Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

INTRODUCTION
This Automatic Rain Sensingalarm Control Circuit can be divided into
three parts. First part includes 555 IC in Astable Mode, second part
includes Comparator LM358, third part is Rain Detector. For Astable
MULTIVIBRATOR, we have used a 555 Timer IC for generating pulse
in every 2-3 seconds (depends on capacitor value), means 555 Timer
IC is configured in Astable mode. Output of Astable Multivibrator is
directly connected to inverting pin of Comparator LM358.
Comparator LM358 IC is used here for comparing 555 timer IC’s
output voltage and reference voltage across comparator’s non-
inverting terminal, set by using Voltage Divider Circuit (R3 and R4).
Two LEDs have been used, one at the output of 555 Astable circuit
and other at the output of comparator LM358. A Water Detector or
Rain Sensor is used for detecting the water or rain. Output of Astable
Multivibrator and Comparator is applied to the BUZZER. Whole
circuit can be powered using 5v-12v battery depending upon the
application.

1
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Rain alarm is an application which detects the rain water and blows
alarm. They are useful devices and play an important role in various
industries such as automobile, irrigation, and wireless
communication. Desiging a rain alarm system is quite simple and we
have designed here a demo rain alarm project with the help of 555
Timer IC.

2
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

SYSTEM HARDWARE

1. 555 TIMER IC

2. TRANSISTOR BC557

3. RESISTORS (1K,10K,2.2M)

4. CAPACITORS (0.01uF,0.47uF)

5. BUZZER

6. RAIN SENSOR

7. POWER SUPPLY (5-12V)

3
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

555 TIMER IC

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety


of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be
used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop
element. Derivatives provide two (556) or four (558) timing circuits
in one package.[2]

Introduced in 1972[3] by Signetics,[4] the 555 is still in widespread use


due to its low price, ease of use, and stability. It is now made by many
companies in the original bipolar and in low-
power CMOS technologies. As of 2003, it was estimated that 1 billion
units were manufactured every year.[5] The 555 is the most popular
integrated circuit ever manufactured.

4
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

TRANSISTOR BC557

BC557 is a PNP transistor hence the collector and emitter will be


closed (Forward biased) when the base pin is held at ground and will
be opened (Reverse biased) when a signal is provided to base pin.
This is where a PNP transistor differs from a NPN transistor, a Logic
state (blue colour) is used to toggle between Ground and Signal
Voltage (Emitter-Base Voltage VBE).BC557 has a gain value of 110 to
800, this value determines the amplification capacity of the
transistor. The maximum amount of current that could flow through
the Collector pin is 100mA, hence we cannot connect loads that
consume more than 100mA using this transistor. To bias a transistor
we have to supply current to base pin, this current (IB) should be
limited to 5mA.When this transistor is fully biased then it can allow a
maximum of 100mA to flow across the collector and emitter. This
stage is called Saturation Region and the typical voltage allowed
across the Collector-Emitter (VCE) or Base-Emitter (VBE) could be 200
and 900 mV respectively. When base current is removed the

5
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

transistor becomes fully off, this stage is called as the Cut-off


Region and the Base Emitter voltage could be around 660 mV.

6
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

RESISTORS

A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow


of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used
to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor.

All other factors being equal, in a direct-current (DC) circuit, the


current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance,
and directly proportional to the voltage across it. This is the well-
known Ohm's Law. In alternating-current (AC) circuits, this rule also
applies as long as the resistor does not contain inductance or
capacitance.

Resistors can be fabricated in a variety of ways. The most common


type in electronic devices and systems is the carbon-composition
resistor. Fine granulated carbon (graphite) is mixed with clay and
hardened. The resistance depends on the proportion of carbon to clay;
the higher this ratio, the lower the resistance.

Another type of resistor is made from winding Nichrome or similar


wire on an insulating form. This component, called a wirewound
7
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

resistor, is able to handle higher currents than a carbon-composition


resistor of the same physical size. However, because the wire is
wound into a coil, the component acts as an inductors as well as
exhibiting resistance. This does not affect performance in DC circuits,
but can have an adverse effect in AC circuits because inductance
renders the device sensitive to changes in frequency.

8
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

CAPACITORS

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that


stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is
known as capacitance. While some capacitance exists between any
two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a
component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The capacitor was
originally known as a condenser or condensator.[1] The original name
is still widely used in many languages, but not commonly in English.

The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary


widely and many capacitor types are in common use. Most capacitors
contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of metallic
plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may
be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, or an electrolyte. The
nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge
capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics
include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, and oxide layers.
Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many

9
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does


not dissipate energy.

BUZZER

A buzzer or beeper is an audio signalling device,[1] which may


be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric (piezo for short).
Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers,
and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.

Working Principle of Magnetic Buzzers. The vibrating disk in a


magnetic buzzer is attracted to the pole by the magnetic field. When
an oscillating signal is moved through the coil, it produces a
fluctuating magnetic field which vibrates the disk at a frequency equal
to that of the drive signal.

10
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

RAIN SENSOR

A rain sensor or rain switch is a switching device activated by

rainfall. There are two main applications for rain sensors. The first

is a water conservation device connected to an

automatic irrigation system that causes the system to shut down in

the event of rainfall. The second is a device used to protect the

interior of an automobile from rain and to support the automatic

mode of windscreen wipers. An additional application in

professional satellite communications antennas is to trigger a rain

blower on the aperture of the antenna feed, to remove water

11
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

droplets from the mylar cover that keeps pressurized and dry air

inside the wave-guides

POWER SUPPLY

A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical


cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices
such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.[1] When a battery is
supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its
negative terminal is the anode.[2] The terminal marked negative is the
source of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit
to the positive terminal. When a battery is connected to an external
electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy reactants to
lower-energy products, and the free-energy difference is delivered to
the external circuit as electrical energy.[3] Historically the term
"battery" specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells,
however the usage has evolved to include devices composed of a
single cell.[4]

12
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and


discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during
discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used
for flashlights and a multitude of portable electronic
devices. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries can be discharged and
recharged multiple times using an applied electric current; the original
composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current.
Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-
ion batteries used for portable electronics such
as laptops and smartphones.

Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to
power hearing aids and wristwatches to small, thin cells used
in smartphones, to large lead acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries in
vehicles, and at the largest extreme, huge battery banks the size of
rooms that provide standby or emergency power for telephone
exchanges and computer data centers.

13
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

WORKING

It is a very simple rain alarm circuit which is designed using mainly a


transistor, water sensor and a 555 timer IC. Whenever there is a rain,
rain drops falls on the rain sensor, and as you can see in the diagram
of rain sensor, water on rain sensor would short the Point A and B. As
14
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

soon as Point A and B become short, a positive voltage would get


applied on the base of Transistor Q1, through the resistance R4.
Because of the voltage at the base, transistor becomes ON (initially it
was in OFF state), and current started flowing form collector to
emitter.
Now Reset PIN 4 of the 555 Timer, gets a positive voltage and 555
timer IC becomes ON and Buzzer starts beeping. Here we should note
that initially there was no positive voltage at Reset PIN 4 of 555 IC,
as it was connected to the ground through resistance R5 (4.7k) and
555 IC only works when Reset pin gets positive voltage.

Here we can see that 555 Timer IC has been configured in Astable
mode so that Buzzer generate a oscillating sound (means periodically
on and off). This oscillation frequency can be controlled by changing
the value of resistor R2 and/or capacitor C1. Pin 5 control Pin, should
be connected to ground through a .01uf capacitor. Resistor R3 and R4
has been used to control the transistor’s collector and base current
respectively.
Rain sensor should be kept at 30-40 degree from the ground, so that
water cannot stay on it, for the long time, this will prevent the alarm
to going on for a long time.
Block Diagram:

15
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

The block diagram of the Rain Alarm Project is shown in the


following image. The three main components of the project are the
Rain Water Sensor, 555 Timer IC and Buzzer.

When the Rain Water Sensor detects the Rain, it sends a signal to the
555 Timer. The 555 Timer IC, which is configured in its Astable Mode,
will then activate the Buzzer.

Rain water sensor is the main component in the circuit. For this rain
sensor, no need to go and buy in the market or online. We can do it
ourselves just by taking the piece of Bakelite or mica board and
aluminum wire.

Bakelite or mica board should be made completely flat and aluminum


wire should be pasted on the flat board as shown in the figure below
of rain water sensor. Care should be taken that there should be no
spaces between the wire and board.

16
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

When the rain water sensor is completed, it should get connected to


the circuit and voltage should be passed through the wires. Rain water
sensor diagram is shown below: If there is no rain, the resistance
between the wires will be very high and there will be no conduction
between the wires in the sensor. If there is rain, the water drops will
fall on the rain sensor which will also decrease the resistance between
the wires and wires on the sensor board will conduct and trigger the
NE555 timer through the transistors circuitry. Once NE555 is
triggered, it will make the output pin high and which will make the
buzzer to make alarm.

17
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

APPLICATION
1. In the irrigation, it will detect the rain and immediately alert the farmer.

2. In automobiles, when the rain detector detects the rain it will immediately
active the wipers and inform to the driver.

3. In communications, it will boost the power of the antenna and increase


the signal strength to send or receive the signals.

4. In normal house hold, with the help of rain water detector we can
automatically save the rain water. (This can be done only when home
automation is done and equipment to save the rain water. In this, rain
water detector will detect the rain and helps to switch ON the equipment
which will automatically save rain water for different purposes).

5. This can also be used if there is a chemical rain also. This is very
common in industrial areas.

18
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

CONCLUSION
The conclusion of our paper is that using purely electronic devices, an
automatic rain sensing alarm can be made. We conclude that this
paper can be used in making of automatic rain sensing alarm

19
AUTOMATIC RAIN SENSING ALARM

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. http://www.electronicshub.org/rain-alarm-project/

2. www.google.co.in all about circuit-basic electronic equipment


function
3. Wikipedia-www.wikipedia.org
4.http//seminarprojects.net/t-rain detector
5. http//seminar projects.net/t-rain-detect…e=threaded

20