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Plant Nutrition

Chapter-1
Introduction
Food is the most important and basic thing for life. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals
are the components of food. These components are necessary for all living beings. All plants and
animals require food for their growth and getting energy. The process of utilization of food by an
animal to obtain energy for growth and development is known as nutrition. Plants make their food
themselves but animals cannot. Hence, animals depend directly or indirectly on the plant.
Review Questions:
Question 1: What are the components of food?
Answer: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are the components of food.

Question 2: What is nutrition?


Answer: The process of utilization of food by a living organism to obtain energy is called nutrition.

Question 3: Why is need of nutrition?


Answer: Animals do not make their food themselves which plants do. Animals eat plants or plant
eating animals. Hence, animals are directly or indirectly depend on plants.

Mode of nutrition in plant


Autotrophic Nutrition
Auto means self and trophos means nourishment. Plants are called autotrophs because they make their
food themselves. The making of food for themselves is called the Autotrophic nutrition. Autotrophic
nutrition is found in green plants, and in some bacteria.
Heterotrophic Nutrition
The word Heterotrophic is the combination of two words i.e. Hetero + Trophos. Hetero means ‘others’
and ‘trophos’ means nourishment. If organisms depend on others for their food, such a mode of
nutrition is called Hetetrophic Nutrition.
Animals cannot make their food themselves. They depend for food upon plants. Therefore, nutrition in
animals is called Hetetrophic Nutrition. Animals are known as Heterotrophs.
Saprotrophic Nutrition
The uptake of nutrients by organism from dead and decaying matter in the form of solution is called the
saprotrophic nutrition. The organisms which use saprotrophic mode of nutrition are called saprotrophs.
For example: fungi.

Questions 1: What is autotroph?


Answer: Organisms that make their food themselves are called autotrophs.

Question 2: What is autotrophic mode of nutrition?


Answer: The mode of nutrition in which the organism makes its own food is called autotrophic mode
of nutrition.

Question 3: Give some example of autotrophs.


Answer: All green plants, such as grass, mango, bougainvillea, etc. are the examples of autotrophs.
Some bacteria also show autotrophic nutrition.
Question 4: What is heterotrophic mode of nutrition?
Answer: The mode of nutrition in which an organism takes food from another organism is called
heterotrophic mode of nutrition. The nutrition in animals and non-green plants is the example of
heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Question 5: Give examples of Heterotrophs.


Answer: Animals and non green plants are the examples of heterotrophs.

Question 6: What are saprotrophs?


Answer: Organisms which get their nutrition from dead or decaying plants in liquid form are called
saprotrophs.

Photosynthesis
The process of making of food by green plants in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll is known as
photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the combination of two words- Photo + Synthesis. ‘Photo’ means
light and ‘Synthesis’ means to make.
Process of food making in green plants:
Green plants make their food themselves. Green leaves make food from Carbon dioxide and water in
the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.
Leaves have several tiny pore-like structures on the lower surface. Such a pore is called stomata
through which leaves absorb carbon dioxide from air. Water is transported to the leaves through hair
like pipelines from the roots. These pipelines are present throughout the plant, i.e. from roots to
branches and leaves. These pipe-lines are known as Xylem. Xylem is a type of tissue. Chlorophyll, a
green pigment, is found in green leaves. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight and gives energy. Chloroplast is
the site of photosynthesis. Carbohydrate is used as food and oxygen is emitted out to atmosphere. This
whole process of making food by plants is called photosynthesis.

The reaction that takes place in the process of photosynthesis can be written as:
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbohydrate which is produced in the process of photosynthesis is ultimately converted into starch
and stored in leaves. From leaves it is transported to different parts of a plant. Starch is a type of
carbohydrate. The oxygen so produced is released into atmosphere through the stomata.
Leaves are known as the kitchen or food factories of the plants because photosynthesis takes place in
leaves. Leaves look green because of the presence of chlorophyll.
Besides leaves, photosynthesis also takes place in other green parts of the plant also, such as in green
stems. Chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis; hence photosynthesis takes place only in green
plants.
The leaves of plants that grow in desert areas are modified in spine like structure or scales to reduce the
loss of water in the course of transpiration. In such plants photosynthesis takes place in green stems.
Stem is modified into thick spongy leaf-like structures in such plants.
Photosynthesis helps to maintain a balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as it
absorbs carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis. Thus sun is the ultimate source of energy for all living
organism.
Our earth is the unique planet, where photosynthesis takes place. In the absence of photosynthesis life
would not be possible on earth.
Following are necessary for photosynthesis to be taken place:
 Presence of sunlight
 Presence of Chlorophyll
 Presence of Water
 Presence of carbon-dioxide

Photosynthesis in Algae
Green patches in ponds or near the stagnant water can be seen easily. These green patches are living
organism called algae. Algae are plants. Often algae grow near shallow waterlogged areas such as near
tube-wells, taps, etc. One may slip over it. Algae look green because of presence of Chlorophyll. Algae
prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis.

Questions 1: What is photosynthesis?


Answer: The process of making food in green plants in the presence of sunlight is known as
photosynthesis.

Questions 2: What are the essentials factors for the photosynthesis?


Answer: Carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll and sunlight are essentials factors for photosynthesis to
take place.

Question 3: What is chlorophyll?


Answer: Chlorophyll is the green pigment present in green leaves.

Question 4: Why do leaves look green?


Answer: Leaves look green because of the presence of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment.

Questions 5: What is the function of chlorophyll?


Answer: Chlorophyll absorbs the sunlight for photosynthesis.

Question 6: What are the final products made after photosynthesis?


Answer: Glucose and oxygen are the final products after photosynthesis.

Questions 7: What are stomata?


Answer: The small pores present on the lower surface of leaf, are called stomata.

Questions 8: What is function of stomata?


Answer: Stomata absorb carbon dioxide from air for photosynthesis. Stomata facilitates exchange of
gases and transpiration.

Question 9: What is the ultimate source of energy?


Answer: Sun is the ultimate source of energy.

Question 10: How water is transported to the leaves?


Answer: Water is transported to the leaves through pipe like structures from the roots of plant. These
pipe-like structures are present from root to leaves through branches throughout.

Plant Nutrition
Synthesis of other nutrients
Plants need proteins and fats besides the carbohydrate. Proteins are nitrogenous substances which
contain nitrogen. Although nitrogen is present in abundance in atmosphere, but plant cannot absorb
atmospheric nitrogen. Plant gets nitrogen from soil. Certain types of bacteria called rhizobium, are
present in soil. They convert gaseous nitrogen into usable form and release it into the soil. Plants
absorb these soluble forms of nitrogen along with water and other minerals through roots.
Sometimes farmers add nitrogenous fertilizer to their field to fulfill the need of nitrogen. In this way
plants gets fulfillment of nitrogen along with other nutrients. After the fulfillment of all nutrients plants
synthesize proteins and fats.

Question 1: What are the nutrients other than carbohydrates which are required by plants?
Answer: Proteins and fats are the nutrients; other than carbohydrates; which are required by plants.

Question 2: In which form do plants absorb nitrogen?


Answer: Plants absorb soluble form of nitrogen.

Question 3: Why do farmers add nitrogenous fertilizers to the soil?


Answer: Farmers add nitrogenous fertilizers to the soil to fulfill the requirement of nitrogen of the
plants. Nitrogen is necessary to synthesize proteins.

Question 4: Which microorganism help to provide nitrogen to the plants?


Answer: A certain type of bacteria called rhizobium helps to provide nitrogen to the plants.

Question 5: How do plants absorb nutrients other than carbohydrates from the soil?
Answer: Other nutrients are available in the soil in the form of minerals. Plants absorb these minerals
from the soil; along with water.

Modes of Nutrition in non-green plants


Heterotrophic Mode of Nutrition in Plants
Some plants do not have the chlorophyll. Hence, they cannot synthesize their food by themselves. Such
plants are known as non green plants. They depend on other organisms for food. Such plants use the
heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Some of them are called parasite. A parasite is an organism which
lives on or inside the body of another organism and takes shelter and food from that organism. The
host; in this case; is always at loss.
Plants that do not have chlorophyll are called non-green plants. Plants, which live on other plants for
food, are called parasitic plants.

Parasite (Parasitic Plant): Plants that get their food from other plants by living on them are called
parasite. Example; Cuscuta, mistletoe.
Cuscuta is a vine-like plant with yellowish stem. It twines around big trees, like banyan tree. Cuscuta
gets nutrition from the tree on which it lives. The tree upon which it climbs and lives is called the host.
Here, banyan is the host and cuscuta is the parasite.
Some plants are total parasite while some are partial parasite.
A total parasite fully depends on other plants for their nutrition. For example - cuscuta.

Partial parasite: Partial parasite is a parasite that receives a part of its nutrients from host. For
example; mistletoe bears green leaves. It synthesizes its own food, but receives water and mineral from
the host plant.

Question 1: What do you understand by parasitic plants?


Answer: A plant which lives on another plant and takes nutrients is called a parasitic plant.

Question 2: Give some examples of parasitic plants.


Answer: Cuscuta and mistletoe

Question 3: Why some plants are called parasites?


Answer: Some plants are unable to prepare their own food and need to take food from another plant.
Hence, they are called parasites.

Question 4: What is the mode of nutrition in non-green plants?


Answer: Non-green plants show heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

Question 5: What do you understand by non-green plants?


Answer: A plant which lacks chlorophyll is called non-green plant.

Question 6: What do you understand by host?


Answer: An organism which provides shelter and nutrition to another organism is called a host.

Question 7: What is partial parasite?


Answer: A parasite which depends for some of the nutrients; on another organism; is called a partial
parasite.

Question 8: Give example of partial parasitic plants?


Answer: Mistletoe

Plant Nutrition
Insectivorous plant
Some plants eat insects. Such plants are called insectivorous plants. They trap and digest the insects.
Pitcher plant is the example of an insectivorous plant. In pitcher plant the leaf is modified to form a
pitcher like structure. The bright colour of the pitcher makes it very attractive to insects. Inside the
pitcher; there are several hair-like structures. These hairs direct the trapped insects downwards. When
an insect sits on the pitcher of the plant, the lid closes and the insect gets trapped inside the pitcher. The
insect is then digested by the enzymes secreted by the cells of the plants.

Cause of eating of insects by plants:


The soil of marshy land is deficient in nitrogen. Plants living in marshy areas do not get nitrogen from
the soil. Their nitrogen need is fulfilled by sucking the juice of insects. Venus flytrap, utricularia,
drosera and Rafflesia are the other examples of insectivorous plants.

Question 1: What is an insectivorous plant?


Answer: A plant which fulfills its nitrogenous needs by eating insects is called an insectivorous plant.

Question 2: Give an example of insectivores plant?


Answer: Pitcher plant, Venus Fly trap, Bladderwort, Drosera, Rafflesia

Question 3: Why does a plant eat insects?


Answer: Plants living in marshy areas do not get nitrogen from the soil. To fulfill their nitrogenous
need, they need to eat insects.

Question 4: Write a brief note on pitcher plants?


Answer: In a pitcher plant, the leaf is modified into a pitcher like structure. The pitcher is complete
with a lid. The inside of pitcher is full of hair-like structures. The pitcher is used to trap insects which
may fall in it.
Saprotroph
Saprtrophs are non-green plants e.g. Agaricus (Mushroom) fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Saprotrophs get
their food from dead or decaying organic matters. They grow on decaying organic matters such as cow-
dung, wood, bread, etc.
Saprotrophs secrete digestive juice over the decaying materials and absorb nutrients from them. This is
called Saprotrophic Mode of Nutrition.

Question 1: What do you understand by saprotrophs?


Answer: An organism which feed on dead and decaying material is called a saprotroph. In this mode of
nutrition, digestive enzymes are secreted on the food. The digested food is then absorbed by the
organism. In saprotrophs digestion takes place outside the body of the organism.

Question 2: Saprophytes grow in which type of places?


Answer: Saprophytes grow in humid and hot conditions.

Question 3: Give some example of saptrotrophs.


Answer: Mushroom, yeast, toadstool, etc.

Symbiosis or mutualism
Symbiosis is the combination of two Greek words ‘Sym’ means ‘with’ and ‘biosis’ means ‘living’,
which means living together. In symbiosis or mutualism two different types of organisms live and work
together for their mutual benefit from each other. They share shelter and nutrients, e.g. Lichens.
Lichens are composite organisms composed of fungus and alga. Fungus is a saprophyte and alga is an
autotroph. The Fungus supplies water and minerals to the cells of the alga while the alga supplies food;
prepared by photosynthesis.
A bird sitting on the back of a rhino is an example of symbiosis. The bird gets worms to eat, while the
rhino gets rid of those worms.

Replenishment of Nutrients in Soil


Some fungi live in the roots of the plans. Roots of the plants provide shelter and food to the fungus
while fungus provides important nutrients to the plants.
Because of continuous farming nutrients keep declining in the soil. Hence, to replenish those nutrients
fertilizers are added to the soil.
Plants require a lot of nitrogen to grow and to be healthy. Although, a lot of nitrogen is available in the
atmosphere, but plants cannot absorb nitrogen in gaseous form. There is a bacterium called Rhizobium,
which lives in the root nodules of legumes, such as gram, moong, etc. These bacteria can absorb
nitrogen from the atmosphere and make it available for the plants. Rhizobium cannot make its food,
hence, it provides nitrogen to the legumes and in return legumes provide them food and shelter. This is
an example of symbiotic relationship. This has great importance for farmers. Fields; in which
leguminous plants are grown from time to time, do not need addition of nitrogenous fertilizers.

Question 1: What is the meaning of word ‘Symbiosis’?


Answer: It is a relationship between two organisms in which both the organisms benefit each other.

Question 2: What is Lichen?


Answer: The lichen is a composite organism formed because of symbiosis of algae and fungi.
Question 3: Give an example of symbiotic relationship.
Answer: A small bird; called plover; cleans the crocodile’s teeth. The crocodile keeps its mouth open
and the bird takes out meat fibres stuck between the teeth. The bird gets food in lieu of providing
dentist’s services to the crocodile.

Question 4: How do nutrients get replenished in the soil?


Answer: There are two main means through which nutrients get replenished in the soil. One of them is
the nitrogen fixation in soil. Nitrogen fixation replenishes nitrogenous nutrients in the soil. Another
mean is decomposition of dead remains of plants and animals (or farm waste). Decomposition of dead
remains replenishes various other nutrients in the soil.

Question 5: What is Rhizobium?


Answer: Rhizobium is a bacterium.

Question 6: What is the function of Rhizobium?


Answer: Rhizobium helps leguminous plants in nitrogen fixation in soil.

Question 7: How does Rhizobium help farmers?


Answer: By helping in nitrogen fixation, rhizobium increases soil fertility and thus helps farmers.

Question 8: Why do farmers prefer to sow leguminous plants?


Answer: Leguminous plants carry out nitrogen fixation in soil and thus improve soil fertility.

Question 9: In which form do plants absorb nitrogen?


Answer: Plants absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrates

Q1. Fill in the blanks.


 In photosynthesis solar energy is captured by the pigment called chlorophyll.
 During photosynthesis plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
 Stomata in plant take in carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis.
 Carbohydrates are the products of photosynthesis.

Q2. True/False
 The food synthesized by the plants is stored as starch. True
 Plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere mainly through their leaves. True
 Solar energy is converted into electrical energy during photosynthesis. False
 Carbon dioxide is released during photosynthesis. False
 The starch is also a carbohydrate. True

Q3. Name a parasitic plant with yellow, slender and tubular stem.
Ans. Cuscuta

Q4. Give one example of parasite.


Ans. Amarbel

Q5. Name one plant that traps and feeds on insects.


Ans. Pitcher Plant

Q6. Name a plant that has both autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
Ans. Insectivorous Plant
Q7. What are fluffy umbrella-like patches growing on rotting wood during the rainy season called?
Ans. These organisms are called fungi.

Q8. How can cells be seen?


Ans. Most type of cells can be seen only under the microscope.

Q9. Where is nucleus located in a cell?


Ans. In most of the cell, nucleus is centrally located.

Q10. What are carbohydrates made up of?


Ans. The carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Q11. From where do plants get raw materials to prepare their food?
Ans. Plants get raw materials to prepare their food from their surroundings.

Q12. Where does the synthesis of food in a plant usually take place?
Ans. The synthesis of food in plants occurs in leaves.

Q13. What is the ultimate source of energy for all living organisms?
Ans. Sun is the ultimate source of energy for all living organisms.

Q14. Write an equation that represents the process photosynthesis.


Ans.

Q15. What are the components of food?


Ans. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are components of food.

Q16. What are insectivorous plants?


Ans. Insect-eating plants such as pitcher plant are called insectivorous plants.

Q17. What do you mean by nutrition?


Ans. Nutrition is the mode of taking food by an organism and its utilization by the body.

Q18. Why photosynthesis is named so?


Ans. Since the synthesis of food occurs in the presence of sunlight, it is called photosynthesis (Photo:
light; synthesis: to combine).

Q19. What are heterotrophs?


Ans. Animals and most other organisms take in ready-made food prepared by the plants. They are
called heterotrophs (heteros = other).

Q20. What are stomata?


Ans. Tiny pores are present on the surface of the leaves which helps in exchange of gases. Such pores
are called stomata.
Q21. What are called autotrophs?
Ans. Organisms able to make food themselves from simple substances are called autotrophs.

Q22. What is heterotrophic nutrition?


Ans. Heterotrophic nutrition is the mode of nutrition in which organisms depend upon other organisms
to survive.

Q23. What are nutrients?


Ans. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are components of food. These components
of food are called nutrients.

Q24. What is chlorophyll?


Ans. A green pigment present in all green plants which helps leaves to capture the energy of the
sunlight is called chlorophyll.

Q25. Where and in what conditions do fungi grow?


Ans. Fungi grow on pickles, leather, clothes and other articles that are left in hot and humid weather for
long time.

Q26. How do fungi grow and develop?


Ans. The fungal spores are generally present in the air. When they land on wet and warm things they
germinate and grow.

Q27. Why algae are green in colour?


Ans. They contain chlorophyll which gives them the green colour. Algae can also prepare their own
food by photosynthesis.

Q28. What are the raw materials required for photosynthesis?


Ans. Chlorophyll, sunlight, carbon dioxide and water are necessary to carry out the process of
photosynthesis.

Q29. Do insectivorous plants perform photosynthesis?


Ans. Insectivorous plants got leaves therefore they can photosynthesis, which means they can prepare
their food in the presence of sunlight.

Q30. What are algae?


Ans. We often see slimy, green patches in ponds or in other stagnant water bodies. These are generally
formed by the growth of organisms called algae.

Q31. Why do organisms need to take food?


Ans. The food enables living organisms to build their bodies, to grow, to repair damaged parts of their
bodies and provide the energy to carry out life processes.

Q32. Why plants such as pitcher plant do not get all the required nutrients from the soil in which they
grow?
Ans. Plants such as pitcher plant do not get all the required nutrients from the soil in which they grow
because they are deficient in nutrients such as nitrogen.
Q33. What is Cuscuta?
Ans. Cuscuta is a parasitic plant. It is yellow tubular structures twining around the stem and branches.
It does not have chlorophyll. It takes readymade food from the plant on which it is climbing.

Q34. What is the role of rhizobium bacteria in leguminous plant?


Ans. The bacterium called Rhizobium present in leguminous plant can take atmospheric nitrogen and
convert it into a soluble form. Thus help in nitrogen fixation.

Q35. Some plants have deep red, violet or brown leaves. Do these leaves also carry out photosynthesis?
Ans. The leaves other than green also have chlorophyll. The large amount of red, brown and other
pigments mask the green colour. Photosynthesis takes place in these leaves also.
Q36. What is so special about the leaves that they can synthesis food but other parts of the plant
cannot?
Ans. The leaves have a green pigment called chlorophyll. It helps leaves to capture the energy of the
sunlight. This energy is used to synthesis (prepare) food from carbon dioxide and water.

Q37. How would you test the presence of starch in leaves?


Ans. Iodine solution is used to test leaves for the presence of starch.
Test – Remove chlorophyll by boiling it in alcohol and then add 2 drops of iodine solution. If the color
changes to blue, indicates the presence of starch in the leaves.

Q38. How do plants obtain the raw materials from the surroundings?
Ans. Water and minerals present in the soil are absorbed by the roots. Carbon dioxide from air is taken
in through the tiny pores present on the surface of the leaves. The leaves have a green pigment called
chlorophyll. It helps leaves to capture the energy of the sunlight.

Q39. Explain the mode of nutrition in fungi.


Ans. They secrete digestive juices on the dead and decaying matter and convert it into a solution. Then
they absorb the nutrients from it. This mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in
solution form from dead and decaying matter is called saprotrophic nutrition.

Q40. If the pitcher plant is green and carries out photosynthesis, then why does it feed on insects?
Ans. These plants grow in soil that is deficient in nitrogen. All living things must have nitrogen. These
plants (e.g. pitcher plant) are green and carry out photosynthesis to obtain a part of the food required by
them. So, they feed on insects to obtain the nitrogen needed for their growth.
Q41. How farmer is benefited from symbiotic relationship between rhizobium bacteria and legumes?
Ans. This association is of great significance for the farmers. The bacterium called Rhizobium present
in leguminous plant can take atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a soluble form.So, they do not
need to add nitrogen fertiliser to the soil in which leguminous plants are grown.

Q42. How do plants transport raw materials to the food factories of the plants?
Ans. Water and minerals are transported to the leaves by the vessels which run like pipes throughout
the root, the stem, the branches and the leaves. They form a continuous path or passage for the nutrients
to reach the leaf. The leaves have a green pigment called chlorophyll. It helps leaves to capture the
energy of the sunlight.

Q43. From where do the plants obtain nitrogen?


Ans. Nitrogen is present in abundance in gaseous form in the air.However, plants cannot absorb
nitrogen in this form. Soil has certain bacteria that convert gaseous nitrogen into a usable form and
release it into the soil. These soluble forms are absorbed by the plants along with water. Farmers add
fertilisers rich in nitrogen to the soil.
Q44. Can we say that the insectivorous plants are partial heterotrophs?
Ans. These plants grow in soil that is deficient in nitrogen. All living things must have nitrogen. These
plants are green and carry out photosynthesis to obtain a part of the food required by them. They feed
on insects to obtain the nitrogen needed for their growth. So, we can say that the insectivorous plants
are partial heterotrophs.

Q45. Explain symbiotic relationship in rhizobium and leguminous plants.


Ans. The bacterium called Rhizobium can take atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a soluble form.
But Rhizobium cannot make its own food. So it lives in the roots of gram, peas, moong, beans and
other legumes and provides them with nitrogen. In return, the plants provide food and shelter to the
bacteria. They, thus, have a symbiotic relationship.

Q46. Give a brief description of the process of synthesis of food in green plants?
Ans. The synthesis of food in plants occurs in leaves. Therefore, all the raw materials must reach there.
Water and minerals present in the soil are absorbed by the roots and transported to the leaves. Carbon
dioxide from air is taken in through stomata present on the surface of the leaves. Chlorophyll helps
leaves to capture the energy of the sunlight. This energy is used to synthesis (prepare) food from
carbon dioxide and water.

Q47. Explain symbiotic relationship with the help of example.


Ans. Some organisms live together and share shelter and nutrients. This is called symbiotic
relationship. For example, in organisms called lichens, a chlorophyll-containing partner, which is an
alga, and a fungus live together. The fungus provides shelter, water and minerals to the alga and, in
return, the alga provides food which it prepares by photosynthesis.

Nutrition in Plants
Q48. Define cells, cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm.
Ans. Cells - the bodies of living organisms are made of tiny units called cells.
Cell membrane - The cell is enclosed by a thin outer boundary, called the cell membrane.
Nucleus - Most cells have a distinct, centrally located spherical structure called the nucleus.
Cytoplasm - The nucleus is surrounded by a jelly-like substance called cytoplasm.

Q49. Distinguish between a parasite and a saprotroph.


Ans. Difference between a parasite and a saprotroph
Parasite Saprotroph
1. They live in or on another organism 1. They secrete digestive juices on the
(its host) and get their nutrients from dead and decaying matter and convert it
that host. into a solution. Then they absorb the
nutrients from it.
2. They feed on living organisms. 2. They feed on dead and decaying
matter.
3. The organism on which it depends is 3. They depend upon dead and
called host. decaying organisms.
4. Example of parasite - Cuscuta 4. Example of saprotroph - Fungi
Q50. Show with the help of a sketch that the plants are the ultimate source of food.

Ans.

Q51. Can we imagine life on earth in the absence of photosynthesis?


Ans. No, we cannot imagine life on earth in the absence of photosynthesis. In the absence of
photosynthesis there would not be any food. The survival of almost all living organisms directly or
indirectly depends upon the food made by the plants. Besides, oxygen which is essential for the
survival of all living organisms is produced during photosynthesis. In the absence of photosynthesis,
life would be impossible on the earth.

Q52. Draw a diagram showing photosynthesis.


Ans.
Q53. Write a note on pitcher plant?
Ans. The pitcher-like structure is the modified part of the leaf. The apex of the leaf forms a lid which
can open and close the mouth of the pitcher. Inside the pitcher there are hair which are directed
downwards. When an insect lands in the pitcher, the lid closes and the trapped insect gets entangled
into the hair. The insect is digested by the digestive juices secreted in the pitcher.

Q54. How nutrients are replenished in the soil?


Ans. Plants absorb mineral nutrients from the soil. So, their amounts in the soil keep on declining.
Fertilisers and manures contain plant nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, etc. These
nutrients need to be added from time to time to enrich the soil. The bacterium called Rhizobium present
in the roots of legumes plants can take atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a soluble form. This
way Rhizobium bacterium also helps to replenish nitrogen in the soil.

Nutrition in Plants Solved question Answer


Fill in the blanks:
(a) Green plants are called _ autotrophs __ since they synthesize their own food.
(b) The foods synthesized by the plants are stored as starch .
(c) In photosynthesis solar energy is captured by the pigment called ___ chlorophyll
(d) During photosynthesis plants take in ____CO2________ and release _ O2

Name the following:


(i) A parasitic plant with yellow, slender, tubular stem.------- Cascuta
(ii) A plant that has both autotrophic and heterotrophic mode of nutrition.--------- Insectivorous
plants
(iii) The pores through which leaves exchange gases. ------- Stomata
(iv) A plant that has both autotrophic as well as heterotrophic mode of nutrition. --- Pitcher plant.
(v) An organism that live is an association of an alga and a fungus ---------- lichen
(vi) Amarbel is an example of: ----parasites
(vii) The plant which traps and feeds on insects is----- pitcher plant

Match the items in column I with those in column II:

Chlorophyll ---– Leaf.


Nitrogen ––– Bacteria.
Amarbel ––– Parasite.
Animals ––– Heterotrophs.
Insects ––– Pitcher Plant

What is Nutrients?
Food is essential for all living organisms. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals
are components of food. The chemical substance present in components of food is necessary for our
body and is called nutrients.

How humans and animals are are directly or indirectly dependent on plants.
All living organisms require food. Plants can make their food themselves but animalsincluding
humans cannot. They get it from plants or animals that eat plants. Thus, humans and animals are
directly or indirectly dependent on plants.
Why do we need food ?
Living organisms need food to build their bodies, to grow, to repair damaged parts of their bodies and
provide the energy to carry out life processes.

What is food ?
Food is the source of energy and every cell of an organism gets energy by the breakdown of
glucose. The cells use this energy to carry out vital activities of life.

What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the sum of all including taking food by an organism and its utilization by the body.
The mode of nutrition in which organisms make food themselves from simple substances is
called autotrophic nutrition. Ex plants.
The mode of nutrition in which organisms take in ready made food prepared by the plants
called heterotrophic nutrition. Ex animals

Whether food is made in all parts of a plant or only in certain parts?


Only certain part plant like leaves having green pigment chlorophyll. so Leaves are called the food
factories of plants.
Besides leaves, photosynthesis also takes place in other green parts of the plant — in green stems and
green branches.
The desert plants have scale- or spine-like leaves to reduce loss of water by transpiration. These plants
have green stems which carry out photosynthesis.

How do plants obtain the raw materials from the surroundings?


Water and minerals present in the soil are absorbed by the roots and transported to the leaves.
Carbon dioxide from air is taken in through the tiny pores present on the surface of the leaves. Such
pores are called stomata. These pores are surrounded by ‘guard cells’

How do the raw materials transport them to the food factories of the plants?
Plants have pipe-like vessels to transport water and nutrients from the soil. The vessels are
made of special cells, forming the vascular tissue.
The vascular tissue for the transport of water and nutrients in the plant is called the xylem.
The vascular tissue for the transport of water and nutrients in the plant is called the xylem. Thus, xylem
and phloem transport substances in plants

What is cell ?
The bodies of living organisms are made of tiny units called cells therefore Cell are called the building
blocks of living organism.
Cells can be seen only under the microscope. Some organisms are made of only one cell. They are
called Unicellular Ex. Amoeba, Paramecium etc
Living organism made up of many cells are called Multi cellular like man, tree etc

What is the cell membrane?


The cell is enclosed by a thin outer boundary, called the cell membrane Most cells have a distinct,
centrally located spherical structure called the nucleus The nucleus is surrounded by a jelly-like
substance called cytoplasm.

What is tissue ?
A tissue is a group of cells that perform specialized function in an organism. For example, the vascular
tissue for the transport of water and nutrients in the plant is called the xylem.
What are the main requirements of photo synthesis?
Chlorophyll, sunlight, carbon dioxide and water are necessary to carry out the process of
Photosynthesis.

Explain the process of Photosynthesis?


Carbon dioxide from air is taken in through stomata. chlorophyll helps leaves to capture the energy of
the sunlight. This energy is used to synthesize (prepare) food from carbon dioxide and water. Since the
synthesis of food occurs in the presence of sunlight, it is called photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide + water ---------sunlight/chlorophyll--àCarbohydrate + oxygen
Here the cabohydrates ultimately get converted into starch

How would you test the presence of starch on leaves?


Put 2-3 drops of dilute iodine solution on the leaves. Appearance of a blue-black colour indicates
presence of starch in the leaves.

Why are leaves called the food factories of plants? Explain.


Leaves are called the food factories of plants due to following functions
Green leaves have all the raw materials neccessary to carry the process of photosynthesis.
ü They have chlorophyll (green pigment) which captures the energy of sunlight.
ü Leaves consist of tiny pores called stomata on their surface.
ü Carbon dioxide from air is taken in through stomata.
ü Water and minerals are absorbed by the roots from the soil and transported to the leaves by vessels.

Why sun is called the ultimate source of energy for all living organisms?
The solar energy is captured by the leaves and stored in the plant in the form of food. and this in turn
use by other organism to get food to obtain energy Thus, sun is the ultimate source of energy for all
living organisms.

Why algae are green in colour?


Air generally consists of fungal spores. When these spores come in contact with warm things they
germinate and grow.
Algae contain chlorophyll which gives them the green colour. It can also prepare their own food by
photosynthesis.

How do fungi appear suddenly during the rainy season?


During rainy season, there are more chances of things getting wet. Hence, fungi appear more in rainy
season.

What are the main components presents in carbohydrates?


The main components presents in carbohydrates are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

From where do the plants obtain nitrogen?


Soil has certain bacteria that convert gaseous nitrogen into a usable form and release it into the soil.
These soluble forms are absorbed by the plants along with water.
By adding fertilizers rich in nitrogen to the soil farmers also made nitrogen available for plants

What is parasitic nutrition?


The mode of by which parasitic organism get and synthesize their food is called parasitic
nutrition. Example Cucuta It does not have chlorophyll It takes readymade food from the plant
on which it is climbing. The plant on which it climbs is called a host.

How Pitcher plants get their nutrition?


There are a few plants which can trap insects and digest them. Such plants may be green or of some
other colour. Such insect-eating plants are called insectivorous plants.
Example Pitcher plant
When an insect lands in the pitcher, the lid closes and the trapped insect gets entangled into the hair.
The insect is digested by the digestive juices secreted in the pitcher.

Why does the pitcher plant feed on insects though it is green?


The pitcher plant does not get all the required nutrients especially those of nitrogen from the soil, hence
it feeds on insects.

What is saprotrophic nutrition? What is the mode of nutrition in fungi?


This mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in solution form from dead and decaying
matter is called saprotrophic nutrition. Plants which use saprotrophic mode of
nutrition are called saprotrophs.
Example Fungi that secrete digestive juices on the dead and decaying matter and convert it into a
solution. Then they absorb the nutrients from it.

What do you under stand by symbiotic relationship present in some organism?


Some organisms live together and share shelter and nutrients. This is called symbiotic relationship .
E.g. an alga, and a fungus live together fungus provides shelter, water and
Minerals to the alga and, in return, the alga provides food which it prepares by photosynthesis.

What is Symbiosis?
Symbiosis - It is the type of nutrition in which two different kinds of depend on each other for their
nutrition. In this both the organisms are benefitted by each other e.g., lichen. In this one alga and one
fungus live together and remain in symbiotic relationship.

How nutrients are replenished in soil?


Nutrients are replenished in soil by following ways
1.By spreading manure or fertilizers that contain nutrients such as nitrogen in the fields
2.By The bacterium Rhizobium that can take atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a soluble form.

How do leguminous plants help replenishing soil fertility?


Rhizobium cannot make its own food. So it lives in the roots of gram, peas, moong beans
and other legumes and provides them with nitrogen. In return, the plants provide food and
shelter to the bacteria

Distinguish between a parasite and a saprotrophs


Parasite
1. A parasite takes readymade food from the organism on which it feeds.
2. They feed on a living organism.
3. The organism on which it feeds is called host.
4. It deprives the host of valuable nutrients.
saprotrophs
1. They secrete the digestive juices on the matter they live and convert it into a solution and then
absorb it.
2. They feed on dead and decaying organism.
3. They do not feed on a living organism.
4. There is no host at all.

Why algae are green in colour?


Algae are green in colour as they contain chlorophyll which gives them the green colour. Algae can
also prepare their own food by photosynthesis. Slimy, green patches in ponds or in other stagnant
water bodies are algae.

Activity 1 Aim: To prove the essentiality of green colour pigment chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Procedure: Following steps are performed in a sequential order.
Step-1: Take a beaker with boiling water and drop a leaf into it. Let it boil for 2 minutes.
Step-2: Take the leaf out of the beaker and place it in a test tube with alcohol. Place this test tube in a
hot water bath for 10 minutes. Alcohol decolourises the leaf by removing chlorophyll from it by
theprocess of bleaching.
Step-3: Remove the leaf from alcohol and wash it with warm water. Place it on a tile for further test.
Step-4: Add 2 drops of iodine on to the leaf. The portions which contained chlorophyll turn into
bluish-black colour. The portions which did not contain chlorophyll and did not participate in
photosynthesis remain the same.
Inference: From the experiment we can infer that green parts of the leaves synthesised starch and non-
green parts did not perform photosynthesis to form starch.

Activity 2 Aim: To explain the essentiality of light in photosynthesis


Procedure: Following steps are performed in a sequential order.
Step-1: A leaf is selected on a plant and is covered with black paper.
Step-2: Plant is destarched by keeping it in atmost darkness for 3 days. Pick a leaf and test it to
confirm that the plant is starch free. i.e. It did not perform photosynthesis in the darkness.
Step-3: Expose the same plant to sunlight for a day.
Step-4: Test the leaf covered with black paper using iodine. It does not turn blue-black as it has not
synthesised starch. Starch synthesis did not happen as it is not exposed to sunlight.
Inference: Photosynthesis did not occur in the leaf covered with black paper confirming the essentiality
of light for the synthesis of starch.

Activity 3 Aim: To prove the requirement of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis


Procedure: Following steps are performed in a sequential order.
Step-1: A potted plant is taken and placed in complete darkness for few hours.
Step-2: Take potassium hydroxide in a conical flask rubber stoppered with a cork. Insert one leaf (still
attached to parent plant) into through a hole in the rubber cork.
Potassium hydroxide absorbs all the left-over carbon dioxide from the flask.
Step-3: Entire arrangement is exposed to sunlight for 6 hours.
Step-4: The leaf placed in the conical flask with potassium hydroxide solution is tested with iodine
solution. This does not turn into bluish-black colour.
Inference: The leaf trapped inside the conical flask did not perform photosynthesis as it did not
receive any carbon dioxide.