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PHY 01 (Physics for Engineers 1) Reviewer for Kirchhoff’s Rules

2019-04-07

3
1) For the circuit shown determine:
a) the current through the 6 resistor. 12V, 1 3 6
b) the terminal voltage of the battery
c) the electrical power supplied by the battery to the external
circuit.

Solution: We have a reducible network of resistors. We start by


reducing the parallel combination of the 3 & 6  resistors 3
b
between points 'b' & 'c'. This gives: a

12V, 1 3 6
1/Ra = 1/R1 + 1/R2 = 1/3 + 1/6 = 3/6  Ra = 2 

The circuit is now as shown. To obtain the current we apply c

Kirchhoff's loop rule:

 IR's =  E's  I(3 + 2 + 1) = 6 I = 12 V  I = 2 Amps.


3
We then have: a b

12V, 1
V ac = E - I r = 12 - (2)(1) = 10 V 2
V bc = I(2) = (2)(2) = 4 V
I
Thus the currents through the parallel combination of 3, and 6 c

 resistors are:

I(6) = 4/6 = 2/3 Amp; and I(3) = 4/3 Amps. These add up to 2 amps.

The terminal voltage of the battery is Vad = 10 V; The rate of conversion of energy in a battery is
always E I . Since the battery is discharging we have: P chemelec = (2)(12) = 24 watts. The electrical
power supplied to the external circuit is: P elec. output = I V ac = (2)(10) = 20 watts.
2) For the circuit shown, determine the readings of the (ideal) V
4.8
ammeter and voltmeter.
12V, .2
3

6
2
A

We have a reducible network of resistors. We start by reducing the


parallel combination of the 6 & 3 between points 'a' & 'c'. This V
a b 4.8
gives:
12V, .2
1/Ra = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 = 1/3 + 1/6 + 1/2 = 6/6  Ra = 1  3

6 c
The circuit is now as shown. To obtain the current we apply 2
A
Kirchhoff's loop rule:

 IR's =  E's  I(4.8 + 1 +.2) = 6 I = 12 V  I = 2


Amps. We then have: 4.8
a b
12V, .2
V ab = E - I r = 12 - (2)(.2) = 11.6 V
V ac = I(1) = (2)(1) = 2 V
1 c

Thus the currents through the parallel combination of 3, 6, and


2  resistors are:

I(3) = 2/3 = 2/3 Amp; I(6) = 2/6 = 1/3 Amp; I(2) = 2/2 = 1 Amp. These add up to 2 amps.

Thus the voltmeter reads 11.6 V and the ammeter reads 1 Amp.

30V
3) For the network shown, determine the equivalent
capacitance of the network, the charge on each capacitor, 1nf 2nf
and the potential difference across each. 6nf
We have a capacitor network to solve. Hence the first step a b

is to determine the equivalent capacitance of the network. 30V

The 2 nf & 1 nf capacitors are in parallel between 'b' & 'c'. 1nf 2nf
Hence, they may be replaced by a single capacitance C' 6nf
where
C' = C1 + C2 = 1 nf + 2 nf = 3 nf c

a b

The circuit is then reduced as shown. C' is now is series with the 6 30V
nf capacitor between 'a' and 'c'. Hence:
3nf
1/Ceq = 1/C' + 1/6 nf = 1/3 + 1/6 = (2 + 1)/6 or Ceq = 2 nf. 6nf

Vab is given as 30 V. Hence, Qst = Ceq Vab = (2 nf)(30 V) = 60 nC. This is also the charge
stored on C' and on the 6 nf capacitor. Hence:

For 6 nf: Q = 60 nC and Vac = Q/C = (60 nC)/(6 nf) = 10 volts.

For C': Q = 60 nC and Vcb = Vab - Vac = 30 V - 10 V = 20 volts.

Hence:
For 2 nf: Q(2 nf) = C Vcb = (2 nf)(20 V) = 40 nC

For 1 nf: Q(1 nf) = C Vcb = (1 nf)(20 V) = 20 nC.

(As check we note sum of charges on 2 nf & 1 nf must = 60 nC)

2
4) For the circuit shown, find:
a) current through the 2  resistor 12V, 1

b) terminal voltage of the 12V battery 6 3

c) electrical power supplied by the 24 V battery to the external


circuit.
24V, 1
Solution: We have a reducible network of resistors. We start
by reducing the parallel combination of the 6 & 3  resistors a b
2
c
between 'd' & 'c'. Hence:
12V, 1
6 3
1/Ra = 1/R1 + 1/R2 = 1/3 + 1/6 = 3/6  Ra = 2

d
24V, 1

The circuit is now as shown. To obtain the current we apply


2
Kirchhoff's loop rule: a b c

12V, 1
 IR's =  E's  I(1 + 2 + 2 + 1) = 6 I = 24 - 12  I 2
= 2 Amps.
d
We now can calculate the various potential drops in the 24V, 1
circuit.

V ad = E - I r = 24 - (2)(1) = 22 V
V ab = E + I r = 12 + (2)(1) = 14 V
V bc = I(2) = (2)(2) = 4 V .
V cd = I(2) = (2)(2) = 4 V . As a check we note that the last three add up to 22 V.

Since we have 4 V across the parallel combination of 6, & 3, then the currents through these resistors
are: I(6) = 4/6 = 2/3 A; I(3) = 4/3 . As a check we note that the total current through the parallel
combination is: 2/3 + 4/3 = 2 Amp as expected. The current through the 2  resistor is then the total
current in the circuit = 2 Amp.

The terminal voltage of the 12 V battery is V ed = 14 V. The electrical power output of the 24 V
battery is: P elec. output = I V ab = (2)(22) = 44 watts.

R1 E1.r1
R2
5) For the circuit illustrated, assume that you are given
the values for all emf's and resistances. Apply Kirchhoff's E2,r2
R3
Rules in order to develop a system of equations which R4
could be solved for the currents in the circuit.
R5 E3,r3
R6

E4,r4
Note: equations resulting from the application of Kirchhoff's rules depend on the selection of variables
(currents) and on current and path directions chosen. One possible solution set is given here.

Solution: We have drawn in all possible different currents


(6 in all). The branch points 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' are identified, and
we have selected 3 'interior' loops identified as A, B, & C. E1,r1
I1

Branch Point Equations: R1 A


R2
b
a
a) + I1 + I2 - I3 = 0 I3 I2
R3 B E2,r2 I6
R4
b) - I1 - I 2 - I 6 = 0 d
c
I4
R5 E3,r3 C
c) I3 + I 4 + I5 = 0 R6
I5
E4,r4

Loop Equations:

I) -(R1 + r1) I1 + (R2 + r2) I2 = - E1 + E2

II) - (R2 + r2) I2 - R3 I3 + (R4 + r3) I4 = - E2 + E3

III) - (R4 + r3) I4 + (R6 + r4 + R5) I5 = - E3 + E4

6) A galvanometer has a coil resistance of 10 ohms and deflects full scale with a current of 5 mA.
a) Show how this can be used to construct an ammeter which reads 0 - 1 A.
b) Show how this can be used to construct a voltmeter which reads 25 volts maximum.

Solution: An ammeter is constructed as shown in


the figure. Here we place a resistor (shunt
resistor) in parallel with the galvanometer. If we Ifs
have the maximum possible current (I = 1 A) in G
the circuit then we have: a b
I
Vab = Ifs RG = (I - Ifs) Rsh ( I - Ifs) Rsh

Thus: Rsh = (5 x 10-3)(10)/(1 - .005)


= (5 x 10-2)/(.995)  .05 ohms.
Solution: The voltmeter is constructed by
placing a resistor in series with the a b
galvanometer. Assuming that the potential
difference from 'a' to 'b' is the maximum desired
(100 V), then the condition is: Rs
G
Vab = Ifs(RG + Rs) Ifs

Thus: 25 = (5 x 10-3)(10 + Rs)

Hence: (10 + Rs) = 5 x 103 --> Rs = 4,990


16

6 16

8
7) For the circuit shown, determine the current in each resistor
100V 4 2
and the charge on each capacitor.
8 5 nf

Solution: We have a reducible network of resistors. We start 16


by reducing the parallel combination of the 16, 16,& 8 6 16
between points 'b' & 'c'. This gives: a b c
8
1/Ra = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 = 1/16 + 1/16 + 1/8
100V 4 2
= 4/16  Ra = 4 ohms. 8 5 nf
e d 3
We then reduce the series combination of the 4 & 2 between
points 'c' & 'd'.

Rb = R1 + R2 = 4 + 2  Rb = 6 .
The circuit is now as shown. We note that we have 6 4
resistances in parallel between points 'c' and 'd'. Thus we a b c
have:
100V 6

1/Rb = 1/R1 + 1/R2 = 1/6 + 1/3  Rb = 2 . 8 5 nf

e d 3

The circuit is now fully reduced. No current flows through 6 4


the capacitor branch. a b c
I
100V
To obtain the current we apply Kirchhoff's loop rule:
8 2

 IR's =  E's  I(6+4+2+8) = 100 V  I = 5 Amps. e d


5 nf

We now can evaluate the potential drops around the circuit.


V ab = I(6) = (5)(6) = 30 V
V bc = I(4) = (5)(4) = 20 V
V de = I(8) = (5)(2) = 10 V
V cd = I(2) = (5)(8) = 40 V . As a check we note that these add up to 100 V.

Since we have 20 V across the combination of 16, 16, & 8, then the currents through these resistors
are: I(16) = 20/16 = 5/4 A; I(8) = 20/8 = 5/2. Since there are two 16  resistors, the total current
through the parallel combination is: 5/4 + 5/4 +5/2 = 5 Amps as expected.

Since we have 10 V across the parallel combination of 6, & 3  resistors then the currents through
these resistors are: I(6) = 10/6 = 5/3 A; I(3) = 10/3. The total current through the parallel
combination is: 5/3 + 10/3 = 5 Amps as expected.

We have a voltage drop of 10 V across the 5 nf capacitor. Hence the charge on this is: Q(5 nf) = (5
nf)(10 V) = 50 nC .
8) For the circuit shown, determine the current in the circuit and 6 3 nf
20V,1
the charges on the capacitors:
a) With the switch open.
b) With the switch closed. 6 nf 3

With the switch open there is no path for current in the


a
circuit. Thus there are no voltage drops across any of the
resistors. Thus V a = V b and V c = V d.
6 3 nf
20V,1
Hence: Vac = 20 V  Q(on 3 nf) = (3 nf)(20 V) = 60 nC. b c

Vbd = 20 V  Q(on 6 nf) = (6 nf)(20 V) = 120 nC. 6 nf 3

Closing the switch provides a path for the current. No


current exists in the branches with capacitors.
a

To obtain the current we apply Kirchhoff's loop rule:


6 3 nf
20V,1
 IR's =  E's  I(6+3+1) = 20 V  I = 2 Amps. b c
I
We now can evaluate the potential drops around the circuit. 6 nf 3
V ab = I(6) = (2)(6) = 12 V
V cd = I(3) = (2)(3) = 6 V d

V ad = E - I r = 20 - 2(1) = 18 V

Since points 'b' and 'c' are identical, we have a voltage drop of 12 V across the 3 nf capacitor. Hence
the charge on this is: Q(3 nf) = (3 nf)(12 V) = 36 nC . Likewise we have a voltage drop of 6 V
across the 6 nf capacitor. Hence Q(6 nf) = (6 nf)(6 V) = 36 nC. Just as the resistors are effectively in
series, so are the capacitors.
36 V
o c
o

9) Determine the equivalent resistance of the network shown, and the 6 3


potential difference Vab (a) if the switch is open. (b) With the switch 3
closed. (Resistances are in ohms.) ao o b
3 6
o
d

Solution: With the switch open we can neglect entirely the branch between 'a' and 'b' since no current can
flow through the open switch. Thus we have a reducible network. We have two resistances of 6 ohms
and 3 ohms in series with each other on both sides of network. Hence the resistance on each side is 6 + 3
= 9 ohms. Then these two 9 ohm resistances are in parallel. Hence the total equivalent resistance of the
network is:

1/Req = l/9 + 1/9 = 2/9 --> Req = 9/2 ohms.


36 V
o c
Since we are applying a potential difference of 36 volts to the
network (point 'd' is arbitrarily assigned a value 0, making 'c' 36 V), o

then: I1 I2

I 1 = I 2 = V cd /9 = 36/9 = 4 A . 9 9

o
d

Hence: Vca = Vc - Va = I1 (6  ) = 24 V
36 V
o c
Vcb = Vc - Vb = I2 (3  ) = 12 V
o

Subtracting the 1st from the 2nd gives: Vab =


- 12 V . That is, since the potential drops by 24
V across the 6 ohm resistor, and we start at Vc
24 V
{ 6
ao
I1 I2
o
3
b
} 12 V

= 36 V, then Va= 12 V. Likewise on the right


hand side, we drop by 12 volts from 'c' to 'b',
hence Vb must be 24 V. Thus 'b' is higher than
12 V { 3
o
6
} 24 V

'a' by 12 volts. d
When we close the switch we note that the circuit is no longer reducible. This means we are faced with a
Kirchhoff type problem. Counting 4 branch points means that we will have to solve for a total of 6
currents. Thus we need 6 algebraic equations.

We start by drawing in all possible currents; selecting 3 of the 4


branch points to use for branch point equations; and drawing in the 36 V
o c
3 interior loops we will need to solve the problem. At first we might I6
miss the '3rd loop' in this problem. It's the loop that contains the o
I1 I2
'source' providing the potential difference of 36 volts to the circuit.
6 A 3
A path direction is selected for each loop (we have chosen 3
clockwise for all 3). Selecting branch points 'c', 'a', & 'b' we then ao o b
have the 3 branch point equations: I3
3 6
I4 B I5
Branch pt. (c): I6 -I1-I2 = 0 (1) o
d
Branch pt. (a): I1 -I3-I4 = 0 (2)

Branch pt. (b): I3 +I2-I5 = 0 (3)

The 3 loop equations are:

Loop A: - I 1(6) + I 2(3) - I 3(3) = 0 (4)

Loop B: + I 5(6) - I 4(3) + I 3(3) = 0 (5)

At this point we should recognize the necessity of a third loop in


the problem. The theory of simultaneous algebraic equations, says I6
that a solution for 6 unknowns with 6 equations is guaranteed
provided that (a) the equations are independent (this is guaranteed
by using only n-1 branch point equations and interior loops); (b) I1 6
36 V
the equations must be in-homogeneous. That is, we must have at
least one 'non-zero' on the right hand sides. So far we have 5 C
I4 3
equations, all having zeros on the right. Thus we must find an
equation with some 'emf' value given in the problem. This value
must be the '36 volts'.

Loop C: + I 1(6) + I 4(3) = 36 . (6)

We have finished the 'physics' of the problem. We have constructed 6 equations in 6 unknowns. The
remainder is an exercise (and not a trivial one!) in algebra!

Let us start by substitution. We solve equations (1), (2), & (3) for the currents I4, I5 and I6. We find:

(1') I 6 = I 1 + I 2 ; (2') I 4 = I 1 - I 3 ; (3') I 5 = I 2 + I 3


If these are then substituted into equations (4), (5), & (6) we have:

- I 1(6) + I 2(3) - I 3(3) = 0 (4')

+ (I 2 + I 3)(6) - (I 1 - I 3)(3) + I 3(3) = 0 (5')

+ I 1(6) + (I 1 - I 3)(3) = 36 (6')

This has reduced the problem to one of 3 unknowns in 3 equations. Combining terms and rewriting we
have:

(a) -6 I 1 + 3 I 2 - 3 I 3 = 0

(b) -3 I 1 + 6 I 2 + 12 I 3 = 0

(c) +9 I 1 -3I3 = 36

Since equation (c) only contains currents (1) & (3), then we will use (a) & (b) to eliminate current (2).
Multiply (a) by 2 and subtract (b):

2 x (a): -12 I 1 + 6 I 2 - 6 I 3 = 0

(b) -3 I 1 + 6 I 2 + 12 I 3 = 0

Subtraction gives: -9 I 1 - 18 I 3 = 0 Now multiply (c) by 6:

6 x (c) + 54 I 1 - 18 I 3 = 216 .

Then we subtract -9 I 1 - 18 I 3 = 0 from this to give:

+ 63 I 1 = 216 ---> I 1 = 216/63 = 24/7 A .

This result can be substituted back into the equation immediately above to yield I 3 (I 3 = - 12/7 A). The
negative sign indicates that the direction selected for I3 in the original diagram was incorrect.

Continuing to substitute back we find:

I 2 = 36/7 A; I 4 = 36/7 A; I 5 = 24/7 A; I 6 = 60/7 A.

Good luck guys!


Just understand the sign conventions…

Engr. W. T. Ong (07 April 2019)