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DMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

MA2265 – DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

PART-A

UNIT I – LOGIC AND PROOFS

1. Show that r is tautologically valid from the premises p  q, q  r , p .


2. Verify whether ( P  Q)  Q  P is a tautology.
3. Define free and bound variables with an example
4. Write the symbolic form of “some people who trust others are rewarded”
5. When do you say that two compound propositions are equivalent?
6. Give the symbolic form of the statement “Every book with a blue cover is a mathematics book”.
7. Verify that the propositions P∨~(PQ) is a tautology
8. Show that P(QP)  ~P(PQ)
9. Prove that {~, ∨} is a functionally complete set of connectives.
10. Symbolize the following for every x, there exists a y such that x2 +y2  100.

UNIT II – COMBINATORICS

1. Use mathematical induction to show that n! ≥ 2 n+1, n=1, 2, 3…


2. Show that n2 < 2n, for all positive integers n > 4.
3. State Pigeonhole principle.
4. Find the number of permutations of the letters in “MAPPANASSRR”. Also find how many of these
arrangements have no adjacent A’s?
5. Find the unordered samples of size five (repetition allowed) from {a, b, c, d, e, f}.
6. Find the recurrence relation satisfying the equation yn = A (3)n + B(-4)n.
7. Write the generating function for the sequence 1, a, a2, a3, a4,…
8. Find the generating function of S(k) – 2S(k – 1) = 0, S(0) = 1.
9. State the principle of mathematical induction
10. State the principle of Inclusion and Exclusion
PART-B

UNIT I – LOGIC AND PROOFS

1. (i).Without truth table find the PCNF and PDNF of (p  r )  (q  p)

(ii) Prove ∀𝑥(𝑃(𝑥) ∨ 𝑄(𝑥)) ⇒ (∀𝑥)𝑃(𝑥)⋁(∃𝑥)𝑄(𝑥) by direct method of proof.


2. (i) Show that P  S is logically obtained from P  Q, Q  R and R  S using CP rule.

(ii) Show that x( P( x)  Q( x))  (x) P( x)  (x)Q( x) is a valid statement

3. (i) Show that the following argument is valid.


“In a triangle xyz, there is no pair of angles of equal measure”.

If a triangle has two sides of equal lengths, then it is isosceles.

If a triangle is isosceles, then it has two angles, of equal measure.

Hence triangle xyz has no two sides of equal lengths.

(ii) Show that p is valid from ( p  q)  (q  r )  r .

4. (i) Every living thing is a plant or an animal .Johns gold fish is alive and it is not a plant. All animals have

hearts. Therefore Johns gold fish has a heart.

(ii) Show that (x)(P(x) v Q(x)) => ((x)(P(x))v ((Эx)Q(x)) using indirect method of proof.
5. (i).Prove that the premises a  (b  c), d  (b  c) and (a  d ) are inconsistent.
(ii) Write the symbolic form of
a) ‘x is the father of the mother of y’
b) “Given any positive integer, there is a greater positive integer”, with and

Without using set of positive integers as the universe of discourse

UNIT II – COMBINATORICS
1 1 1 1
1. (i) Use mathematical induction to show that + + + ⋯….+ > √𝑛 , n≥2.
√1 √2 √3 √𝑛
(ii) Solve the recurrence relation a n+1 – a n = 3n2 – n, for n≥0, where a0=3.

2. (i) Use the method of generating function to solve the recurrence relation 𝑎𝑛+1 − 8𝑎𝑛 + 16𝑎𝑛−1 = 4𝑛 ,

𝑛 ≥ 1, 𝑎0 = 1, 𝑎1 = 8

(ii) Find the number of integers between 1 and 250 both inclusive that are divisible by any of the
integers 2, 3, 5, 7.

3. (i) Show that 𝑎𝑛 − 𝑏 𝑛 is divisible by (a-b) for all 𝑛 ∈ 𝑁 using mathematical Induction.
(ii) Prove √2 is irrational.

4. (i) A box contains six white balls and five red balls. Find the number of ways four balls can be drawn
from the box if,
(i) They can be any colour.
(ii) Two must be white and two red.
(iii) They must all be same colour.

(ii) Solve the recurrence relation an= 6an-1 – 9an-2, n  2, a0 = 2, a1 =3.

5. (i) Find the generating function of Fibonacci sequence.


(ii) Using mathematical induction, show that for all positive integers n, 32n+1+ 2n+2 is divisible by 7.