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Style Guide | 1

Style Guide for U of L Healthy Lifestyles I and II

By:

Chayla Cryder, Sara McOmber, Molly Rice, and Meg Yost

Updated: March 27, 2019

This style guide is for the online classes Healthy Lifestyles I and II (http://louisville.edu/education/departments/hss), which are a part of the University of Louisville (U of L). These courses cover topics such as nutrition, dieting, and exercise and are basic core classes for several science-related majors at U of L. The courses are taught by two teachers, Kari McOmber and Natalie Lindman, who create material such as syllabi, PowerPoint slides, quizzes, and exams for the students. These classes are made up of between 210–260 total students per semester. The classes themselves have been a part of U of L for over twenty years, though the online versions are relatively new. Students from all majors use Healthy Lifestyles I for general credit, so there is a wide variety in the audience of the materials used for the class. The mission of the Department of Health at U of L is to prepare students to be leaders in the community and to enrich their own lifestyles and to help improve the lifestyles of those around them.

Our intent in creating this style guide is to ensure that all students and faculty understand one another clearly. We also wish to improve consistency between coworkers who normally work independently. As these courses are taught online, this in-house style guide will be used to standardize and improve writing standards for the online writing carried out during the extent of the semester the courses are taught and planned. This style guide will follow punctuation and usage standards set by The Chicago Manual of

Style (seventeenth edition) and refer to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual

of Style

for field-specific terminology. This is meant to improve the consistency and

efficiency of the writing performed by the professors and students associated with these courses.

Many students taking these online courses may be international students and English- language learners. To support this potentially broad audience, we will make the language of the material accessible by following the principles of John R. Kohl’s The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market

(2008, SAS Press: Cary, North Carolina, ISBN 978-1-59994-657-3).

(2008, SAS Press: Cary, North Carolina, ISBN 978-1-59994-657-3).

Commented [KM1]: You mentioned the edition for Chicago ; is there an edition for the AMA Manual You mentioned the edition for Chicago; is there an edition for the AMA Manual of Style?

Chicago ; is there an edition for the AMA Manual of Style? Commented [KM2]: Is all

Commented [KM2]: Is all this information about Kohl necessary? Is all this information about Kohl necessary?

Chicago ; is there an edition for the AMA Manual of Style? Commented [KM2]: Is all

Contents

1 Formatting

1.1 Spacing

1.2 Indentation and Lists

1.3 Fonts

1.4 Emphasis

1.5 Heading Style

2 Abbreviations

2.1 Italic versus Roman Type for Abbreviations

2.2 Initials in Personal Names

2.3 Naming Conventions for Chemical Elements

2.4 US Abbreviations for Weight and Capacity

2.5 University of Louisville

2.6 US versus United States

2.7 Latin Abbreviations

3 Numbers

3.1 General Rule

4 Terminology

4.1 Diseases and Procedures

4.2 Biological Terminology

4.3 Eponyms

5 Punctuation

5.1 Parenthesis

5.2 Serial Comma

5.3 Commas

5.4 Hyphenation

5.5 Dashes

6 Style

6.1 Contractions

6.2 Wordiness

6.3 Phrasal Verbs

6.4 Idiomatic Expressions

6.5 Sentence Length

6.6 Only and Not

6.7 Use of That in Restrictive Clauses

6.8 Pronoun Reference

6.9 This, That, These, and Those as Pronouns

Style Guide | 2

That in Restrictive Clauses 6.8 Pronoun Reference 6.9 This , That , These , and Those

1 Formatting

Style Guide | 3

1.1 Spacing

Body text should be 1.15 line spacing. One extra line space between paragraphs may be used to make documents easier to read and differentiate sections. There should be no extra spaces between items in a list.

1.2 Indentation and Lists

Paragraphs should be indented with one half-inch indent. (The tab key may be used.) Items in a list should be indented one half inch as well.

1.3 Fonts Times New Roman style should be used in running text. Times New Roman style should be used for titles, subtitles, running heads, and examples. Any punctuation marks should match the font style, color, and size as the surrounding text. (see Chicago 6.2–6.4.) For adding text to PowerPoints see section 1.6 on PowerPoints. For font sizes, see also 1.5 Heading Style.

1.4 Emphasis

Use boldface style font to emphasize single words, phrases, or sentences.

Choose one of the following items. NOT Choose one of the following items.

1.5 Heading Style

The heading structure will follow these guidelines:

The heading structure will follow these guidelines: NOT Choose one of the following items. 1.5 Heading Style  Level 1 titles (the main

Style The heading structure will follow these guidelines:  Level 1 titles (the main titles) will

Level 1 titles (the main titles) will be in headline style, bold, 24 pt. Times New Roman font.

Level 2 titles will be headline style, bold, 18 pt. font.

Level 3 titles will be all caps, bold, 14 pt. font and will be on a separate line.

Level 4 titles will be headline style, bold, 14 pt. font and indented, and it will be on a separate line.

Level 5 titles will be headline style, italics, 14 pt. font and indented and will be run in with the text.

2 Abbreviations

2.1 Italic versus Roman Type for Abbreviations

Abbreviations should not be italicized unless the word would be italicized if spelled out. (see Chicago 10.7.)

It is important to develop a CEP (Cardio Exercise Program). BUT According to the OED, cardio refers to the heart.

2.2 Initials in Personal Names

Commented [KM3]: Perhaps add what kind of headings you mean. Do you mean in a

Commented [KM3]: Perhaps add what kind of headings you mean. Do you mean in a Word Doc? On a worksheet? Revise for clarity regarding the “Level 1 titles,” etc. also because it’s confusing what you’re referring to.

Style Guide | 4

If personal names are abbreviated, the letter should be capitalized and followed by a period and a space. If the entire name is abbreviated, no periods or letters are needed. (see Chicago 10.12.)

E. X. Ercise recommends thirty minutes a day of physical activity.
E. X. Ercise recommends thirty minutes a day of physical activity.

E. X. Ercise recommends thirty minutes a day of physical activity.

E. X. Ercise recommends thirty minutes a day of physical activity.
 

EXE attributes good health to adequate nutrition and activity.

EXE attributes good health to adequate nutrition and activity.
 

2.3 Naming Conventions for Chemical Elements

Chemical elements are lower-cased when spelled out. When used as symbols, they are

capitalized and

written as a subscript. (see Chicago 10.63.)

 
 
 
not followed by a period. Numbers used to represent atoms in a molecule are

not followed by a period. Numbers used to represent atoms in a molecule are

oxygen: O 2 sodium chloride: NaCl

2.4 US Abbreviations for Weight and Capacity

Use the following list of abbreviations. Abbreviations do not change in the plural. (see Chicago

10.67.)

Weight or mass:

Dry measure:

Liquid measure:

Grain

gr.

Pint

pt.

Fluid ounce

fl. oz.

Scruple

s.

Quart

qt.

Pint

pt.

Dram

dr.

Peck

pk.

Quart

qt.

Pennyweight dwt.

Bushel

bu.

Gallon

gal.

Ounce

oz.

Barrel

bbl.

Pound

lb.

Ton

tn.

2.5 University of Louisville

The abbreviation “U of L” may be used regardless of whether “University of Louisville” has been spelled out in the document previously. U and L should be capitalized with a space before and after of.

U of L’s policy is that late work is not accepted.

2.6 US versus United States

The term US may be used in place of United States as a noun. In addition, US may serve as an adjective when describing statistics. (see Chicago 10.32.)

US Life Expectancy is

 
 
 

seventy-eight

seventy-eight
seventy-eight

years.

2.7 Latin Abbreviations

Avoid the use of Latin and other nonstandard abbreviations that may cause confusion. Common abbreviations such a.m. and p.m. are acceptable. (see Kohl 9.11 and, 9.12.)

Avoid:

Use Instead:

ca.

approximately

Commented [KM4]: Provide a “wrong” example or an Provide a “wrong” example or an

AND to show that both are correct examples. It was confusing because I’ve never seen “E. X. Ercise” before, so I thought that that was one of the “wrong” examples.

so I thought that that was one of the “wrong” examples. Commented [KM5]: What happens if

Commented [KM5]: What happens if it’s at the end of a sentence? Perhaps add a small stipulation What happens if it’s at the end of a sentence? Perhaps add a small stipulation for clarity.

Commented [KM6]: See your 3.1 section and decide if you want to have it still spelled out, See your 3.1 section and decide if you want to have it still spelled out, because the rule you set forth is different than what you’ve put here.

decide if you want to have it still spelled out, because the rule you set forth

e.g.

   

Style Guide | 5

 

i.e.

for example that is

 

n.a.

   

a.k.a., AKA

not applicable also known as

Over 9% of adults watch TV for eight hours a day. Alzheimer disease caused 4.1% of deaths in 2015.

Over 9% of adults watch TV for eight hours a day. Alzheimer disease caused 4.1% of
Over 9% of adults watch TV for eight hours a day. Alzheimer disease caused 4.1% of

Chicago

, names of diseases, diagnostic procedures, anatomical parts, and the like

 

Commented [KM7]: Which Chicago reference? Which Chicago reference?

Formatted: Font: Italic
Formatted: Font: Italic

Formatted: Font: Italic Font: Italic

style no longer requires the expansion.”  

style no longer requires the expansion.”

 
 

pneumonia, tuberculosis and diarrhea HIV or HIV/AIDS ATOD (alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs) BMI (body mass index)

 

Commented [KM8]: Italics in the quotation? Commented [KM8]: Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic

 

neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) meningococcus (neisseria meningitidis)

 
    Formatted: Font: Italic
 

Formatted: Font: Italic Font: Italic

3 Numbers

3.1 General Rule

All numbers used scientifically may be spelled as numerals. Other numbers between one and ten should be spelled out. All numbers greater than ten should be numerals. (see Chicago 9.2.)

4 Terminology

4.1

According to

are lowercase, except for proper names forming part of the term. We will follow these rules for all material except for McGraw Hill PowerPoints which will have terms capitalized to stay consistent with existing formatting. Acronyms and initialisms are capitalized.

Diseases and Procedures

According to the AMA Manual of Style, “The human immunodeficiency virus is widely known

by its abbreviation HIV, to the extent that AMA

4.2 Biology Terms

Scientific names are understood internationally, but may not be understood by students. However, vernacular names differ according to region and language and could be misunderstood by students with different backgrounds. Use scientific names paired with the vernacular name in

parenthesis or vice versa. (see Kohl Chapter 9).

4.3 Eponyms

An eponym is something (such as a disease) that is named after a person. AMA explains that “to

insist on the use of either the noneponymous or the eponymous term would be contrary to a major purpose of scientific writing, which is to disseminate information that can be quickly understood by all.” For this reason, provide both both eponymous and noneponymous names. Capitalize the eponym, but none of the words accompanying it. Do not make the eponym possessive.

Style Guide | 6

Stein-Leventhal (polycystic ovary) syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome (bullous erythema multiforme)

Parkinson disease (Paralysis agitans) NOT

multiforme) Parkinson disease (Paralysis agitans) NOT Parkinson’s Disease 5 Punctuation 5.1 Parenthesis

Parkinson’s Disease

5 Punctuation

5.1 Parenthesis

Parentheses are stronger than a comma and are similar to dashes because parentheses can set off text that has no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence, which can includeing examples, side comments, additional information, and references. (Ssee Chicago 6.5 and, 6.95.)

Intelligence tests (e.g., the Stanford-Binet) are no longer widely used. Our final sample (collected under difficult conditions) contained an impurity. Wexford’s analysis (see chapter 3) is more to the point. Dichtung und Wahrheit (also known as Wahrheit und Dichtung)

5.2 Serial Comma

When a conjunction joins the last two elements in a series of three or more, a serial comma (or the comma put before the last conjunction) is used. While its necessity may be debated, Chicago strongly suggests using serial commas to avoid ambiguity (Ssee Chicago 6.19–6.21.)

You will present material on the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. NOT You will present material on the skeletal, muscular and nervous systems.

5.3 Commas

The goal of using commas is ease of reading. They can be used to indicate a slight pause or to set information apart from the surrounding text, especially for dates and locations (you need paired commas are needed for these examples). Commas are commonly used following an introductory statement, parentheses, and brackets. (Ssee Chicago 6.16–18.)

Starting on August 10, 2018, many tobacco products were required to include a health warning. The guest speaker from Manchester, New York, will be here on Tuesday. After strength and cardiovascular exercise (including lifting weights and running), you should always stretch.

5.4 Hyphenation List

Hyphenate if there is a compound adjective (two adjectives) before a noun and when they cannot stand alone (ex. long-term goals). Hyphenate if not including hyphens would skew the meaning

(ex. small animal hospital vs small-animal hospital). Do not hyphenate if the two words are commonly accepted as one word (ex. makeup) or if the words come after the noun. Do not

Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman Font: (Default) Times New Roman

Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman Formatted: Font: Italic

Formatted: Font: Italic Font: Italic

Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman Formatted: Font: Italic

Style Guide | 7

hyphenate if the first word ends in -ly (ex. specifically designed workshop). (Ssee Chicago 5.92– 93 and 6.76.)

To hyphenate:

Not to hyphenate:

Long-term goals

Makeup exam

Self-assessment

Lifelong

Self-help

Specifically designed workshop

E-book

Her writing is well written

Face-to-face class

Recreation vs. Re-creation

5.5 Dashes

Use em-dashes to connect clauses and other sentence parts, without spaces between the words and the dash. Em-dashes can be used in place of other punctuation, such as commas, parentheses, and brackets, for emphasis. Use en-dashes between number ranges. (see Chicago 6.78–6.94.)

En-dash The years 1993–2000 were important for health care providers. For information on the lymph system, see chapters 14–16. Join us on Friday, 11:30 a.m.–4:00 p.m., for a guest lecture.

Em-dash It was a revival of the most feared virus in America—the Ebola virus. The influence of drugs—cocaine and nicotine—is obvious in her behavior.

6 Style

6.1 Contractions

Avoid the use of contractions that are unusual, informal, or ambiguous. Don’t use contractions of interrogatives. Common contractions such as isn’t or won’t are acceptable. Avoid contractions such as ain’t, musn’t, might’ve, should’ve, that’ll, would’ve, how’d, what’d, what’s, when’ll, where’d, who’ll, etc. (see Kohl 9.14.)

You should have turned the assignment in on time.

You should have turned the assignment in on time.

You should have turned the assignment in on time.

How are you doing?

 

NOT

 

You should’ve turned the assignment in on time.

You should’ve turned the assignment in on time.
 

How’re you doing?

How’re you doing?
 

6.2 Wordiness

Wordy phrases should be simplified to help both native and non-native English speakers understand the content more quickly and easily. This principle also reduces word counts. (see Kohl 9.16.)

Wordy

Not Wordy

a number of

many, several

Commented [KM9]: Is there a way to make these examples related to the U of

Commented [KM9]: Is there a way to make these examples related to the U of L classwork? Because these are currently more conversational rules than style guide rules.

at the present time despite the fact that from time to time in many cases once in a while quite a few whether or not

now, yet although, even though periodically, occasionally often occasionally, sometimes several whether

Style Guide | 8

6.3 Phrasal Verbs

As much as possible, keep the parts of phrasal verbs close together. (see Kohl 3.4.)

Turn in your projects on time or you will be penalized thirty

NOT Turn your projects in on time or you will be penalized thirty points per day.

 
 
 
points per day.
points per day.

points per day.

6.4 Idiomatic Expressions

Idiomatic expressions (in a nutshell, the whole nine yards) are commonly avoided in academic

writing; however, some less apparent idioms may still be present. These expressions may be unfamiliar to non-native students and should be avoided.

Students generally do their homework. Please consider that… NOT For the most part, students do their homework. Please bear in mind that

6.5 Sentence Length

Long sentences are more likely to contain ambiguity that shorter ones. It is recommended that sentences be limited to less than 20–25 words long in order to increase readability. Sentences should also not contain more that two clauses. (see Kohl 3.1).

If people are exposed to an infected person, they will likely catch the disease. They will begin to exhibit symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and sore throat. These people should be treated by a medical professional as soon as possible so that the symptoms do not worsen. NOT If people are exposed to an infected person, they will likely catch the disease and begin to exhibit symptoms such as headache, fatigue, and sore throat, which will increase in severity unless treated by a medical professional as soon as possible.

6.6 Only and Not

To avoid misreading, place the modifiers only and not directly before the word that they modify. The examples below show how this principle can change the meaning for a sentence. (see Kohl

4.1)

Commented [KM10]: See your 3.1 and reconcile the potential error.

Commented [KM10]: See your 3.1 and reconcile the

potential error.

Style Guide | 9

Only they can compete. (No one else may compete.) They can only compete. (They can do nothing except compete.)

Not all essays have been read, but many have. NOT All essays have not been read, but many have. (illogical)

6.7 Use of That in Restrictive Clauses

While it is generally acceptable to use which or that in relative clauses, use only that. This maintains consistency and clarity. Use which in nonrestrictive clauses. (see Kohl 4.4.)

The treatment, which is very popular, is easy to administer. The treatment that is the most popular is easy to administer. NOT The treatment which is the most popular is easy to administer.

6.8 Pronoun Reference

Make sure that it’s easy to identify what each pronoun refers to. This is especially true of the pronouns it, its, they, them, and their. (see Kohl 5.1)

Know the names of the treatments, and use the names correctly.

OR
OR

OR

OR
OR
 

Know the names of the treatments

,

and use the treatments correctly.

NOT Know the names of treatments, and use them correctly.

6.9 This, That, These, and Those as Pronouns

Using this, that, these, and those as a pronoun (taking the place of a noun) is often vague. To clarify, simply add the appropriate noun so that the pronoun becomes an adjective. (see Kohl

5.2).

Follow all the procedures. These procedures are listed in your textbook. NOT Follow all the procedures. These are listed in your textbook.

There is a more concise alternative:

Follow all the procedures that are listed in your textbook.

Commented [KM11]: You don’t use “OR” in the previous section; perhaps take out the “OR” or reconcile You don’t use “OR” in the previous section; perhaps take out the “OR” or reconcile the difference.

Commented [KM12]: The comma here, in the previous and following examples are not needed, because there are The comma here, in the previous and following examples are not needed, because there are no changes in subject and the clauses are short.

in the previous and following examples are not needed, because there are no changes in subject