],

introducing post-installed shear reinforcement around columns [6], using of post-installed

prestressed members [7], and more recently applying FRP sheets to the tension face [8], [9].

Some of these methods provides an enough additional strength to the slabs; however, they are

elaborate, difficult to install, expensive and aesthetically not pleasing. Strengthening slabs

with FRPs is simple, does not require excessive labor or equipment, and does not change the

appearance of the slab. However, the FRP strengthening technique has a few disadvantages

mainly associated with the use of epoxy resins, namely high cost, poor performance in high

temperatures, inability to apply on wet surfaces, as discussed by Triantafillou et al. (2018)

[10].

One possible solution to the above problems would be the replacement of organic with

inorganic binders, e.g. cement-based mortars, leading to the replacement of FRP with textile-

reinforced mortar (TRM) [11]. A TRM is a composite comprises high-strength fibers made of

carbon, basalt or glass in form of textiles embedded into inorganic materials such as cement-

based mortars. The textiles typically consist of fiber rovings woven or stitched at least in two

orthogonal directions, thus creating an open-mesh geometry. TRM is a relatively low cost

strengthening material, friendly for manual workers and compatible to concrete or masonry

substrates material, whereas can be applied on wet surfaces or at low temperatures. The same

material can also be found in the literature as FRCM. Significant research effort has been put

in the last decade to use TRM system as strengthening materials for reinforced concrete (RC)

members [12]–[14]. Few research studies have been reported in the technical literature on

using TRM to strengthen a flat slab against punching shear failure [15], [16]. To the author

knowledge, the effect of applying TRM jackets on the punching shear behavior of the RC flat

slabs subjected to combined action of shear force and unbalanced moment were not

investigated in the literature. In this paper, a nonlinear finite element analysis using ABAQUS

program (2016) was conducted to investigate the effect of using TRM composite system on

the punching behavior of flat slabs in terms of load carrying capacity, stiffness, ductility, and

crack patterns thereby compared that with the effect of using CFRP system. The parameter

Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim

investigated in the numerical analysis are the eccentricity of the load (zero and 150 mm), type

of external strengthening (CFRP and TRM), and mesh opening of the carbon fiber textile (10

and 20 mm).

MODEL

2.1. Experimental specimens and investigated parameters

Three slab specimens test by Abdulhussein (2018) [17] were selected to simulate the finite

element model. The slab’s dimensions of 1200 × 1200 × 100 mm represent models on the

scale of 1/2 with respect to a real multi-story building, taking into consideration the

supporting clearness, Fig. 1. The tested specimen represented the zone of negative moments

enclosed by the lines of contra-flexure around an interior column. In addition, a 150 × 150

mm central column stub was extended from the compression faces of the slab and a

rectangular bracket was connected to the top of the column in order to simulate the

unbalanced moment. The perimeter of the slab was simply-supported on 25 mm diameter

steel rods fixed on the upper rectangular steel base of a rigid steel frame. All test specimens,

which have same dimensions, were reinforced with a flexural reinforcement ratio 2.24% in

one orthogonal gathered set on the tension side. one of the three slabs (S1-e75-CFRP) was

strengthened by adding a (1000×1000 mm) unidirectional carbon fiber sheet (CFRP) to the

tension face of the slab as explain in Fig. 2 a. whereas the other two slabs S3-e75-TRM1 and

S4-e75-TRM2 were strengthened by using textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) with two different

mesh openings 10 and 20 mm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2 b, c. All the three slabs were

tested under an eccentricity equal to half-length of the column side (75 mm).

A comparison between the simulation and the testing results was made and Based on the

validity of the numerical model, the numerical investigation was extended to analyzed the

three specimens under concentric and high-eccentric loading (i.e., under an eccentricity equal

to zero and to the column dimension, 150 mm). The analyzed specimens were also divided

into two groups, namely G1 and G2 based on eccentricity amount 0 and 150 mm,

respectively. Each group compares three strengthened specimens and one control specimen

(unstrengthened) as presented in Table 1.

(a) Top view

Numerical Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and FRP

Figure 2 Details and configrations of CFRP and TRM strengthening systems (dimensions in mm).

Strengthening systems

No. Descriptiona mm

S2-e00-XX Control specimen (unstrengthened)

S1-e00-CFRP CFRP-sheet + epoxy risen.

G1 b 0

S3-e00-TRM1 Carbon fiber textile + two layers of cement mortar.

c

S4-e00-TRM2 Carbon fiber textile + two layers of cement mortar.

S5-e150-XX Control specimen (unstrengthened)

S1-e150-CFRP CFRP-sheet + epoxy risen.

G2

S3-e150-TRM1 150 Carbon fiber textile + two layers of cement mortar.

S4-e150-TRM2 Carbon fiber textile + two layers of cement mortar.

a) Specimen description composed of three parts: the first represent slab number, the second is a number stands

for the load eccentricity, and the third is a character symbolizes for the strengthening type, characters “XX”

was used when there were no strengthening provided. b and c) the numbers 1 and 2 referred to the mesh size of

the textile, which equal to 10 mm and 20 mm, respectively.

In this paper, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out to

simulate the punching behavior of RC flat slabs by using a powerful nonlinear finite element

package ABAQUS/Standard 2016.The geometry, applied load, and boundary condition were

simulated to be similar to that in experimental work. The modeling including element types,

mesh details, and interactions will be presented in this section.

2.2.1. Mesh details

Selection of mesh size is an important step in finite element modeling. Before the analysis is

started, an adequate pre-analysis of different mesh densities to determine the best density that

giving the required accuracy according to the level of analysis complexity. Therefore, a

convergence analysis was made on the FE model to get the appropriate mesh size. It can be

observed that the change in the results can be ignored when the mesh size decreased from 30

Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim

to 20 mm and the FE results become more accurate with experimental ones, therefore, 25 mm

mesh size was selected for the analysis.

2.2.2. Material modeling, element types, and contraction

In general, five parts were involved in the modeling of the specimens. These five parts were

concrete slab, concrete column, flexural reinforcement of the slabs, reinforcing bars of the

column, and bearing plate. These parts were drawn separately and then assembled and merged

to form the modeling specimens. Fig. 3 explains the assembly of these five parts.

Flexural

Concrete Bearing plate Column

column reinforcemen

reinforcemen

Concrete

slab

Concrete material

ABAQUS offers different constitutive models to analyze concrete structures. In this paper, the

concrete damaged plasticity (CDP) is chosen for the punching shear simulations. The concrete

damaged plasticity model is based on the scalar isotropic damage assumption considering the

stiffness degradation in both compression and tension [18], [19]. Tensile cracking and

compressive crushing of concrete are assumed as two main failure mechanisms in this model.

The nonlinear behavior of the concrete material is represented by an equivalent uniaxial

stress-strain response. Concrete in tension can be characterized by stress-crack displacement

response instead of a stress-strain relationship due to its brittle behavior, Fig.4 a. In this study,

bilinear stiffening response is used and calculated according to Genikomsou (2016) [18].

While the uniaxial stress-strain response of concrete in compression is elastic until the initial

yield is reached, Fig.4 b. To define the stress-strain curve of concrete, the model of Collins

and Mitchell (1997) [20] were used after converting the nominal strain to inelastic strain.

The concrete of the slab and the column was meshed into solid brick elements to achieve

suitable stress distribution in the 3D Finite element analysis. There are several forms of solid

brick elements available in ABAQUS. In this study, Linear Hexahedral elements with reduced

integration (C3D8R) have been selected.

Steel materials

The required input parameters for material definition of steel materials, includes density,

elastic and plastic behavior. Elastic behavior of steel material is defined by specifying

Young’s modulus (Es) and Poisson’s ratio () of which typical values are 200 GPa and 0.3,

respectively. Plastic behavior is defined in a tabular form, included yield stress and

corresponding plastic strain. According to Hibbit et al. (2011) [21], true stress and logarithmic

strain should be defined, so input values of stress in each point for an isotropic material are

calculated according to that. yielding strength of the flexural reinforced is listed in Table 2.

In this simulation, the steel reinforcement for the slab and column was divided into Linear

Truss element (T3D2). While the bearing plate was divided into Linear Hexahedral elements

Numerical Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and FRP

with reduced integration (C3D8R). Steel reinforcement was linked by embedded region

constrain to the surrounding concrete.

TRM-jacket

TRM was represented by a linear truss element (T3D2), for the textile, embedded into a solid

brick element for mortar (i.e. Linear Hexahedral elements with reduced integration (C3D8R)

have been selected to simulate the mortar matrix). To model the textile, an equivalent

diameter for the textile was calculated and a circular profile was assumed. A perfect bond was

assumed not only between the textile and the surrounding mortar but also between TRM

composite system and concrete substrate. The properties of the textile and the mortar, based

on the manufacturer’s product data sheet, were presented in Table 2. The constitutive model

used to simulate mortar was adopted from Awani (2015) [22].

CFRP-sheet

A unidirectional CFRP lamina can usually be treated as an orthotropic material whose

mechanical properties in the ﬁber direction are different from those in the other two

orthogonal directions. That is, the elastic modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratios are

different in different directions. the FRP lamina is modeled as plane stress element, and the

mechanical properties of the FRP lamina can be obtained from the two constituents (i.e.,

ﬁbers and epoxy) and their volume fractions based on the mechanics of materials approach

[23] are calculated and listed in Table 3.

A bilinear cohesive model available in ABAQUS is a best select for modelling the

interface behavior between CFRP lamina and concrete surface, as shown in Fig. 4 b. The

cohesive model defines surfaces of separation and prescribes their interaction by describing a

proportional displacement at each contact point. The definition of the model is characterized

by the parameters, initial stiffness, shear strength, fracture energy and curve shape of the bond

slip model. These parameters as a function of the adhesive and concrete properties are

determined according to Obaidat (2011) [24].

(a) Bilinear tension softening [18] (a) Bilinear cohesive model [24]

Figure 4 Bilnear tension softening and cohesive model used in this study.

Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim

Concrete Carbon fiber textile*

Average compressive strength (MPa) 42.38 Tensile strength of fibers (GPa) 4.9

Average modulus of rapture (MPa) 7.38 Elastic modulus of fibers (GPa) 230

Mortar* Equivalent dry fiber thickness (mm) 0.4

Compressive strength (MPa) 70 Width per one textile (mm) 4.0

Tensile strength (MPa) 6.0 Fracture strain (%) 2.0

Steel

Yield strength of flexural reinforcement (MPa) 461

* As provided by manufacture.

Composite

Young’s Young’s Poisson's

strength modulus lamina

modulus modulus Ratio

G12

E1 E2 V12

(MPa) (MPa) --- (MPa) (MPa) (mm)

CFRP 77,560 6,600 0.267 3,500 2,540 1

As previously mentioned, three half-scale specimens were used for calibrating a 3D nonlinear

finite element model. These specimens were strengthened with two different system (CFRP

and TRM) and tested experimentally under an eccentricity equal to half of the column side

(75 mm). A comparison between the simulation and the testing results showed good validity

of the numerical analysis where the punching load of the analyzed models are more than the

experimental values by a difference less than 2.91%. Fig. 5 depict the experimental and

numerical curve for the three slabs. Based on that, the constructed FE model used to conduct a

numerical study on the punching behavior of these strengthened specimens with concentric

and high-eccentric load (i.e. with 0 and 150 mm eccentricity). The concentrically loaded

specimens named as G1 and eccentrically loaded specimens named as G2, as explained in

Table 1. In addition, one unstrengthened specimen was built as control for each group. The

output data that have been extracted from the analysis are the load-carrying capacity and

central deflection, which are directly obtained from the ABAQUS simulation. The summary

of the results are given in Table 4.

Group No.

Energy

Ultimate Ultimate Uncracked Cracked Loss in

Specimens Absorption

Load Deflection Stiffness Stiffness Stiffness

Symbol Index

KN mm --- KN/mm KN/mm %

S1-e00-CFRP 362.14 12.82 3.85 62.33 36.37 58

S3-e00-TRM1 335.24 8.11 2.95 89.88 66.59 74

G1

S4-e00-TRM2 306.56 8.49 2.71 67.52 52.97 78

S2-e00-XX 259.29 10.08 3.27 45.74 28.03 61

S1-e150-CFRP 216.45 11.92 3.15 35.02 21.86 62

S3-e150-TRM1 206.63 5.62 1.84 47.39 36.90 78

G2

S4-e150-TRM2 186.88 5.78 1.52 41.07 32.00 78

S5-e150-XX 155.84 8.72 2.84 31.13 20.23 65

Numerical Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and FRP

250 Experimental

250 250

Experimental Experimental

Numerical Numerical Numerical

Punching Load (KN)

200 200 200

50 50 50

0 0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Central Deflection (mm) Central Deflection (mm) Central Deflection (mm)

Concentrically loaded specimens

Evaluate the efficiency of using CFRP and TRM strengthening techniques on punching shear

behavior under concentric loading. In comparison with the control specimen (S2-e00-XX), the

analytical results showed that strengthening of slabs by installing CFRP-sheet on the tension

face of the slab reduced the deflection at the failure load of control specimen by 24.70%.

Whereas the load carrying capacity and the ultimate deflection increased by 39.67% and

27.18%, respectively. The slab strengthening with TRM1 showed a reduction in the ultimate

deflection and deflection at the failure load of control specimen by 19.54 and 58.83%,

respectively. However, the ultimate punching capacity improved by 29.29% in compare with

the control specimen. Appling TRM2 as an external strengthening system decreased the

ultimate deflection and deflection at the failure load of control specimen by 15.77 and

47.32%, respectively. Whereas the ultimate punching strength improved by 18.28% in

compare to the control slab. Fig. 6 shows the variety of the load-deflection curves for the

three specimens and the reference one.

From the above mention, the efficiency of using TRM strengthening system in increasing

the punching shear capacity of strengthened slabs was less than that of CFRP system.

However, TRM efficiency was sensitive to the mesh size of the carbon fiber textile. It was

found that using of carbon fiber textile with mesh size 20 and 10 mm increased the punching

capacity by 18.28 and 29.29%, respectively as compared with control specimen.

Eccentrically loaded specimens

Examining the efficiency of using CFRP and TRM strengthening techniques on punching

shear behavior of flat slabs under high-eccentric loading (i.e. under eccentricity equal to the

column side, 150 mm). It was noted from the analytical results that adding CFRP-sheet on the

tension face of the slab increased the load carrying capacity and the ultimate deflection by

about 38.90% and 36.70%, respectively, as compared with the control specimen (S5-e150-

XX). On the other hand, installing TRM-jackets on the tension face of the slabs was slightly

affected by the mesh size of the textile. It was observed that using textile with 10 and 20 mm

mesh size resulted in increasing the punching capacity of the specimens by around 38.90 and

32.60%, respectively, and decreasing the ultimate central deflection by about 35.55 and

33.72%, respectively. Fig. 6 presents the load-deflection curves for eccentrically loaded

specimens.

In general, the stiffness can be expressed as the slope of the load-displacement relationship.

Marzouk and Hussein (1991) [25] stated that "For most slabs failing in punching shear, the

Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim

load deflection curves can be represented by two straight lines with different slopes". initial

stiffness (Uncracked stiffness, Ki) described by the slope of the Load-displacement curve

reaching up to the first change in the slope (first cracking load), while secant stiffness

(cracking stiffness, Ks) defined by the slope of the load-displacement curve extending up to

the first yielding of the flexural reinforcement [26], see Fig 7a. Table 5 elucidates the results

of the initial and secant stiffness. In addition, the percentage of reduction in the stiffness after

cracks initiated also calculated and summarized in this Table.

It can be concluded that using CFRP and TRM as external flexural reinforcement

increased the initial and secant stiffness. Compared to the control specimens, the maximum

increase in the uncracked and cracking stiffness was about 96.49 and 137.56%, respectively,

for concentrically loaded specimens, and about 52.24 and 82.41%, respectively, for

eccentrically loaded specimens. Specimens strengthening with TRM jacket showed a better

improvement in stiffness and that was sensitive to the mesh size of the textile (i.e. stiffness

increased, when the mesh size decreased). The effects of applying external strengthening on

initial and secant stiffness are explained in Fig. 8.

It was observed from Fig.8 that increasing the stiffness in by applying external

strengthening was highly affected by eccentricity amount. For concentrically loaded

specimens, the average increase in the initial and secant stiffness was around 60.13 and

85.42%, respectively. While for eccentrically loaded specimens (i.e., in case of eccentricity

150 mm), the average increase in the initial and secant stiffness in was around 32.23 and

49.56%, respectively. It was shown that the best improvement in the stiffness was by applying

TRM of 10 mm mesh size on the tension face of the slab.

350 350

300 300

Punching Load (KN)

Punching Load (KN)

250 250

200 200

150 150

Control: Control:

100 S2-e00-XX 100 S5-e150-XX

Specimens of G1: Specimens of G2:

S1-e00-CFRP S4-e150-TRM2

50 S4-e00-TRM2 50 S1-e150-CFRP

S3-e00-TRM1 S3-e150-TRM1

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Central Deflection (mm) Central Deflection (mm)

Numerical Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and FRP

110

+96.49%

100

90

+47.63%

80

+36.27%

70

+52.24%

60

+31.94%

45.74

+12.51%

50

31.13

40

30

S3-e150-TRM1

S4-e150-TRM2

S1-e150-CFRP

S4-e00-TRM2

S1-e00-CFRP

S3-e00-TRM1

S5-e150-XX

20

S2-e00-XX

10

+137.56%

80

70

+88.97%

Secant Stiffness (KN/mm)

60

50

+82.41%

+29.74%

+58.20%

40

28.02

+8.07%

30

20.23

20

S3-e150-TRM1

S4-e150-TRM2

S1-e150-CFRP

S4-e00-TRM2

S1-e00-CFRP

S3-e00-TRM1

S5-e150-XX

S2-e00-XX

10

0

eccentricity = 0 eccentricity = 150 mm

Eccentricity Effect

Figure 8 Effect of eccentricity and external strengthening on the initial and secant stiffness.

Abdulraheem and Mohammed (2018) [27] stated that calculating the energy absorption index

(EAI) provides a better approach for determining the ductility of RC members. Energy

absorption index (EAI) defined by Husain et al. (2017) [26] as the ratio of the total area under

load-deflection curve to that under the ascending portion only as explained in Fig 7 b.

According to that, the effect of concentric and high-eccentric loading on the ductility of

externally strengthened specimens was determined by calculating and comparing the energy

absorption index of them with the control specimens. Table 4 summarizes the results of the

energy absorption index of the analyzed specimens.

Fig. 9 Show the effect of applying external strengthening on the energy absorption index

with different cases of eccentricity, (i.e., zero and 150 mm eccentricities). It can be clarified

from the results that using CFRP-strengthening technique increased the ductility of the tested

specimen and that was also affected by the eccentricity as shown in Fig 9. In the other hand,

TRM-strengthened slabs showed a different behavior in terms of ductility than CFRP-

strengthened slabs. Using TRM-strengthening techniques showed a reduction in the ductility

of the specimens and that was sensitive to the mesh size of the textile used. It was also noted

that increased the eccentricity of the load decreased the calculated ductility.

The cracks in Finite Element Analysis spreads within the slab near the column. It starts

tangentially close to the column and so extends radially as the load increases. At the failure

load, the punching cone is obvious due to the sudden cracks opening. Concrete damaged

plasticity model considers that the cracking initiates when the maximum principal plastic

strain (PE) is positive [18]. The direction of the cracks is taken into account to be

perpendicular to the maximum principal plastic strains (PE) and so, the orientation of the

Majid H. Abdulhussein, Dr. Muhammad J. Kadhim

cracks are visualized through the maximum principal plastic strains [28]. The tensile principal

stresses can be utilized in Finite Element Analysis in order to indicate crack patterns but the

maximum principal plastic strains provide a higher illustration of the cracks [18]. For that

reason, the strains will be used for viewing the crack patterns for all tested slabs.

Fig. 10 showed the crack patterns (on the tension face of the slabs) of the all analyzed

specimens. It can be seen from Fig. 10 that the crack propagation of specimens strengthened

by CFRP were within the direction of the fiber distribution. While the crack patterns for slabs

strengthened by TRM-jackets were similar to that of control ones, but these cracks were

spread in different directions towards the edges. In addition, presence of eccentricity of

applied load resulted in excessive damage to the half tension surface of the slab (right portion

of the photograph shown in Fig. 10 as compared with the other half). Whereas the crack

patterns of specimen tested under concentric load was approximately symmetric about the two

axes.

5

+17.69%

4

-17.21%

+11.07%

-9.79%

Energy apsorbtion index

3.27

+46.46%

-35.21%

2.84

3

S3-e150-TRM1

S4-e150-TRM2

S1-e150-CFRP

S4-e00-TRM2

S1-e00-CFRP

S3-e00-TRM1

1

S5-e150-XX

S2-e00-XX

0

eccentricity = 0 eccentricity = 150 mm

Eccentricity Effect

Numerical Investigation on the Punching Behavior of RC Flat Slabs Strengthening by TRM and FRP

4. CONCLUSIONS

Based on the results obtained in this paper using numerical analysis for the RC fat slabs

strengthened by CFRP and TRM and tested with two different eccentricities (0 and 150 mm),

the conclusions can be drawn as the following:

For concentrically loaded specimens, using CFRP increases the punching load and the central

deflection of the slabs by about 39.67 and 27.18%, respectively. While using TRM with 10

and 20 mm mesh opening increases the punching load by around 29.29 and 18.28%,

respectively, but decreases the central deflection by 58.83 and 47.32, respectively as

Compared with control specimens.

For eccentrically loaded specimens, using CFRP increases the punching load and the central

deflection of the slabs by about 38.9 and 36.7%, respectively. While using TRM with 10 and

20 mm mesh opening increases the punching capacity by around 38.90 and 32.60%,

respectively, and decreases the central deflection by about 35.55 and 33.72%, respectively, as

compared with control specimens.

It was observed that increasing the stiffness by applying external strengthening was highly

affected by eccentricity amount. For concentrically loaded specimens, the average increase in

the initial and secant stiffness was around 60.13 and 85.42%, respectively. While for

eccentrically loaded, the average increase in the initial and secant stiffness was around 32.23

and 49.56%, respectively.

It was shown that the best improvement in the stiffness was by applying TRM and that was

sensitive to the mesh opening of the textile (i.e. stiffness increased, when the mesh size

decreased).

Using CFRP increases the ductility of the specimens. In the other hand, Using TRM

shows a reduction in the ductility of the specimens and that was sensitive to the mesh size of

the textile used. It was also noted that increased the eccentricity of the load decreased the

calculated ductility

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