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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 IDENTITY OF THE BOOK

Title : Introducing Functional Grammar


Author : Emi Emilia
Publisher : Dunia Pustaka Jaya
Year : 2014
Place : Bandung

1.2 BACKGROUND
Writing does not incorporate all the meaning potential of speech ( Halliday) as it
leaves out the prosodic and paralinguistic potential. Meanwhile, as outlined above, spoken
language is accompanied by hesitations, errors pauses, false starts and redundancy. There are
paralinguistic features like voice quality, and kinetic features like gestur and body language.
There are also certain reciprocal effects: spoken language does not show sentence and
paragraph boundaries, or signal the move into direct quotation. At the same time in their
practice teachers have always shown recognition of the learning potential of the spoken
language, because they have expected their pupils to listen to them. So, we can find the
differences between spoken and written language can be seen from several aspects, including
the process of production of written and spoken language, the use pronouns and the use of
grammar. Another aspect that different spoken and written language is that spoken language
takes a clause to represent experience in the form of a process (action or event, mental
process and relation).

1.3 PROBLEM OF THE CHAPTER


a. How about the Differences between spoken and written language in terms of mode (
the medium of production)?
b. How about the Differences between spoken and written language in terms of structure
or grammar?
c. How about the Differences between spoken and written language in terms of the
meaning potential?

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE CHAPTER


a. To mastery about the Differences between spoken and written language in terms of
mode ( the medium of production)
b. To mastery about the Differences between spoken and written language in terms of
structure or grammar
c. To mastery about the Differences between spoken and written language in terms of
the meaning potential.

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CHAPTER II

SUMMARY OF THE BOOK

According to Halliday, Speaking is related with listening. So, he says that “ speaking
and listening is come naturally, unless one is born deaf; they also have to be learnt, of course,
but-like walking and running- they are learnt young and without benefit of instruction. Well,
writing is related with reading, and it was said by Halliday too. He says that “ to get read and
write, however, one is usually taught; this is one step, perhaps the most important step, in the
process of education. Reading and writing are associated with educated practice from the start
( Halliday, 1985b, P.vii).

2.1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE IN TERMS


OF MODE ( THE MEDIUM OF PRODUCTION

The differences in mode has been elaborated by Halliday (1985b) and barton (1994). Barton
(1994:83) points out :

Spoken language exists in an aural medium in real time, it is continuous and is


accompanied by hesitations, errors, pauses, false starts and redundancy; there are
paralinguistic features like voice quality, and kinesics features like gesture and body
language. It decays or disappears immediately and so must be understood or remembered in
real time. The hearer is present, giving a shared context between speaker and hearer which
can be referred to implicity, with words like that, here, now, the context provides the
possibility of interruption, feedback, monitoring. Written language is characterised as the
opposite of spoken language in terms of all these features.

The other theories that explain about characteristic of spoken and written is Eggins (1994).
Eggins provides an illustration of the differences between spoken and written language as can
be seen in the table below;

Typical situation of language us


Spoken discourse Written discourse
+interactive No interactive
Two or more the participants One participant
+face to face Not face-to-face
In the same place at the time On his/her own
+spontaneous Not language as action
Without rehearsing what is going to be Using language to reflect
said Not spontaneous
+casual Planning, drafting, and rewriting
Informal and everyday Not casual
Formal and special occasions

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2.2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE IN TERMS
OF STRUCTURE OR GRAMMAR

Structural differences between spoken and written language could be found in all
levels of language (Barton, 1994,p. 84). Barton also says, what is the differences between
spoken and written language in terms of structure or grammar that is in his theories.

Within sentences the grammatical structure was likely to be more complex, with complex
noun phrases and subordinate structures, so that the information in written language is
packed in densly with many “ which’s and ‘that’s. Spoken language had a simpler grammar
with sentences co-ordinated-linked together with and’s and the’s. The vertical, layered syntax
of writing contrasted with the horizontal, linked syntax of speech..... within a written
sentences, certain grammatical structures were preferred. There would be more passives,
subjunctives, relative clauses, and nominalisations in written language. Writing would also
have more defenition articles, participles, attributives adjectives and auxiliaries. Overall, a
written text was likely to be shorter with longer words and a wider variety of words. Spoken
language, meanwhile, had more imperatives, questions and exclamations; more active verbs
and more deictic terms ( those words like here, now and that ). Written language was more
dense, more deliberately organised and contained more new information (1994, p. 85)

Spoken and written language has density and intricacy. It has been discuss by Eggin’s
theories, which we can see in table below

Spoken language Written language


Low lexical density High lexical density
Few-content carrying word Many content-carrying
as a proportion of all words words as a proportion of all
words
High grammatical intricacy Low grammatical intricacy
Many clauses presentence Few clauses presentence

2.3 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE IN TERMS


OF THE MEANING POTENTIAL

Writing does not incorporate all the meaning potential of speech (Halliday, 1985b:
92-93) as it leaves out the prosodic and paralinguistic potential. Meanwhile, as outlined
above, spoken language is accompanied by hesitations, errors, pauses, false starts and
redundancy; there are paralinguistic features like voice quality, and kinesics features like
gesture and body language. There are also certain reciprocal effects: spoken language does
not show sentence and paragraph boundaries, or signal the move into direct quotation.

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CHAPTER III

3.1. THE STRENGTH OF THE BOOK

After we review this book especially in chapter nine, there are some advantages or
strength that we can conclude , the first, the explanation or the description of the material is
enough clear, so the reader can understand the material well, the writer explain the material
by using chart or table and make it easier to understand. The second is the book completed
with the exercise in the end of the chapter, it have purpose for the reader to train the
understanding of reader and to make the reader more understand with the material. The third
is it completed with the reference that can help the reader to find another source of the book.
And the last is the is the appearance of the book, the book has a good cover, standard font and
the tidy composing of the paragraph in the book.

3.2. THE WEAKNESS OF THE BOOK

We can not find a lot of weakness from this book, we think this book has been really
good and recommended for the student, but a weakness that we find from this book is, the
using of the high standard language, which there are a lot students or readers that not have a
good comprehension in English so they will be more difficult to understand the material.

3.3. IMPLICATION

The tittle of the book is introducing functional grammar discussion about spoken and
writing language. Implication of the book is really good to be references to learn about
spoken and written language, because as we know that both of them is important in our daily
life. This book also important to all people especially to students in english departement and
also for future teacher, because this book deliver the materials is really-really truthful by
using the theory from experts and teachers who used this book as her reference, she can help
her students develop their language competences in both spoken and written.

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CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

The conclusion of this chapter, has given an account of spoken and written language.
It has shown that both spoken and written language are important in our life. It has shown
that spoken language is learnt from birth. However, to get to read and to write, someone has
to be taught. It has also been alluded to in this chapter that spoken and written language
differs in terms several aspects, including the mood or process of production, structure of
organisation and grammar. Finally, the chapter has shown that spoken and written language
or important for students development at school and those teacher should help students
develop their language competences in both spoken and written language skills.

The suggestion for this book should not using the high standard language, because
there are a lot students or readers not have a good comprehension in English so they will be
more difficult to understand the material. And the suggestion for this paper, there are so many
lack on this paper, so the author hope the reader can give good advice for this paper because
it can make the paper more better.