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TECH LIBRARY KAFB, NM

NASA
Technical
Paper
2195
1983

TemperatureDistribution
inanAircraftTire
at Low GroundSpeeds

John Locke McCarty


andJohn A. Tanner
LangleyResearchCenter
Hampton,Virginia

National Aeronautics
and Space Administration
Scientific and Technical
Information Branch
1983
SUMMARY

A n experimentalstudy w a s conducted t o d e f i n e t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e s of 2 2 X 5.5,


type V I I , b i a sp l ya i r c r a f t tires s u b j e c t e d t o f r e e l y r o l l i n g , yawed r o l l i n g , and
l i g h tb r a k i n gc o n d i t i o n s .R e s u l t s of t h i si n v e s t i g a t i o ni n d i c a t et h a tt e m p e r a t u r e s
along the inner wall of t h e f r e e l y r o l l i n g tires were g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e n e a r t h e
o u t e rs u r f a c e . The e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g t i r e d e f l e c t i o n was t o i n c r e a s e t h e tempera-
t u r ew i t h i nt h es h o u l d e ra n ds i d e w a l la r e a s of t h e t i r e c a r c a s s . The e f f e c t of cor-
n e r i n g and b r a k i n g w a s t o i n c r e a s e t h e t r e a d t e m p e r a t u r e . For t a x i o p e r a t i o n s a t
f i x e d yaw a n g l e s ,t h et e m p e r a t u r ep r o f i l e s were n o t symmetric. I n c r e a s i n gt h e ground
speedproducedonlymoderateincreases i n t r e a d t e m p e r a t u r e , whereas t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s
inthecarcassshoulder and s i d e w a l l were e s s e n t i a l l y u n a f f e c t e d .

INTRODUCTION

Becauseof t h et r a n s i e n tn a t u r e of t h e i r s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a i r c r a f t tires
o p e r a t e under s u b s t a n t i a l l y h e a v i e r l o a d i n g s and g r e a t e r d e f l e c t i o n s t h a n t i r e s f o r
o t h e rv e h i c l e s .T y p i c a l l y , an a i r c r a f t t i r e must c a r r y a l a r g el o a df o r a relatively
s h o r t p e r i o d of time during both takeoff and l a n d i n g , a n d t h e h e a t g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n
thetireduringtheseoperations i s normallyallowed t o d i s s i p a t e p r i o r t o thenext
usecycle. With t h i sd e s i g np h i l o s o p h y ,a na i r c r a f t t i r e c a nc a r r yf a rg r e a t e rl o a d s
thanthosethat would normallybe carriedincontinuousservice where the temperature
buildup must be c o n t r o l l e d due t o l o n g - t e r m m a t e r i a l s t r e n g t h and f a t i g u e l i m i t a -
tions.Thisphilosophyhasobviously been a good one asevidenced by thethousands
of a i r c r a f t t i r e s c u r r e n t l y i n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e . A majorshortcoming of t h i s
designphilosophy, however, i s t h a t it canbeoverextended t o allowtemperaturesto
b u i l d up t o dangerouslevels which may damage thematerialsinvolved(cord-rubber
m a t r i x ) and e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o t i r e f a i l u r e . One c o n d i t i o n which can p r e c i p i t a t e
such a f a i l u r e i s t h e l e n g t h y t a x i d i s t a n c e s r e q u i r e d a t some a i r p o r t s between t h e
t e r m i n a l and t h e runway. During t h e s e l o n g t a x i r u n s p r i o r t o t a k e o f f t h e t i r e can
generateconsiderableheat which may becoupledwithhigh tire stresses since the
a i r c r a f t i s o p e r a t i n g a t i t s h e a v i e s tl o a d . A s i m i l a rt i r et e m p e r a t u r e / s t r e s sc o n d i -
tion develops when one t i r e on a d u a l o r a dual-tandem l a n d i n g g e a r f a i l s t h e r e b y
o v e r l o a d i n gt h er e m a i n i n gt i r e ( s ) on t h e same gear. This c o n d i t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n
d e t a i li nr e f e r e n c e 1. Inanotherscenario,temperatures may b ej u s th i g h enough t o
cause a slow h e a t d e g r a d a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e and r e n d e r t h e t i r e u n f i t f o r t h e multi-
pleretreadingnormally done on a i r c r a f t t i r e s .

Generally, t i r e s are designedfortheloadingstressesand,because of t h el a c k


of a v a i l a b l e d a t a , little o r no allowance i s made f o r t h e r e d u c t i o n i n s t r u c t u r a l
i n t e g r i t y due t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of s t r e s s and temperature.Availableautomobile and
t r u c k t i r e temperature data are reviewed i n r e f e r e n c e 2 where it i s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t
many t i r e p r o p e r t i e s ( f o r example, fatigue l i f e , t r e a d wear,andspeed p o t e n t i a l ) are
a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by high temperature, and heat is considered to be the great enemy
of tires. It i s f u r t h e r s t a t e d i n r e f e r e n c e 2 t h a t a t t e n t i o n must be d i r e c t e d toward
minimizing heat generation, avoiding its concentrationinparticularzones,andusing
materials which m a i n t a i n r e q u i r e d p r o p e r t i e s a t t h e a t t a i n e d t e m p e r a t u r e s . Heat
generationandheatresistance are t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of rubber compounders and
t e x t i l e s c i e n t i s t s , whereasheatconcentration i s mostlydetermined by t i r e design
(ref. 2). Thus a need e x i s t s t o s t u d y t h e complex n a t u r e of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of

"
stress andtemperatureduring a l l ground o p e r a t i o n a lp h a s e s of an a i r c r a f t tire. To
meet t h i s need, a r e s e a r c h program w a s i n i t i a t e d by NASA t o p r e d i c t andmeasure t h e
temperature distribution within an aircraft tire to aid in defining the strength and
f a t i g u e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e t i r e c a r c a s s s t r u c t u r e .

The purposeof this paper is to present results fromanexperimentalstudy to


definetemperatureprofilesinthecarcassof a tire undergoing free rolling, light
braking,and yawed r o l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Datafrom t h i s s t u d y are beingused t o sup-
p o r t development of a n a n a l y t i c a l method f o r p r e d i c t i n g t i r e t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u -
t i o n .A n a l y t i c a la n dl i m i t e de x p e r i m e n t a le f f o r t is underway a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of
Michiganundera NASA Grantand some r e s u l t s of t h a t e f f o r t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n r e f e r -
ences 3 and 4.

SYMBOLS

Values a r eg i v e ni nb o t h S I and U.S. Customary Units. The measurements and


c a l c u l a t i o n s were made i n U.S. Customary U n i t s .F a c t o r sr e l a t i n gt h e two systems a r e
given i n r e f e r e n c e 5.

d driosltlai nn cge

T t i r e carcass
temperature

V speed
ground

6 t i r e v e rdt ei cf lael c t i o n

(4 yaw angle

APPARATUS AND TEST PROCEDURE:

Tiresand Thermocouple I n s t a l l a t i o n

The t i r e s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were s i z e 22 X 5.5, 12-ply r a t i n g ,t y p e VII,


bias ply aircraft t i r e s which were instrumentedwiththermocouples and r e t r e a d e d
withastandardrubberstock. Most of t h et h e r m o c o u p l ei n s t a l l a t i o n was done by
implantingthesensorsinholesdrilledintothe tire carcass after the carcasses
hadbeen b u f f e dp r i o rt or e t r e a d i n g . All t i r e s were c u r e d i n t h e same mold; t h u s ,
a l l t i r e s had t h e same t r e a d p a t t e r n of f o u r c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l g r o o v e s s i m i l a r t o t h a t
i l l u s t r a t e di nt h ec r o s s - s e c t i o n a ls k e t c h of f i g u r e 1. The purpose of t h i s f i g u r e
i s toidentifytheapproximatephysicallocation of t h e 18 thermocouples which were
i n s t a l l e dt od e f i n et h ec a r c a s st e m p e r a t u r ed i s t r i b u t i o n . The 18 thermocouples were
mounted on t h e i n n e r and o u t e r w a l l s of t h e tires andalonganapproximatemidline
a t s i xs t a t i o n sl a b e l e d A through F. Thesethermocouple l o c a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d t o
p e r m i t s t u d i e s of thetemperaturedistributionboththroughthethickness of t h e
c a r c a s s a s w e l l asaroundthemeridian of t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n . The insidethermocouple
a t e a c h s t a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o as b e i n g i n row 1, themidlinethermocouplein row 2,
and thethermocouple on t h eo u t e rw a l l i s c o n s i d e r e di n row 3. Thus, t h e thermo-
couple identified as station C, r o w 3 i s t h a t which i s a l o n g t h e o u t e r w a l l of t h e
t i r e and, as t h e f i g u r e shows, i n t h e t i r e shoulder area.

2
Ground Test Vehicle and Instrumentation

A photographof t h e ground t e s t v e h i c l e employed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n is shown


as f i g u r e 2 and t h e t i r e t e s t f i x t u r e w i t h keycomponents i d e n t i f i e d i s shown i n
f i g u r e 3. A close-up of a tire showing t h et h e r m o c o u p l ec o n n e c t i o n st h r o u g ht h es l i p
r i n g assembly is shown i n f i g u r e 4. V e r t i c a ll o a d was a p p l i e d t o t h e t i r e by means
oftwo pneumaticcylindersand this load, together with the drag load on t h e t i r e
during braking tests, was measured by s t r a i n - g a g e beams i n t h e t i r e test f i x t u r e .
Most of t h e tests involved a f r e e r o l l i n g t i r e ; however, s e v e r a l t e s t s e n t a i l e d
operating the tire at fixed slip ratios to simulate braking and o t h e r s i n v o l v e d yaw-
i n gt h e t i r e t od u p l i c a t ec o r n e r i n g . For t h ef i x e d - s l i p - r a t i o tests, t h e t i r e w a s
driven through a u n i v e r s a l c o u p l i n g by g e a r s whichwere chain driven by a d r i v i n g
wheel on t h e v e h i c l e . This o p e r a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n r e f e r e n c e 6.
For t h e yaw tests, t h e e n t i r e f i x t u r e was r o t a t e d t o t h e p r e s e l e c t e d yaw a n g l e and
clamped i n p l a c e .

The o u t p u t from thecarcassthermocouples, as c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h s l i p r i n g s , was


recorded as t h e p r i n t o u t from a data logger which p e r i o d i c a l l y sampled t h e m u l t i p l e
thermocouplechannelsandconvertedtheinformationtoengineering(temperature)
units. The i n s t r u m e n t e dt r a i l i n gw h e e l ,s e e ni nf i g u r e s 2 and 3, providedanaccu-
r a t e measurement of speed and d i s t a n c e t o t h e v e h i c l e o p e r a t o r and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n
plus the outputs from t h e s t r a i n - g a g e beams w e r e recorded on an o s c i l l o g r a p h .

Test Technique

The t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v e d d r i v i n g t h e ground v e h i c l e a t t h e d e s i r e d t e s t
speedthelength of anapproximately 2743 m (9000 f t ) a s p h a l t runway a t t h e Wallops
Flight Center while monitoring the temperatures and loadings sensed by t h e i n s t r u -
mented t e s t t i r e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e v e h i c l e s p e e d and d i s t a n c e . Datawere acquired
with the tire freely rolling, yawed r o l l i n g , and a t f i x e d s l i p r a t i o s t o s i m u l a t e
b r a k e dr o l l i n gc o n d i t i o n s . The t i r e was t e s t e d a t d e f l e c t i o n s of 25, 30, and 35 per-
c e n t which b r a c k e t t h e nominal a i r c r a f t t i r e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f l e c t i o n of 32 p e r c e n t .
For t h e s e t e s t s , t h e t i r e was loaded t o a nominal 18 kN (4000 l b ) and t h e i n f l a t i o n
p r e s s u r e w a s a d j u s t e dt oy i e l dt h ed e s i r e dd e f l e c t i o n s . Those i n f l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s
w e r e 0.86, 0.67, and 0.50 MPa (125, 97, and 73 p s i ) . To s i m u l a t ea i r c r a f tt a x i
c o n d i t i o n s , a l l t e s t i n g was conducted a t a nominalgroundspeedof 32 km/hr (20 mph)
e x c e p t f o r one series where thespeedrange w a s i n c r e a s e d t o 80 km/hr (50 mph).

Whether t h e t i r e was f r e e r o l l i n g , yawed, orbraked,thetestprocedureremained


t h e same.The v e h i c l e w a s f i r s t p o s i t i o n e d a t one endof t h e runway and t h e t e s t
t i r e lowered t o t h es u r f a c e and loaded t o 18 kN (4000 l b ) . The v e h i c l e w a s t h e n
rapidlyacceleratedto 32 h / h r (20 mph) and d r i v e n t h e l e n g t h of t h e runway a t t h a t
speed. The o s c i l l o g r a p h , which recorded a l l d a t a e x c e p t t h e o u t p u t s from t h e thermo-
couples, w a s switched on prior t o t h e t i r e l o a d i n g o p e r a t i o n andremained on u n t i l
t h e t e s t was completedand t h e l o a d i n g removed. The datalogger w a s engaged when t h e
v e h i c l e commenced t o r o l l and,while keyed t o t h e o s c i l l o g r a p h , p r o v i d e d a tempera-
t u r e p r i n t o u t from a l l 18 thermocouplesevery 10 s e c o n d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e s t r u n .

For t h e unyawed f r e e r o l l i n g and t h e f i x e d s l i p r a t i o tests, it w a s assumed t h a t


thetemperaturedistribution was symmetricalaboutthe tire centerline(only one
s i d e ofeach test t i r e w a s equippedwiththermocouples)andonly one t e s t run w a s
necessary to define the temperature buildup in the tire carcass for each test condi-
tion. However, f o r t h e yawed r o l l i n g tests, it w a s necessarytoconducteachrun

3
twice with the tire yawed both clockwise and counterclockwise to obtain temperat
data on both sides of the tire and thus complete the temperature profile picture
For such repeat runs, the tire was cooled between runs by spraying it with coo
until the thermocouples registered temperatures which closely approximated initial
values.

Testing of a particular tire was concluded when thermocouple-wire failures


became excessive or, in the case of the yawed and braked tests, when approxim
half the tread rubber had been removed due to scrubbing in the tire footprint.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The growth in tire carcass temperatures with distance traveled is typified by


the data of figure5. These temperatures were obtained from the data logger print-
outs of the thermocouple responses which, in a few cases, necessitated some, but
extensive, fairing because of obvious erratic thermocouple behavior during the cou
of a run. In other situations, the temperature data are limited because of failures
to individual thermocouples. The data are presented on a row-by-row basis to illus-
trate temperature variations from crown to bead along the inside, midline, and out
side of the tire cross section. As expected, tire carcass temperatures increase with
distance traveled and the rate of increase varies throughout the carcass. (See
fig. 5.)

The effect on the temperature distribution in a tire carcass due to extended


roll distance, tire deflection, yaw angle, slip ratio, and ground speed is examined
in some detail in the following paragraphs. The examination compares temperature
levels at corresponding thermocouple locations for each variable after the test tir
had traveled a specified distance during a run. Comparisons are made on the basis
the temperature distribution both around the meridian of the tire cross at section
three carcass depths (rows 1,2, and 3 ) and through the thickness of the tire carcass
at various meridianal locations (stations A throughF). In addition, sketches are
included to illustrate visually the differences in the temperature profiles.

Effect of ExtendedRoll Distance


As noted in figure5, test distances for obtaining uninterrupted temperature
data were limited by the length of the 2.7 km (1.7 miles) runway. Those distances
never exceeded approximately2.5 km (1.5 miles) since the remaining runway length was
needed to decelerate the vehicle from its 32 h / h r (20 mph) test speed. A review of
the data indicated that all temperatures increased with distance but that at the rate
which the temperatures increased generally became less with distance traveled. This
trend suggested that the tire carcass was approaching an equilibrium temperature
profile, and many passes were made in both directions on the test runway 32 h / h rat
(20 mph) to establish this profile. It became apparent after the tire had traveled
approximately 19 812 m (65 000 ft) that each thermocouple was approaching an equilib-
rium value. The final temperature profile, obtained after 24 384 m (80 000 ft), is
presented in figure6 and shows temperatures approaching 149OC (300OF) near the
shoulder area (stationC) in figure 6(a). It is clearly illustrated in figure 6(b)
that temperatures along the inner wall (row 1 ) of the sidewall region from shoulder
to bead (stations C to F), are considerably greater than those near the outer surfa
(row 3 ) . The center-line tread temperature (station A, row 3 ) is somewhat lower than
that in the adjacent tread area (station B, row 3 ) . Lower center-line temperatures
were also observed from tread surface temperature measurements made with a hand-hel
pyrometer immediately following the tests.

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T h e s el o w e rc e n t e r - l i n et r e a dt e m p e r a t u r e ss u g g e s tt h a tt h e r e i s less t r e a d
scrubbing along the center line than along the adjacent tread stations and this trend
may be a f u n c t i o n of t h eb i a s - p l yc o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e t i r e . Theselower center-
l i n e t e m p e r a t u r e s may a l s o be influenced by f o o t p r i n t b e a r i n g p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,
which t e n d t o be lower a l o n g t h e t r e a d c e n t e r l i n e t h a n a t other tread locations
( r e f .7 ) .

A sketchillustratingthecompletetemperatureprofilefortheextendedroll
test c o n d i t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 6 ( c ) . The equilibriumtemperature of t h e t i r e
i n n e r w a l l from s t a t i o n B t o s t a t i o n E i s above 121OC (250OF) which c a n l e a d t o
premature t i r e f a i l u r e s( r e f . 2). The t e m p e r a t u r ec o n t o u rl i n e si nt h i ss k e t c ha n d
a l l subsequenttemperatureprofilesketchesrepresent a hand f a i r i n g of t h e thermo-
coupledata.

Equilibrium temperatures in automotive and truck t i r e s havebeenrecordedover


h i g h e r t e s t s p e e d si nr e f e r e n c e s 2 and 7, among o t h e r s , g e n e r a l l y by i n s e r t i n g
thermocoupleneedles i n t o t h e t i r e a f t e r lengthy t e s t runs. A s a n t i c i p a t e d ,e q u i l i b -
rium t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e shown t o i n c r e a s e c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s p e e d .

E f f e c t of T i r e D e f l e c t i o n

To e x p l o r e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t i r e d e f l e c t i o n on temperaturebuildup i n t h e c a r -
c a s s , a s e r i e s of t e s t s wererunwith a f r e e r o l l i n g t i r e , a braked t i r e , and a yawed
t i r e , each a tv a r i o u sd e f l e c t i o nv a l u e s . For t h e s e t e s t s t h e d i f f e r e n t d e f l e c t i o n s
were o b t a i n e d by changingthe t i r e i n f l a t i o n p r e s s u r e w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e nominal
18 kN ( 4 0 0 0 l b )v e r t i c a ll o a d i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h o s et e s t sa r ed i s c u s s e di nt h e
paragraphs which follow.

Free rolling tire.- The d a t a of f i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t of t i r e d e f l e c -


t i o n on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h i n t h e t i r e c a r c a s s a f t e r t h e t i r e had
r o l l e df r e e l yf o r a d i s t a n c e of 1524 m (5000 f t ) . Data a r el a c k i n g i n t h et r e a d
r e g i o n ( s t a t i o n s A and B ) , b u t s i m i l a r t e s t s on o t h e r t i r e s showed l i t t l e e f f e c t of
t i r e d e f l e c t i o n on t e m p e r a t u r e si nt h a ta r e a . A l l d a t a show little d i f f e r e n c ei n
temperatures between d e f l e c t i o n s of 25 and 30 p e r c e n t b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n
t e m p e r a t u r e r e s u l t s when t h e d e f l e c t i o n i s extended t o 35 p e r c e n t .

Aircraft tires are designed to operate at vertical deflections ranging up t o


32 p e r c e n t and t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t a x i o p e r a t i o n s a t g r e a t e r d e f l e c t i o n s
c a nl e a dt os i g n i f i c a n t l yh i g h e rt i r et e m p e r a t u r e s . I n f i g u r e7 ( c ) ,t h i s tempera-
t u r e i n c r e a s e i s more pronounced along the inner surface of t h e t i r e s i d e w a l l and
shoulder,and it i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e more s e v e r e s i d e w a l l f l e x i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
theincreased tire deflection.

Braked tire.- The e f f e c t of t i r e d e f l e c t i o n on t e m p e r a t u r e b u i l d u p i n t h e car-


c a s s of a t i r e i n t h e b r a k i n g mode i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 8.The temperaturedata
of t h i s f i g u r e were a c q u i r e d a f t e r t h e t i r e had t r a v e l e d 1524 m (5000 f t ) a t a
nominal s l i p r a t i o of 10 p e r c e n t and a t d e f l e c t i o n s of 25, 30, and 35 p e r c e n t of t h e
t i r e c r o s ss e c t i o n . The b r a k i n g e f f o r t w a s simulated by t h e t e s t t r u c k d r i v i n g mech-
anismand t h e t e s t wheel w a s notequippedwith a brake. The d a t a i n t h e f i g u r e i n d i -
cate t h a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e l e v e l s g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g tire v e r t i c a l
deflection and these temperature increases are more pronounced i n t h e t r e a d a n d
s h o u l d e r area. These r e s u l t sa g a i ns u g g e s tt h a tt h ei n c r e a s e d t i r e temperatures are
induced by t h e i n c r e a s e d c a r c a s s f l e x i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r tire deflections.

5
I

-
Yawed tire. Differences in temperature buildup to duechanges in the deflection
of a yawed tire are presented in figure 9. Data are provided for a tire operatingat
a yaw angle of 6 O and deflected 25 and35 percent of its cross-sectional height. The
comparison is made after the tire had traveled a distance of (7000 2134 ft).
m The
tire temperature data for the entire carcass cross section are presented in fig-
ures 9(a) and (b) to illustrate lossthe of symmetry in the temperature profile due
to the yaw angle, and the temperature contour sketches are shown in figure 9(c).
The temperatures in the tire sidewall and shoulder totendbe greater for the higher
vertical deflections as expected, but along the carcass midline (row 2) in the
vicinity of the tread, the opposite trend was observed.

Summary.- Increasing tire vertical deflections generally increases the tempera-


ture of the tire carcass regardless of the test condition. For the free rolling and
yawed tire tests these temperature increases are more prominent in the tire shou
and sidewall areas. For the braked tire test the temperature increase is more pro-
nounced in the tread and shoulder areas. For each test, the temperature increases
are associated with the increased carcass flexing associated with the higher tire
deflections.

Effect of Yaw Angle

The effect of yaw angle on the distribution of temperature in a tireiscarcass


best illustrated in figure10 where data acquired at yaw angles Oo,
of 3O, and 6 O are
presented after the tire had traveled a distance of m2134
(7000 ft). Again, the
temperature data for the entire carcass cross section are presented in figures 10(a)
and (b) to illustrate theloss of symmetry as the yaw angle increases, and the tem-
perature contour sketches are presented in figure lO(c). These data are plotted such
that the directionof the cornering force is to the right.A study of these figures
shows a substantial temperature rise with increasing yaw angle in the tread area.
These elevated tread temperatures are more pronounced along the carcass midline
1). This result
(row 2) and outer surface (row 3) than along the inner wall (row
suggests that the higher tread temperatures are due to the increased scrubbing act
in the tire footprint associated with the increasing yaw angle. loss
The of symmetry
in the temperature profile, which is associated with increasing yaw angle, is more
is characterized by elevated
pronounced along the carcass inner wall. This asymmetry
temperatures in the right-hand shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass and
slightly reduced temperatures in the left-hand shoulder and sidewall areas as the y
angle is increased from zero. These trends indicate that the right-hand side of the
tire carcass is subjected to greater flexing as the yaw angle increases and the l
hand side of the tire is subjected to reduced flexing.

Effect of Slip Ratio

The effect of slip ratio on tire temperature distribution is illustrated by th


data of figure 1 1 taken from tests at nominal slip ratios
of 0, 0.05, and 0.10 after
the tire in each test had traveled a distance of m2134(7000 ft). The drag force
friction coefficients for the braking tests were computed to be 0.29 and 0.49 for
slip ratios of0.05 and 0.10, respectively. It should again be emphasized that the
braking action was simulated by the driving mechanism
of the test truck and no brake
was installed in the test wheel. Thus the tire bead and sidewall areas were not
subjected to brake heating effects and the data presented in11 figuredepict the
thermal effects associated with the braking energy dissipated by the tire. It is

6
readily apparent from the figure that increased slip ratios increase tire tempera-
tures in the tread area and this buildup is greatest at or near the outer surface

Effect of Speed

To obtain some indication of the influence of taxi speed on trends tire in


temperature growth, a series of test runs were made at speed ranges h /from h r 32
(20 mph) to 80 .
h / h r ( 5 0 mph) The temperature distributions after the tire had
traveled 2134 m(7000 ft) at the different test speeds are presented in 12. figure
The figure suggests that the effect of wheel speed is small. The sidewall tempera-
ture is essentially unaffected and only moderate increases of about(54OF) 30OC are
noted in the tread temperature as the speed is increased, at least within the spee
range examined. The rise in tread temperature at higher speeds is perhaps the result
of the higher frequency squirming action which has been observed in the tire foot-
print. Figure 12(b) further illustrates a trend typical of most test results
reported herein. In general the interior carcass temperatures are higher than the
outer edge temperatures along the tire shoulder, sidewall, and bead and the outer
edge temperatures are higher than the interior temperatures in the tread area. These
trends suggest that the primary heat source for the shoulder, sidewall, and bead
areas is associated with the damping characteristics of the tire materials and the
primary heat source for the tread area is associated with the generation of friction
forces in the contact region.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

A n experimental study was conducted to define the temperature profiles


the in
carcass of 22X 5.5, type VII, bias ply.aircrafttires subjected to freely rolling,
yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. The tires were instrumented with ther-
mocouples implanted in the carcass during a retreading process. The braking tests
consisted of gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide ope
ations at fixed slip ratios on a dry runway surface. The cornering tests involved
freely rolling the tire at fixed yaw angles 6O. up to

The results from this investigation indicate that the temperatures thealong
inner wall of the freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer sur-
face. The effect of increasing the tire deflection was to increase the temperature
within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering
(yaw angle effects) and braking (slip ratio effects) was to increase the tire tread
temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles the temperature profiles were
not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in the
tread temperature, whereas the tire sidewall temperatures were essentially
unaffected. Finally, the trends observed in this study suggest that the primary
heat
source for the tire shoulder, sidewall, and bead areas is associated with the damp
characteristics of the tire materials and the primary heat source for the tread area
is associated with the generation of friction forces
in'the contact region.

Langley Research Center


National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Hampton, VA 23665
July 5, 1983

7
RE3'ERENCES

1. mrup,Paul C.: Improvement of OverloadCapability of A i r Carrier A i r c r a f t


Tires. Rep. NO. FAA-RD-78-133, Oct. 1978.

2. Conant, F. S.: Tire Temperatures. Rubber Chem. Technol.,vol. 44, no. 2, 1971,
pp. 397-439.

3. Clark, Samuel K.; and Dodge, Richard N.: Heat G e n e r a t i o ni nA i r c r a f t Tires Under
Free RollingConditions. NASA CR-3629, 1982.

4. Dodge, Richard N . ; and C l a r k , Samuel K.: Recent A i r c r a f t Tire Thermal S t u d i e s .


SAF. Tech. Paper Series 821392,Oct. 1982.

6. McCarty, John L.; Yager, Thomas J.; and R i c c i t i e l l o , S. R.: Wear, F r i c t i o n , and
T e m p e r a t u r e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a n Aircraft Tire Undergoing Braking and
Cornering. NASA TP-1569, 1979.

7. Clark, Samuel K., ed.:


Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires. U.S. Dep. Transp., 1981.

8
Station A B

Row 1 2 3

Figure 1.- Thermocouple identification and


location in tire carcass.

L-83-95
Figure 2.- Ground test vehicle.

9
L-83-96
Figure 3.- Tire test fixture showing major components.
683-97
Figure 4.- Close-up of test tire showing thermocouple connections through
slip ring assembly.
Station 4 00
2 00
A
"- B
"- C
""""
D
""
E
150 ""- F 3 00

100
200
T, OC
T, OF

""""
100

I I
Row 1
I I I
I Row 2
I
I I I
Row 3
I I I
0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 .s 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Distance,km Distance,km Distance,km
0
1 I 1 I
0 .5 1 1.5 0 .5 1 1.5 0 .5 1 1 .s
Distance,mi Distance,mi Distance,mi

6 = 30 percent;
Figure 5.- Temperature buildup with distance traveled for selected test conditions.
3, = 00; S l i p ratio = 0; V = 32 km/hr (20 mph).
175 350

150 300

125

100
d 250

200 T, OF
T, OC
75
150

50

100

25

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3


50
0 .u
A B C D E F

A B C D E F

A B C D E F
Station Station Station

(a) Around tire meridian.

Figure 6.- Tire equilibrium temperature distribution. 6 = 30 percent; 3, = 00; slip ratio = 0;
V = 32 h / h r (20 mph); d > 24 384 m (80 000 ft).
175 350

150
300
/o
0
0

125
250

100
200 T, OF
T, OC
75

150

50

100
25
Sta. A Sta. B Sta. C Sta. D Sta. E Sta. F
50
0 ‘ U u u u l”l u
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 21 321 32 3
Row Row Row Row

(b) Through t i r e carcass.

Figure 6. - Continued.
OC (OF)

107 t o 121(225 t o 250)

66 to 79(150 to 175) 121 t o 135 (250 t o 275)


. > .,

I'
79 t o 93(175 t o 200) -: >135
(>275)
",

. * I 93 t o 107 (200 t o 225)

(c) Sketch illustrating complete temperatureprofile.

Figure 6. - Concluded.

15
6, % 350
175
425
-"-CI 30
""4 35
150 300

12s 250

100
200 T, OF
T, OC
75 - Q \
\
\ R 9 \
150
\

so ~ \ 0
100

- -
\ / \
25 kl
Row 1 Row 2 R-OW 3
50

0 L- A B C I I E F A B C D E F
A B C D E F
Station Station Station

(a) Around tire meridian.

Figure 7.- Effect of tire deflection on temperature distributionin free rolling tire. JI = Oo;
Slip ratio = 0; V = 32 h / h r (20 mph); d = 1524 m (5000 ft).
175 r

150 -
I

125 -

I 100 L 0 0\ 2 0 0 T,
0
F
\

c=
T, OC \
\ \
75 - \
\
\
\
\
I

50 - 4

0-

25 -
loo
Sta. A Sta. B Sta. C Sta. D Sta. E Sta. F J 50
0- u u u u u u
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Row Row Row Row Row Row
(b) Through t i r e c a r c a s s .

Figure 7. - Continued.
4'7 ( ~ 8 0 )

27 t o 38 ( 8 0 t o 100)

38 t o 49 (100 t o 120)

49 t o 60(120 t o 140)

60 t o 7 1 (140 t o 160)

71 t o 82 (160 t o 180)

>82(>180)

6 = 35 percent

(c) Sketch illustrating complete temperature profile.

Figure 7. - Concluded.

18
6, %
175 r 4 25
30
350

""*
--"-o
35

150 t 300

250

100 -
200 T, OF
T, OC I

75 -
150

50 -
100

- Row 1

R B C D f f
Station
Row 2

R B C D E F
Station
(a) Around tire meridian.
- Row 3

R B C D E F
Station
50
350
175
6, %
4 25
--4 30

I
300
"_" 0 35
lSO P
P d/
iI
125 250

/d
T, OC
100

75
I
r5 d
0

7
o"n
\

B 9
\
\

7'\
\
$*
9
\

9
\
\

150

50

25
Sta. A Sta. B Sta. C Sta. D Sta. E
e
6,

Sta. F
100

i 50
0 - L U u u u u u
1 2 3 I 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Row Rod Row Row Row Row
(b) Through tire carcass.

Figure 8. - Continued.
0
(OF)
hl
hl

6, %

- Direction of corneringforce
425
"-0 35

175 350

T,OC
150

125

100

75

50
0-d
J?
\
\

& -0
300

250

200

150
T,'F

-
100
25
Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 50
0 .- uu u11111
F E D C B A B FC E DD E CF B A B FC E DD E CF B A B C D E F
Station Station

(a) Around tire meridian.


4 %
"-0 25
" - 0 35

175 -
- Direction of corneringforce

I
350

150 -

1
300
9
125
4
\ F \ 250
100
d - 200
T,OC 4 \
d T,OF

\
15 9

50

25
t D
A --
150

loo

Sta. F Sta. E Sta. D Sta. C Sta. B Sa. A Sta. B Sta. C Sta. D Sta. E Sta. F ] 50
0 - u u u u u u u u u u
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 13 2 3 1 2 13 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Row Row Row Row Row
Row Row Row Row Row Row

(b) Through t i r e carcass.

Figure 9.- Continued.


24
I

I - Direction of corneringforce

175

150

125 - 250

100
200
T, OC
T, OF
75
150
50
100
25
50
0
F E D C B A B C D E F F E D C B A B C D E F F E D C B A B C D E F

Station Station Station

(a) Around t i r e meridian. I

N
VI I
175
- Direction of cornering force
350

0
150 300

125 250
00-aQ
100 at 4 ?\

\
200 T,OF
T,C'
15 Q 150
50
100

Sta. E Sta. D Sta. C Sta. 6 Sta. A Sta. B Sta. C Sta. D Sta. E Sta. F 50
u u u w u !-"-I u u u
1 2 13 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 13 2 13 2 3
Raw Row Row Row Row Row Raw Row
Raw Row Row

( b ) Through t i r e c a r c a s s .

Figure 10. - Continued.


OC (OF)

<52(<125)

52 t o 66 (125 t o 150)

66 t o 79(150 t o 175)

79 t o 93(175 t o 200)

93 t o 107 (200 t o 225)

107 t o 121(225 t o 250)

>121(>250)
n n

(c) Sketch illustrating complete temperatureprofile.

Figure 10. - Concluded.

27
N
a

Slip ratio 350


175
4 0
- 4 .05 0
""
0 .10
150 300

125 250

0
100
200 1, OF
T, OC
75
150

50
b 100

-
25 - -
Row 1 Row 2 Row 3
50
C -- "
R B C D E F R B C D E F R B C D E F
Station Station Station
(a) Around tire meridian.
.I
350
0
0 Slip ratio
I
I
I
4 0
I
I -4 .05 300
I
I ""- 0 .lo
I
I
I

125 - I
I
I
I

250
I
I
I
I

d m, 0 A',

- /
/
d
f '
0
0 200 T, OF

75

2
50

25
-

-
pi, 150

100

Sta. A Sta. B Sta. C Sta. D Sta. E Sta. F


50
0 - L"J u u u u I II
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Row Row Row Row Row Row
(b) Through t i r e carcass.

Figure 11. - Continued.


OC (OF)

1-11 <49 ( a 2 0 1

[Fj 49 t o 60 (120 t o 140)

60 t o 7 1 (140 t o 160)

slip r a t i o = 0.05
7 1 t o 82 (160 t o 180)

,= 82 t o 93 (180 t o 200)

93 t o 104 (200 t o 220)

'104 ('220)

S1 i p r a t i o = 0.10

(c) S k e t c h i l l u s t r a t i n g c o m p l e t e t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e .

Figure 11. - Concluded.


175 350

150 300

125
250

100
- 200 T, OF
TI OC
75
- 150

50
- 100

25

0 .-
A B
Row 1

C D
Station
E F
1
L- A
ROW 2

B C I I E F -
- Row 3

R B C D
StationStation
E F

(a) Around tire meridian.


Figure 12.- Effect of speed on temperature distribution in free rolling tire. 6 = 30 percent;
Q = 00; slip ratio = 0; d = 2134 m (7000 ft).
175
350

V, kml hr (mph)
" + (20)32
150 300
--"u 48 (30)
- "0 64 (40)
""- A 80 (50)
125 250

100
200 T, OF
T, OC
75
1-50

so
100

25

Sta. C Sta. D Sta. F 50


0 u L"J u
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Row Row Row
(b) Through tire carcass.

Figure 12. - Continued.


O C (OF)

1-1 49 t o 60 (120 t o 140)


= 82 t o 93 (180 t o 200)

93 t o 104(200 t o 220)

60 t o 7 1 (140 t o 160)

17 1 t o 82 (160 t o 180)

(c) Sketch illustrating complete temperature profile.

Figure 12 .- Concluded.

33

. "" . .
iB
1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's C a t a l o g No.
NASA TP-2195
4. Title and Subtitle 5. Repon Date
August1983
TEMPERATUREDISTRIBUTION I N AN AIRCRAFT TIRE AT LOW 6. Performing Organization Code
GROUND SPEEDS 505-45-23-01
7. Author(s1 8. Performing Organization Report No.
-15605
JohnLockeMcCartyandJohn A. Tanner
, 10. Work Unit No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Addresr

NASA L a n g l e yR e s e a r c hC e n t e r
Hampton, VA 23665
I
11. Contract or Grant No.

13. Type of Report and Period Covered


1
12. SponsoringAgencyName and Address T e c h n i c a lP a p e r
N a t i o n a lA e r o n a u t i c sa n dS p a c eA d m i n i s t r a t i o n
14. SponsoringAgencyCode
Washington, DC 20546
I "

15. SupplementaryNotes

16. Abstract

An e x p e r i m e n t a ls t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o d e f i n e t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e s o f 22 X 5.5,
type V I I , b i a sp l ya i r c r a f t t i r e s s u b j e c t e d t o f r e e l y r o l l i n g , yawed r o l l i n g ,a n d
l i g h tb r a k i n gc o n d i t i o n s .T e m p e r a t u r e sa l o n gt h ei n n e r w a l l of f r e e l y r o l l i n g t i r e s
were g r e a t e rt h a nt h o s en e a rt h eo u t e rs u r f a c e . The e f f e c to fi n c r e a s i n g . tire
d e f l e c t i o n w a s t oi n c r e a s et h et e m p e r a t u r ew i t h i nt h es h o u l d e ra n ds i d e w a l l areas o f
t h e t i r e carcass. The e f f e c to fc o r n e r i n ga n db r a k i n g w a s t oi n c r e a s et h et r e a d
t e m p e r a t u r e .F o rt a x io p e r a t i o n s a t f i x e d yaw a n g l e s ,t e m p e r a t u r ep r o f i l e s were n o t
symmetric. I n c r e a s i n gt h eg r o u n ds p e e dp r o d u c e do n l ym o d e r a t ei n c r e a s e si nt r e a d
t e m p e r a t u r e ,w h e r e a st e m p e r a t u r e si nt h ec a r c a s ss h o u l d e ra n ds i d e w a l l w e r e essen-
tiallyunaffected.

17. Key Words(Suggested by Author(s)) 18. Distribution Statement


A i r c r a f t tires Unclassified - Unlimited
Carcass t e m p e r a t u r e s
Freerolling
Yawed r o l l i n g
Lightbraking S u b j e c tC a t e g o r y 39
. ~ ~~

19. Security Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 21. No. of Pages 22. Rice

Unclassified Unclassified 34 A0 3

For sale by theNationalTechnicalInformationService,Springfield.Vlrglnla 22161 NASA-Langley, 1983