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July, 2009








Construction of the HFM-model 1Sppm Bilge Separator

Recommended bilge pump


4. Suspension of operation 4

5. Special note during operation 4

6. Maintenance

7. Trouble Shooting 11

8. lmportant note for maintenance 14

9. other factors concerning separation efficiency 16

Heishin 1Sppm Bilge Separators, model HFM, are approved under the terms of IMO
Resolution MEPC 107(49) for 15 ppm criteria, by various Governments and have been
issued with Type-approval Certificates. HFM separators have 4 stages that are connected
with a water passage pipe and an oil discharge pipe.

1-1 1st stage

Rough separation of oil form bilge water in the 1st stage is dependent upon the specific
gravity (relative density) of the oil being separated. The separation is achieved by using
multiple parallel plates which are housed in the separating compartment in two layers'
Therefore, they are capable of dealing with bilge water mixed with high density fuel oils
and particles of oil which are larger then 60 microns in size.

1-2 2nd stage

The 2nd stage is filled with hard type of emulsion breaker. Not only the emulsion is broken
but also foreign matter in the bilge is filtered by the breaker and coalescers in 3rd and 4th
stages is protected from clogging by the foreign matter.

1-3 3rd stage

The 3rd stage contains a coalescer which atlows small particles of oil to coagulate and
become bigger in size and thereby float to the surface.
.Heishin's coalescers are made of 18-8 stainless steel and heat/corrosion resistantglass
fiber and are capable of separating oil of 15-20 microns particles. lf maintained properly, it
is not necessary to replace these coalescers as often as compared with other types of
1Sppm Bilge Separator which use fine filter elements. Moreover, if contaminated, they can
be easily restored by washing with steam or hot water.

1-4 4th stage

The 4th stage contains a coalescer which coagulates small particles of oil that can not be
separated in the 3rd stage and become bigger in size and thereby float to the surface.

1-5 Pipe between the Ist and the 2nd

The connecting pipe between the 1st.,and the 2nd stage alllSppm Bilge Separator the
passage of bilge water from the 'lst stage to the 2nd stage. A T-shaped strainer and a
non-return valve is fitted to this pipe.
(1) T-shaped strainer
The T-shape strainer of a self-cleaning type is provided to arrest any sludge and
foreign matters which escape sdparation in the 1st stage in order to protect the
coalescer element. The element inside of the strain is made of stainless steel with 100
(2) Non-return valve
The non-return valve is provided to prevent any back flow of water into the 1st stage,
when separated oil form the 1st stage is discharged via the automatic oil discharge
valve which causes a drop in pressure in the 1st stage'
1-O Oil discharge pipe
Each oil discharge pipe from the 1st stage to the 4th stage is fitted with valves
(a motor-driven valve for the 1st stage and ball valves for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages. ).
These pipes join together to form a single oil outlet.

1-7 Automatic oil discharge device

An automatic oil discharge device is fitted for oil discharge from the 1st stage.
The automatic oil discharge device is composed of an oil level detecting probe and a
motor-driven valve. This probe generates a signal to stop the bilge pump in the case of
power failure and the probe breakdown. (Note: This is used for monitoring oil-water
interface level and not for stopping a bilge pump when the oil content exceeded 15 ppm.)
(1) Situation between probe, motor-driven valve and oil/water interface

Surrounding condition of probe

Condition of oil storage area Operation indicating LED Motor-driven valve

O Air or oil On open

@ Water off close

@ Oil/water interface is lowering

off close
and probe is in water.

@ Oit/water interface is lowering

Flicker (1 sec.)*On Open after 1 sec.
and probe is in oil.

@ Oil/water interface is rising. Flicker (pre-set time)-Q6 Close after pre-set time

(2) Operating Principal

The level detecting probe acts as the positive (+) pole of a capacitor whilst the
peripheral wall of the stage acts as a negative (-) pole. The capacitance between the
positive and negative pole depends upon the fluid. The probe is fitted with a time
adjusting switch which has max. set time of 30 seconds.
When the probe detects oil, the capacitance between positive pole and negative pole
changes that causes the motor-driven valve to open. When the set time (max. 30
seconds) has passed, the motor-$riven valve closes automatically.

(3) Electric conductivity


The electric conductivity (specific inductive capacity) is a physical coefficient of the

substance determined when a vacuum is 1: accordingly, air is about 1, water 80.7,
petroleum 2.1, mineral oils 2.0 2.5, paraffin oil 4.6 - 4.8.
However, the above values for the substances varies greatly if they are mixed in the
bilge due to a change of characteristics by chemicals including detergent, metal dust,
metal ion and water content in the oil. Among other things, the sludge of fuel oil and
lubricant oil has very similar characteristics to water in terms of minute particles of
water eventually making the water content as high as 70 - 80 o/o depending upon the
Our oil detecting probe is designed to cover a wide range of conductivity so that it is
possible to use it for different types of oil by on board adjustment.


'i ./ .f
SW3: Test switch

SW2:Time adjust. switch

SW3: Sensitivity adjust. switch

R: Ooeration indicate LED
CL: Sensitivitv indicate LED
C: Detect. Value indicate LED
TD: Set time indicate LED
F1 : Probe protect
F2: Output protect fuse
123456 7 Terminal

/-_ _\
\:r/ -/


2-1 Bilge pump

The lSppm Bilge Separator bilge pump has a very important function, and has a strong
influence on the separator's performance.
Reciprocating,and screw pumps are normally used for 1Sppm Bilge separators, because
of their excellent self priming ability and pumping capacities without agitation. The water
passes through these pumps at a very low speed thereby reducing the possibility of
lf properly maintained, the reciprocating,pump gives stable operation for a long period of
service without affecting the performance of the 1Sppm Bilge Separator.
The eccentric screw pump (a single scfew type of pump) is suitable for the 1Sppm Bilge
Separator as if can transfer bilge water containing high viscosity oil without agitation. lt is
necessary to take care not to run the eccentric screw pump in a dry condition where the
rubber -made starter will be easily damaged.


3-1 Preparation for operation

Prior to operating the 1Sppm Bilge Separator after installation, it is necessary to ensure
the following:

1. Piping for the15ppm Bilge Separator is laid down in accordance with the
manufacture's piping arrangement, and the specification of ship ownerishipyard if
2. The electric wiring of power supply and alarm signal for 15ppm Bilge Separator is
correctly made.
3. For cleaning inside the pipe from the suction line to the inlet of 1Sppm Bilge Separator,
flush with seawater by running bilge pump. (ln this step, seawater is not to be supplied
to 1Sppm Bilge Separator)
4. After elimination of sludge, mud and dirt in the pipe, confirm that there is no leakage
from the pipe and the system.
5. 1Sppm Bilge Separator is filled up with seawater by bilge pump
6. No leakage should be observed from the pipe before the 1Sppm Bilge Separator.

3-2 Operation
Procedures for daily service of 1Sppm Bilge Separator:
1. Turn on the power supply to the automatic oil discharge device.
2. Open all the valves fitted to the bilge discharge pipe line and start the bilge pump.
Where the 1Sppm Bilge Separator has been unused for more than one week, flush
the 1Sppm Bilge Separator with seawater using bilge pump tor 15 - 20 minutes prior to
handling the bilge. This is because oil, suspended solids (SS), sediment and bacteria
staying in the 15ppm Bilge Separator may have changed into containments by
biochemical reaction and affect the 1Sppm Bilge Separator's performance.
3. During the operation of the 1Sppm Bilge Separator, oil is separated from bilge water
and accumulates at the upper part of each stage, and eventually this separated oil
should be discharged into the waste oil tank.
The separated oil in the 1st stlge is discharged automatically by an automatic oil
discharge device. Oil in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages, however, must be discharged
manually at any time when considered necessary upon checking by the test cock
fitted to the stage. The recommended time for oil discharge is 2 - 3 minutes.

ln finishing the operation,

1. Flush the 15ppm Bilge Separator with seawater for about 15 minutes.
2. Stop the bilge pump, and switch off the electric power supply.
3. Ensure that the 1Sppm Bilge Separator is kept full of water and should not be emptied
whilst it is unused.


5-1 Gleaning of T-shaPe strainer

Since the bilge water contains sludge and solids and solids which often choke
up the
coalescer element, it is important to clean the strainer from time to time.
The strainer can be easily cleaned by rotating the handle provided at the top, during
operation. The foreign matter removed form the strainer element should be discharged

of the strainer by opening the ball valve fitted on the bottom of the strainer for 5 10-
Although the frequency of cleaning service depends upon the ship's condition, for safety
sake cleaning should be better done at every operation'
See 6 - 1 (1)for maintenance.


ln order to keep the performance and function of the 15ppm Bilge Separator in good
condition, proper maintenance is always required considering the bilge water contains

variety of contaminants including waste oil, sludge, suspended solids (ss), chemical
substance, bacteria, etc. all in different forms.

6-1 Routine check

1. For the bilqe pumP
(1) Clean up the strainer fitted to the suction side'
(2) Check the vibration, noise and pressure.
(3) ln case the bilge pump is driven by V-belt, check the tension is correct.
(4) Check the temperature of the bearing. When the temperature rises too high to touch
the bearing case by hand, check the bearing itself and bearing housing.
(5) Tighten the gland packing if there is a leakage'

2. For the 1Sppm Bilqe SeParator

(1) Check the pressure difference betvygen the 1st and 3rd stage. When the
difference is more than 0.07 - 0.1 MPa;
(a) Clean up the T-shape strainer. i
(b) For cleaning, turn the handle by hand 4 - 5 times and drain the sludge form the
bottom of the strainer using the ball valve during the operation.
(c) lf the pressure difference does not decrease, wash the coalescer of the 3rd stage
in accordance with 6 - 2.

(2) Check if there is no leakage from the separator body'

(3) Check the function of the automatic oil discharge device.



6-2 Washing
HFM-model 15ppm Bilge Separator is provided with a washing port fitted on the front
cover of the 1st stage and at the inlet pipe of the 3rd stage. The 15ppm Bilge Separator
should be washed with steam (or hot water) periodically once a month or whenever
considered necessary. Washing can done for both stages either at one time or one stage
at a time.

Washinq orocess:
1. Ensure that the separator is filled up with either bilge or seawater.
2. Connect the steam line to the washing port.
3. Open the motor-driven valve of the 1st stage manually in accordance with 7 - 4 and
also open the oil discharge valves of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages'
lmportant Note !!
Keep these two valves open until the washing out process finishes.

4. Run the bilge pump for a short time to discharge separated oil from one by one stage.
5. Supply live steam (or hot water) in order to heat up water in the 1Sppm Bilge Separator
up to 70 - 8O'C. When the temperature rises, stop the supply of steam and keep the
15ppm Bilge Separator in this condition for 2 hours.
6. Run the bilge pump for 2 - 3 minutes to discharge the remaining oil.
7. Drain the water of only the 1st stage to the bilge well from the bottom of the stage.
When draining the water out of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages, ensure that separated oil
has been completely discharged out of the stage.
8. Close all valves but open the valves on the pipe for bilge treatment if closed.
9. Start the operation of the 15ppm Bilge Separator for bilge.
The 1Sppm Bilge Separator should be filled with seawater prior to the switch over to
bilge. Washing is completed when seawater is fed into the system'
lmportant note !!

1. When the 1Sppm Bilge Separator is first used, the pressure loss in the coalescer in
the 3rd stage is about 0.01 MPa.
2. When the pressure difference becomes more than 0.07 - 0.1 MPa, washing should
be carried out. There should 6e no problem if the pressure loss in the coalescer is
over 0.01 MPa even after washing unless it is more than 0.05 MPa.
3. Direct and thorough cleaning by complete dismantle and overhauling of the
coalescer should be done provided the pressure loss is over 0.05 MPa after steam
or hot water washing.
4. lt is necessary to replace the existing coalescer in the 3rd stage with a new one if;

(1) the pressure loss still remains over 0.05 MPa after cleaning by overhaul, or
(2\ any damage to the coalescer is observed.

I r:--
6-3 2nd stage
The 2nd stage contains hard type of emulsion breaker. Filled quantity is checked once per
6 months and the breaker is supplemented with the following procedure if necessary.
(1) Open the oil discharge valve on the 2nd stage and run the bilge pump for a short time
to discharge separated oilfrom 2nd stage.
(2) Remove the top cover and discharge the inside water from drain port of the 2nd stage.
(3) When the emulsion breaker is seen, stop the discharge from the drain port.
(4) Supplement the emulsion breaker up to the lower of filling cover (.2) if filling height of
the breaker is less than *1 as shown below


AMOUNT 1*1) (FROM * 1 to *2)
HFM-50 290mm 150mm lke
HFM- 1OO 330mm lB0mm 15ks
HFM-20O 430mm 220mm 3 Oke
HFM-3OO 480mm 220mm 40kg
HFM-50O 600mm 230mm 6Okg

* Amount of spare ernulsion breaker is considered

by the ave rage of consumption rates for 1 year to 2 years.
>F Consumption rates depends on operating condition.
,F Sales unit of the emulsion breaker is 15ke/ 1 unit.

6-4 Overhauland inspection
Prior to
overhauling, it is recommended that washing by steam is carried out and
separated oil in all stages is discharged.
1 . 1st stage
(1) Disconnect the influence inlet pipe fitted to the body of the stages.
(2) Unbolt the right body to remove it from the main body.
(3) Unbolt the inner cover for the parallel plates section and remove
(4) After removing the front cover, pull out all the parallel.
At the centre of each parallel plates, there is a hole with which the plate can be
pulled out.

(5) Zinc anodes fitted inside the front cover should have an visual inspection at least
once every 6 months.
Please replace with new ones if heavily corroded.
2. 2nd stage
(1) Unbolt the manhole cover and emulsion breaker can be pull out.
(2) Remove the top cover in order to check inside condition of the stage.
3. 3rd stage
(1) Unbolt flange on the body flange of right side to pull out the coalescer complete.
(2) Zinc anodes fitted inside the front cover should have an visual inspection at least
once every 6 months.
Please replace with new ones if heavily corroded.
4" 4th stage
Remove the top cover to pull out the coalescer element.
5. Clean each component and inside the wall of the stage by wiping off or washing with
light oil if necessary. Special attention should be given to check if corrosion has
6. lf any damage is found, repair it properly.
(a) When replacing a gasket with a new one, the flange face should be cleaned up.
(b) When replacing the internal @ating, first clean the damaged or peeled off parts
thoroughly and repaint with epoxy tar on the oil-and rust-free surface. Dry the
coating completely prior to re-hssembly.
7. Re-assemble the 15ppm Bilge Separator exactly in the reveres order to the
8. Carry out a leakage check test after re-assembly.

6-5 Adjustment of oil Ievel detecting probe
The automatic oil discharge device has already been adjusted at our workshop before
shipment, and generally no further adjustment is necessary before 1Sppm Bilge Separator
is put into operation. Should further adjustment be required for some reasons the following
re-adjustrnent can be feasible onlv when the 1Sppm Bilqe Separator is full of seawater:
1. External wiring
a Output for stopping a pump

a (NC) close
, (When Power failure and probe breakdown)
(fuse: Max. 250V I 1A)

a (NO) open command Motor-driven valve

a (N) common

a (N) I Power source (AC 100 - 230V)

a (P) --l


2. Sensitivityadjustment
(1) Sensitivity level is adjusted with dipl to 4 of SW1 according to table shown below.
(2) Sensitivity level has been set to "7" at our workshop.
(3) lf water content in the separated oil is very high, i.e., eclectic conductivity is as
high as that of water, the level is adjusted to more high numbel i.e., level "8" -
Note: More than level "4":
motor-driven valve is opened if the probe detects heavy or
light oil.
More than level "12": motor-driven valve is opened if the probe detects sea or
fresh water.
Sensitivity level D4 D3 D2 D1

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1

2 0 0 1 0

3 0 0 1 1

4 0 1 0 0

5 0 1 0 1

6 0 1 1 0

7 0 1 1 1

B 1 0 0 0

I 1 0 0 1

10 1 0 1 0

11 1 0 1 1

12 1 1 0 0

13 1 1 0 1

14 1 1 1 0

15 1 1 1 1

Note: 1: ON, 0: OFF

- 10 -
B: Stopping function of pump
(1) After supplying power to the bilge separator, run the bilge pump.
(2) During the bilge pump is running, remove either one fuse of Fl (Power supply line)
or F2 (Output line) by pulling out its cover of the fuse. (The fuse is set on this
(3) Confirm the bilge pump has now stopped.
(4) Cut off the power supply to the bilge separator, and then reset the fuse that was
removed in the step (2).

6-6 Manual oildischarge by solenoid valve

When is necessary to discharge the separated oil out of the lst stage forcibly for some
reason, the motor-driven valve should be opened manually during operation of the 15ppm
Bilge Separator with test switch.

lf any troubles occur to 1Sppm Bilge Separator, find the cause immediately for a proper
counte rrneasure i n accordance with the following table.


Poor perforrnance 'Bad quality of bilge water caused by . Find the main cause of
of 1Sppm Bilge emulsion of more than 3,000 ppm from substances, ?fld prevent them
Separator (high oil the following substances from entering the bilge
content in the Detergent for cleansing
effluent) Compressor drain lf possible, install a separate tank
Boiler washing agents with low ph exclusively for collecting waste
water contaminated by such
chemical substances,
. Particles of oil become minute in size in 'Overhaul the bilge pump and
the bilge pump due to inner leakage. repair damaged components
such as pump valve & seat,
bucket ring, etc. if the bilge pump
is piston pump.
'1Sppm BiQe Separator is internally
contaminate by oil
Automatic oil discharge device is not Adjust the oil level detecting
working in a good condition, and the probe.
separated oil is not discharged
properly eventually letting the oil to
flow out to the Znd and 3rd stage.
Separated oil in the 3rd or 4th stage is Discharge the oil out of the
not discharged and the oil is mixed in separator.
the effluent.

The coalescer in the 3rd stage is not Wash the coalescer to restore
functioning properly due to sludge & it to its original condition.
solid substances.

- The coalescer in the 4th stage is not

Replace the coalescer with
functioning properly due to sludge & new one
solid substances. r

. A short pass in the low passage in 1 Sppm

Check and repair it.
Bilge Separator occurs caused by;
For closer check, hydrostatic
pressure test is recommended.
Corrosion in the inner compartment Wash the coalescer in the 3rd
walls of the all stages.
stage if badly contaminated, or
correct the fitting of the unit.

Short pass in the coalescer unit occurs Replace the coalescer in the
by clogging in the coalescer element or 4th stage if badly
poor fitting of the unit. contaminated, or correct the
fitting of the unit.

1Sppm Bilge Separator is operated with
water lowered for the following
'Before the operation, fill up
1Sppm Bilge Separator has hot been 1Sppm Bilge Separator with sea
filled up with seawater at the beginning water and check it is full with
of the operation. bilge water during operation.
See pressure reading is positive.

Check and repair it.

Leakage occurs in 1Sppm Bilge
Separator or in the pipe before 1Sppm
Bilge Separator, and water level
lowers. Check it, and repair or adjust it.

For the 1Sppm Bilge Separator

provided with the pressure adjusting
valve, the set pressure is not proper, or
valve and valve seat are stuck Check and repair it.

The siphon breaker of the effluent pipe Check and repair it.
is cogged.

.lf an oil content meter is fitted, it is not in

good operation (wrong indication of oil Check the sampling pipe and
content in ppm.) clean it.

The sampling pipe is internally Adjust the pressure according

contaminated by oil, sludge or filth. to maker's m anual.

The pressure of sample is beyond

specified range.
Reduction of . Function of the bilge pump is not in good
effluent flow condition. (Volumetric efficiency becomes
discharged from poor. ) ,.
1Sppm Bilge <For piston pump>
Separator Valve, valve seat ori seat ring of the Smooth the valve and valve
pump is damaged. seat.
Bucket ring is worn or damaged. Replace the bucket ring.
- Cylinder liner is worn or scratched. Replace the liner or repair it by
<For eccentric screw pump>
Rubber-made stator is worn out. Replace the stator.

<For piston and eccentric screw pump>

- The number of rotation of the pump Stretch the belt or replace it.
reduced due to the belt being loose.

.Air enters form the bilge pump. 'Check the gland packing in the
stuffing box and all the
connecting flanges fitted to the
bilge pump.
For closer check, hydrostatic
pressure test is recommended.
. Suction pipe of the bilge pump is blocked. . Check the pipe and remove any
obstacles if any.

Strainer of the bilge pump is clogged. Clean the strainer.

Valve(s) of the suction pipe is closed or Open the valve(s) thoroughly.

not sufficiently opened.
. Check the valve and valve seat
. Leakage occurs from the relief valve of
the 1Sppm Bilge Separator and/or bilge of the relief valve.

. . Repair or replace with new one.

Leakage occurs from the test cock.

. Leakage occurs from the oil discharge . Check the valve of the 2nd, 3rd
valve. and 4th stage to repair.

. Check the motor-driven valve

and oil level detecting probe
fitted to the 1st stage. lf any
detect or damage is found,
contact us for repair or
Pressure of . Discharge line is closed.
1Sppm Bilge
Separator rises The pressure adjusting valve is Adjust the pressure adjusting
too m uch. incorrectly set. valve to a proper level for
1Sppm Bilge Separator.

- Valves including overborld valve are Open these valves fully.

closed or not sufficiently gpened.
'Coalescer is clogged. Wash the coalescer in the 3rd
Replace the coalescer in the
4th stage
. T-shape strainer between the 1 st and- Clean the strainer. lf
2nd stage is clogged. necessary,
overhaul and clean the
.Water passage within 1Sppm Bilge 'Check the inside of 1 Sppm Bilge
Separator is clogged by sludge, solid or Separator, clean and repair if
other obstacles, or corrosion. necessary.
. Pressure gauge is out of order. . Check the pressure gauge and
replace it with new one.

- 15 -
Too much water 'Malfunction of an automatic oil discharge
contains in the device of the 1st stage
separated oil
Sensitivity of the oil detecting probe is Check the probe rand repair or
not properly set. replace it with a new one if
defect is found.

Leakage occurs form the motor-driven Repair it


'Leakage occurs from the oil discharge 'Close the valve fully if open.
valve of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stage. Replace with a new one.

Motor-driven 'Great amount of oil contains in bilge. . Heat up the oil.

valve is kept open 'Oil is very viscous.
too long or
valve opens and
shuts too often.

Bilge pump 'The fuse in oil level probe is blown away. . Check if supplied power (voltage)
cannot run. to the motor valve and the oil
level probe is correct.


Nowadays when environmental protection is the main world issue, it is very

important for a
ship's crew who directly handle bilge to know the characteristics of the actual
bilge prior to
and during the operation of the l Sppm Bilge Separator.
ln fact, besides there being many kinds of oil, there are a variety of complicated
characteristics in bilge water for each individual vessel. Even in one particular
ship, the
characteristics of bilge water change cfremically, physically or biochemically
every time
bilge water is generated. ln many cases, these factors give a negative influence
to the
performance of the 1Sppm Bilge Separaior.

Our 1Sppm Bilge Separators have passed type-approval tests and have been
under the terms of IMO MEPC 107(49). However, satisfactory performance
can not be
kept up unless proper maintenance work is carried out. ln order to keep the
oil content in
the effluent from the 15ppm Bilge Separator within the criteria of IMO regulations, it is
necessary to carefully note and carry out the following procedures.

9-1 Periodical inspection
1. Cleaning
Periodical checks if bilge water is contaminated by detergent and cleaning by system
(or hot water) from time to time is one of the most important maintenance duties for
ship's crew.
2. Discharge of sludge
Bilge water entering the 1Sppm Bilge Separator contains oily sludge including sand,
mud, iron rust, carbon, etc. This oily sludge settles and accumulates in the 1Sppm
Bilge Separator and causes clogging resulting in deterioration of separation efficiency.
ln particular, F.O. and L.O. sludge create strong corrosion making holes through the
wall of the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
Therefore, it is necessary to remove sludge periodically by either steam washing or
overhaul cleaning and touch up the coating whenever the inner coating is damaged.
3. Maintenance of bilge pump
As the bilge pump is used to handle bilge water which contains a lot of solids and
trash, it has a greater chance of being damaged than any other pumps in the engine
room. lt should be carefully noted that inner leakage between suction and discharge,
damage created by solid substances, may easily cause particles of oil to become very
small and minute, in other word, forming a physically emulsion.
Our 1Sppm Bilge Separator design is based on the gravitational difference between oil
and water and is not capable of separating emulsion and oil particles of less than 20
microns is size. Therefore, the separation efficiency will definitely decrease if such
small particles of oil continuously enters the 1Sppm Bilge Separator.
It is necessary to check the pump bucket, pump valve and valve seat where if
damaged inner leakage will often occur, and these parts must be kept keep in good

9-2 Bilge characteristics

As stated before, bilge water has complex characteristics, and one of the main reasons is
presumably due to chemical and biochemical reaction between oils, water, detergent,
chemical agent and bacteria. $,.

Different chemical agents are added to not only lubricating oil but also to fuel oil, and these
chemicals and detergents are certainly the main cause of emulsified oil in bilge water.
1. Detergents
Simply for cleaning purposes detergent is made to dissolve oil and oily substances as
a form of emulsion by chemical reaction. To emulsify oil efficiently, different surface
active agents are added to petroleum or plant and animal oil, and therefore the
detergent is in most cases regarded as an oil itself if chemically analysed.
ln general the following group of detergents are in current use on board ships
depending upon the purpose of the detergent. Type are:
i ) those which dissolve in water but not in oil,
ii ) those which dissolve in oil but not in water, and
iii ) those which dissolve in both water and oil.

Without exception, all detergents in the market react against oil to make
it chemically
emulsified when mixed with water. The size of an oil particle in a chemical
emulsion is
far less than 1 micron and will not float at all. For the above reason, in general
detergent has a substantial influence on the 1Sppm Bilge Separator.
Physical separation method based on the gravitational difference between oil and
water is not capable of separating particles of oil of less than 20 microns in size for
light oil and 10 microns for heavy oil. Chemically emulsified oil makes maintenance
term of coalescer in the 3rd and 4th stage shorten due to burden enlargement of the
coalescers for emulsion separation.
Therefore, it is very important to avoid mixing any detergent into bilge as less
as possible.
2. Anti-corrosive oil for engine cooling water
Some brands of anticorrosive agent (soluble oil type) have exacly the same
characteristics and ingredients as the above detergent, which is chemically emulsified
when it is dissolved in water.
Therefore, it is recommended not to mix this soluble oil type of anticorrosive
oil into
the bilge.
3. Compressor drain
Although drain fluid discharged from air compressors is very small in quantity,
drain fluid is in most cases emulsified which may cause a negative effect on the
1Sppm Bilge Separator.
Attention should be paid to the quantity of compressor drain fluid and proper
countermeasures are necessary if the quantity increases for any reason.
4. Sludge
Sludge is equally as bad a factor on 1Sppm Bilge Separator performance as detergent
when it enters the 15ppm Bilge Separator in any great amount. tn any case, it is
strongly recommended that mixing sludge into bilge water should be minimised.


10-1 Condition of bilge water

ln general, bilge water in the bilge tank forms into the following group of layers.
1. Top layer (0n the surface) : floating oil
2. Middle layer : small and minute particle of oir including emulsion
3. Bottom layer: settled solids and sludge
The separation performance of the 1Sppm Bilge Separator is adversely influenced by the
oil staying in the middle layer. Due to the ship's pitching and rolling, rather big particles of
oil can adhere to and combine with suspended solids (SS) forming oily solids whilst
dissolved detergent makes a small oil droplet even smaller, or emulsified, due to frequent
contact created by motion of ship, and maintenance term of coalescers in 3rd and 4th
stage become shorter and shorter accordingly.
Therefore the 15ppm Bilge Separator should not be operated in such rough weather
conditions which may help to mix up oil, water and sludge layers.

10-2 Kind of oil

Regardless of the conditions, a 1Sppm Bilge Separator must separate oil from bilge water
to a level of where the oil content becomes less than 15 ppm in the effluent. Therefore,
1Sppm Bilge Separatorshould playan important roleto reduce oil pollution. Our lSppm
Bilge Separator has been designed and constructed to handle bilge water without any
problems based on our long experience.
ln general the separation performance varies depending upon the type of oil in the bilge
water. The lighter the oil becomes, the more difficult becomes the separation of oil from

ln other words, oil of a small relative density and low viscosity is difficult for the lSppm
Bilge Separator to handle. AIso the higher the pressure of the bilge pump becomes, the
greater the quantity of smaller oil pirticles resulting in poor separation efficiency.




- 19 -


under the condition where an oily watm

separator is used for a long time, a coajescer
instatrted ,n the 3rd
chamber (stage) is gradually gettimg dirty
to make separatioa perfomranee less by
clogging the coatescer.
The clog of the coalescer meinly happeas
when the separator is supplied the bilge containing
much sludge
and/or suspeuded solid, and big amount of
oil floating the surface of the bilge. in case thar the coalescm
clogged. differgnrial pressur€ betwcen ZnkA
3td chanobers (stages) becomes bigger aud
ln generai' it is recornmended to clean the coalescer with
stearu or hot water when the differcntial pressure
goes up to 0'07-0' I MPa exce'pt ttre difi'erential
pressure comes from clog of a T-shape shainer
fitted on the
connecrion pipe between e'%*o 3 rd chambers (smses).
lf the srainer is clogged, tlre strainer is cleaned by
handle fitted on top of the strainer' trn eittrrer
case, cleanaing woc'k is earried on in accordance
witb operation
In condition where the
eoatrescEr is heavily elogged (the diffbrmteal
pressure goes up to about 0.lMFa.), it is
requested to take out the coa{escen &om the sryarator
fur the fo[owing rnanner for cleaning purpose.

1' Ttre coalescer is raken our som. the separator, and imrmerres
the coalescer elenlent imto ligftt oil for a lralf
'*l I

clay to dissolve sludlge therein.

2' The coalescer elernent is takerr out frona the light oi.l,
and the wire for fonning is cgt. Then, sp'ead the
I element sheets on an iron plate or equivalent plate.
I 3' The elernent is washed by sea or fresh water whlch pressure
shoutd he less than 0.1 &rgla

l. To avoid damage of grass fiber of &e coarescer elmento
attentiou sfrralr be taken;
J a)
not to qPr8y frestr or seawarer to the eleurent wifh pressure
of more tlnan 0. I MFa.
not to spray the fresh or seawater to the. elmrent in condition w&me
the element sheets are not
spread on rhe flatpflate.
c) no{ to shake fhe elenrent sbeeus in watcr very }rard.
2' It is not neaessstry to remnove color of inon rust on the element- [f th.e elernent is st'ongly qrastred to
re@ove ttrrc color, glass fibm,of rhe elemernt is damaged.
3 ' Ctreauing detergent is not atlowed f,or washiag the elernent. If the detergent is remained in the elememt
after eleaning work, separation perforuranee is adversely affected as oil is emulsified
i.n the coalescer

Cautlon of, tf;e cleaarng

./ fr
i Fresh or seawater [c] be usod,
(Pressirre: iess ttrran 0. I VXFa)
Wrre for 2. Coaleseer element to be spread
fonming on the bigger flafi plare rtran the
3, llheetrememt to be taken off one
Coalescer elemerat by one and eleaned.
Coaleseer eflernent
4. Wre for fonming to be of
Flat plate stainless soeel.

F{eishin Pump Works Co., Ltd.

HFM Bfiflse Sepanaton ([MO Res" MEPG"X07)

3" Stage eoa0esaer

|| 'When Lr t\f, pressure

, u I rvr I the Pl \tJDul u difference 4th Stage F[me Coa0eseer
I bet*een 3'"
Zno and 3'd
Uuromes more than 0.07 "When the pressure difference
MPa, wash inside with steam between 3'd and 4th stages
i or hot water. becomes more than 0.1 MPa,
" Overhaul and wash blow the surface with air.
periodically every 6 months. 'Replace the fine coalescer with
I spare unless the pressure
Coaleser is same type as HSN & HMS, difference drops to less than
h,{ore than g0% of de-emulsified oir is separated 0.1 MPa.
this chamber.
Fine coalescer is used.
Separatiom by Ooafleseer Life of the coalescer is highly longer than
membrane oo' fine filter.

Floa ting
speed of< FIow

il$ speed of fl
O water
Gfican Waten Ouat0et \
| ,.r'
o$ B
Oily water
060 @utflet
Oil particles adhere to the coalescer element and
combine each other. x't Stage
MiluBtupfle FanaflBefi F[ates

0s"o fiet " Overhaul this stage

when 3'd stage is
Between fl=t amd Z'd stages overhauled.

T-shape Stnaumen No clogging in the parallel plates

very low flow speed:Separation of sludge and foreign matter
'When the pressure difference
between 1st and Znd stages Separation by Farallel Plates
becomes more than 0.04 MPa,
clean the strainer inside by Tnd Stage Oil P6diglt

rotating the handle, during EmuHsnon Bneake?' Parallel plate C

operation. The foreign matter is oiv
J+ Wator
discharged out of the drain valve. .o'
Filled quantity is to be checked
once per 6 months and supplement
the breaker if necessary. No need
Stoke's law
to replace.
(RD of W & O) x (Particle size) 2
Floating speed:
Viscosity of W
Emulsion break in order for separation by coalescer
Minuteness of EB consurnption as a solid type
EB is made by natural material: No secondary
No performance deterioration by time: No
replacement is requested.
No clogging in the charnber

e ration manual a rdin deta ile d inform atio n