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Technological University of the Philippines

College of Industrial Education


Graduate Program
Manila

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GENERAL THESIS
FORMAT GUIDELINES AND
TEMPLATE
FOR
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
EDUCATION

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RESEARCH PROJECT THESIS FORMAT

A. Book Cover Page

Book Color - Maroon

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF A DEVELOPED


WIRE FEEDER FOR OXY-ACETYLENE
GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING
AND BRAZING PROCESSES

ANDREW JOHN J. MABAQUIAO

Technological University of the Philippines


Manila

MAY 2015
B. Book Side Label

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF A
A.J.J. MABAQUIAO DEVELOPED WIRE FEEDER FOR OXY- TUP MAY 2015
ACETYLENE, GAS TUNGSTEN ARC
WELDING AND BRAZING PROCESSES

Font size – 12 (If possible, and will fit in the book side label)
C. Title Page

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF A DEVELOPED


WIRE FEEDER FOR OXY-ACETYLENE
GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING
AND BRAZING PROCESSES
ARIAL Font 12, Bold
Inverted Pyramid

Font 12
A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the
College of industrial Education
Graduate Program
Technological University of the Philippines
Manila

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Technology Education

ANDREW JOHN J. MABAQUIAO

April 2009
D. Approval Sheet

APPROVAL SHEET

The project study entitled “PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF A

DEVELOPED WIRE FEEDER FOR OXY-ACETYLENE, GAS TUNGSTEN ARC

WELDING AND PRAZING PROCESSES”, prepared and submitted by ADREW

JOH J. MABAQUIAO, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION is hereby approved and accepted.

BUENAVENTURA V. SABATER
Adviser

APOLLO P. PORTEZ, Ed. D. RICARDO M. DE LUMEN, Ed. D.


Member, Oral Defense Panel Member, Oral Defense Panel

NESTOR M. MURCIA JR., MAIE


Member, Oral Defense Panel

JOSE C. DELOS SANTOS JR., MT


Chairman, Oral Defense Panel

Approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER

OF TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION.

HELEN D. CAPARAS, Ed. D.


Dean, College Of industrial Education
Date: _________________________

E. Abstract Format

ABSTRACT

The conceptualization of the project entitled wire feeder device started with

the perennial problem of students suffering accidental burns while feeding wire

during the welding process in both oxy-acetylene and tungsten inert gas arc welding

processes.

Numerous designs were considered until a final design was developed to

ergonomically and safely feed filler wires into the weld puddle. Likewise, its design

considerations made use of locally and readily available materials as well as the use

of common machines, tools and equipment needed in its fabrication.

The device was subjected through a series of experiments wherein senior

students where requested to perform the experiment in comparing and later on

came out with the final analysis of its benefits for welding. Results of the tests

showed the effectiveness of the device in terms of speed in welding wherein the

device gave out a faster output owing to the elimination of unwanted stoppages and

interruptions caused by tired and heat exposed hands holding the filler wire. Work

output as per visual examination where the device was used also gave out sound,

straight and highly acceptable weld bead results attesting to the improvement of

weld quality output.


Evaluation of its acceptability based on a five point criteria came out with an

overall weighted mean of 4.62, equivalent to the descriptive rating of highly

acceptable given by three groups of experts namely, the welding faculty, fabrication

experts and senior welding students. The application of this device is very broad, but

most importantly its main target beneficiary is for the safety, training and well being

of students in the welding technology field. Likewise, being in prototype stage, the

device can still be further improved to enhance its utility and effectiveness as a

safety and productivity device in welding.


Font 12
F. TABLE OF CONTENTS FORMAT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Preliminaries

Title Page i

Approval Sheet ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract vi

Table of Contents viii

List of Figures x

List of Tables xii

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Background of the Study 1

Objective of the Study 3

Scope and Limitations of the Study 4

Chapter 2 - Conceptual Framework

Review of Related Literature and 5


Studies

Conceptual Model 44

Operational Definition of Terms 46


Chapter 3 - Research Methodology

Project Design 48

Project Development 49

Operation and Testing Procedures 54

Testing Procedure 55

Evaluation Procedure 56

Chapter 4 - Results And Discussions

Project Structure and Description 59

Project Capabilities And Limitations 64

Project Evaluation 65

Evaluation Results 70

Chapter 5 - Summary Of Findings,


Conclusions And Recommendations

Summary Of Findings 79

Conclusions 81

Recommendations 82

Bibliography 83

Appendices 86

Researcher’s Profile 102


LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

1 Minimum mechanical properties of AWS A 5.2 steel


gas –welding rods 13

2 Matrix form to record student outputs for both oxy-


acetylene welding and tungsten inert gas welding
processes using the hand fed and wire feeder device
methods of feeding filler wire into the weld zone 56

3 Likert Scale 58
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title Page

1 Oxy-acetylene welding process (OAW) 7

2 Gas tungsten arc welding process 8

3 Brazing process 10

4 Schematic representation of brazed joint 11

Note:

1. Align properly the page numbers


2. List of tables and list of figures are placed in separate papers.
G. BODY OF THE RESEARCH

Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Describe the scenario that poses problems and concerns needed to be addressed. Connect
this situation to the proposed project.
It is composed of a brief statement of the origin of the problem. It also includes the main
reasons for the conduct of the study. It starts with an opening statement about the main topic leading to
the specific topic followed by a discussion on the specific topic leading to the problem identification.
Lastly, a statement of the solution is presented

• 1st paragraph - opening statements about the main topic leading to your specific topic
• 2nd paragraph – discussion on the specific topic leading to your main problem
• 3rd paragraph – presentation of your main problem
• 4th paragraph – evidences that the problem really exists
• 5th paragraph – present the causes and effects of the main problem
• 6th paragraph – presentation of a perceived solution to the problem and its strategy

Objectives of the Study

General Objectives
The general objective captures the title of the study. It is broad enough to include all
aspects of the subject matter, yet brief and concise as possible.

Specific Objectives
• The specific objectives must be explicit, precise, and expected results are verifiable.
• The criteria of SMART must be considered in setting the specific objectives.

- Design the prototype


- Fabricate or develop the prototype using ….. ( a software, mechanism
etc. or according to a set of parameter or standard)
- Determine the performance through testing
- Evaluate the acceptability of the project based on approved college
criteria/instrument

Scope and Limitation of the Study

• The scope of the study includes what the study is all about, the reason why the study
is conducted and how it will be made.
• The major methodologies of developing the prototype together with the important
components are presented.
• Also included is who are the beneficiaries and how will they benefit from the project.
• The limitations are the factors which set the boundaries covered in the study.
• Significance of the Study (for proposal only)
Chapter 2 - CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Review of Related Literature and Studies

• This section tells what research has or has not been done on the problem and explains and
clarifies the theoretical rationale of the problem.
• Only studies, which are related in purpose, method, or findings of the study, should be
included.
• The discussion of such studies should be in the form of a brief critical analysis of the purposes,
method of study, principal findings and conclusions.

Conceptual Model of the Study


• This is represented in a diagram using the Input-Process-Output (IPO) model in developmental
research.
• The INPUT block consists of the Knowledge Requirements, Software Requirements and/or
Hardware Requirements.
• The PROCESS block presents the activities involved in the Design, Development,
Implementation, and Evaluation stages.
• With the input and process requirements laid out, the expected OUTPUT becomes achievable.

Operational Definition of Terms


• Includes only the terms, words, or phrases, which have special or unique meanings in the
study and the definitions of how they are used in the study.
• They are identified and listed as they appear in the research document starting with the title.
• The definitions should be brief and clear as possible.

Chapter 3 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Project Design (Description of Major Parts with Functions, which may include isometric or
circuit diagram)
Project Development (Procedural Steps Undergone from conceptualization to construction;
include revisions done to the project/product/output, also include detailed parts and
dimensions or flowchart)
Operation and Testing Procedure (steps to be followed in operating the project and tests to be
done to ensure that the project is working)
Evaluation Procedure (the qualifications or criteria by which the project or product will be
evaluated and how it will be rated; also include respondents who will evaluate the project
and the criteria for interpreting the evaluation or the descriptive rating)

Likert Scale Descriptive Rating

Numerical Scale Descriptive Rating


4.51 – 5.00 Excellent/Highly Acceptable
3.51 – 4.50 Very Good/Very Acceptable
2.51 – 3.50 Good/Acceptable
1.51 – 2.50 Fair/Fairly Acceptable
1.00 – 1.50 Poor/Not Acceptable

This likert scale will be used to interpret the computed mean obtained from the evaluation instrument.
For example, an overall mean of 4.32 means that the project is very good or very acceptable.

Chapter 4 -RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Project Description (show the fabricated project with description)
Project Structure (detailed illustration of project sections/parts with description)
Project Test Results, Capabilities and Limitations (overall performance of the project with
observed limitations; actual illustration of project while operating etc.; if product, may
include laboratory test, etc)
Project Evaluation (statistical result with corresponding interpretation)

Chapter 5 -SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary of Findings (may include overall mean rating on the criteria set by the researcher,
e.g. Workability, Functionality, etc.) Also include in the summary the ff:
- Project Structure
- Project Capabilities and Limitations
- Summary of Project Evaluation Results
Conclusions (to indicate whether the specific objectives were attained e.g. design, construct
and evaluate the project)
Recommendations (suggestions of evaluations and those mentioned by the panel for project
improvement during the final defense)

REFERENCES (arrange the references as they appear in the paper)

Include books, periodicals, electronic sources used to enrich the conceptual framework of the
study. The format should be as follows:

Books

Angelo, T. and Cross, P. (1988). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers
Book Description. Jossey Bass Adult and Higher Education Series

Unpublished Theses and Dissertations

Felipe, L. (1985). “A Survey of the Audio Visual Resources at the Mariano Marcos State University, and
Their Utilization by the Faculty with Implications to a Proposed Audio-Visual Center” .
Unpublished Thesis. University of the Philippines, Diliman .

Journals and Publications

Earle, R. (2002).”The Integration of Instructional Technology in to Public Education: Promises and


Challenges”. Educational Technology Magazine .Vol. 42, 5-13
Online and Multimedia Resources
Wikepedia, The Free Encyclopedia. “Mechatronics”. August 2008 retrieved last November 2009 from
http://www.Wikibooks.org/Mechatronics

APPENDICES

Appendixes may include the ff:

Sample Evaluation Instrument


Gantt Chart
Total Budgetary Requirements
Tools and Equipment Used
Pictures Taken During Fabrication
Summary of Mean Scores from the Evaluation
User’s Manual

RESEARCHER’S PROFILE

Provide simple curriculum vitae of the researcher/s.


GENERAL THESIS FORMAT GUIDELINES

I. General Document Guidelines


A. Margins: 1.50 inch left margin , One inch on the remaining sides (top, bottom,
right)
B. Font Size and Type: 12-pt. Arial
C. Line Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, ,
body of the document, references, appendixes, footnotes, tables, and figures.
D. Spacing after Punctuation: Space once after commas, colons, and
semicolons within sentences. Insert two spaces after punctuation marks that
end sentences.
E. Alignment: Justified
F. Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the
paper on the first line of every page.
II. Abstract: The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most
important elements of the paper.
A. Pagination: The abstract begins on a new page.
B. Heading: "Abstract" (centered on the first line below the running head)
C. Format: The abstract (paragraph format) begins on the line following the
Abstract heading. Typically, the word limit is between 150 and 250 words. All
numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed
as digits rather than words.
III. Body
A. Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a new page. Subsections of the
body of the paper do not begin on new pages.
IV. Text citations: Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing
the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle is that ideas and
words of others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source
citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper.
A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of
the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the
identification of the authors. Consider the following example:

Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin
dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the
control condition, the difference was not statistically significant. [Note: and is
used when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the
sentence. Compare this to the example in the following section.]

B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the
sentence, both the authors and year of publication appear in parentheses.
Consider the following example:

Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some
types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental
health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool,
1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin,
Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). [Note: & is used when multiple authors are
identified in parenthetical material. Note also that when several sources are
cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authors' surnames
and separated by semicolons.]

C. When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every
time the source is cited.
D. When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are
included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the
first author's surname and "et al." are used. Consider the following example:

Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some
types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental
health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).

Payne et al. (1991) showed that ...

E. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author's surname
and "et al." are used every time the source is cited (including the first time).
F. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually
read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read ("Grayson" in
the following example) that is cited in a source that you have read ("Murzynski
& Degelman" in the following example), use the following format for the text
citation and list only the source you have read in the References list:

Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996) identified four components
of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability.

G. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone


interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. Because
a personal communication is not "recoverable" information, it is not included in
the References section. For the text citation, use the following format:

B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed ...

H. To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. If no author is identified,


use the first few words of the title in place of the author. If no date is provided,
use "n.d." in place of the date. Consider the following examples:

Degelman (2009) summarizes guidelines for the use of APA writing style.

Changes in Americans' views of gender status differences have been


documented (Gender and Society, n.d.).
I. To cite the Bible, provide the book, chapter, and verse. The first time the Bible is
cited in the text, identify the version used. Consider the following example:

"You are forgiving and good, O Lord, abounding in love to all who call to you"
(Psalm 86:5, New International Version). [Note: No entry in the References list
is needed for the Bible.]

V. Quotations: When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page
number as part of the citation.

A. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation


marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence.
Consider the following example:

Patients receiving prayer had "less congestive heart failure, required less
diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer
cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated" (Byrd, 1988,
p. 829).

B. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation


marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented
five spaces from the left margin.

VI. References: All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body
of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References
section).
A. Pagination: The References section begins on a new page.
B. Heading: "References" (centered on the first line below the running head)
C. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the
References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first
authors. Most reference entries have the following components:
1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source,
using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there
are eight or more authors, list the first six authors followed by three
ellipses (...) and then the final author. If no author is identified, the title
of the document begins the reference.
2. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period
following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use
"n.d." in parentheses following the authors.
3. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal
article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book). Italicize titles of
books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers.
4. Electronic Retrieval Information: Electronic retrieval information may
include digital object identifiers (DOIs) or uniform resource locators
(URLs). DOIs are unique alphanumeric identifiers that lead users to
digital source material.
D. Examples of sources

1. Journal article with DOI

Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women


and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. doi:10.1111/j.1559-
1816.1996.tb00088.x

2. Journal article without DOI, print version

Koenig, H. G. (1990). Research on religion and mental health in


later life: A review and commentary. Journal of Geriatric
Psychiatry, 23, 23-53.

3. Journal article without DOI, retrieved online [Note: For articles


retrieved from databases, include the URL of the journal home page.
Database information is not needed. Do not include the date of
retrieval.]

Aldridge, D. (1991). Spirituality, healing and medicine. British


Journal of General Practice, 41, 425-427. Retrieved from
http://www.rcgp.org.uk/publications/bjgp.aspx

4. Book

Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion


(2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

5. Informally published Web document

Degelman, D. (2009). APA style essentials. Retrieved last March 2011 from
http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?doc_id=796

6. Informally published Web document (no date)

Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved last March


2010 from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm

7. Informally published Web document (no author, no date)

Gender and society. (n.d.). Retrieved last March 2010 from


http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html
8. Abstract from secondary database

Garrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on


restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20,
168-172. Abstract retrieved from PsycINFO database.

9. Article or chapter in an edited book

Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F.


Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New
York, NY: Oxford University Press.

10. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and


statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.).
Washington, DC: Author.

VII. Tables: A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of
statistical analyses (such as ANOVA). Tables must be mentioned in the text.
A. Pagination: Each Table begins on a separate page.
B. Heading: "Table 1" (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed flush left on the first line below the
running head. Double-space and type the table title flush left, Italics ( in
uppercase and lowercase letters).

Example:

Table 1 minimum mechanical properties of AWS A 5.2 steel gas –welding rods

As-Welded Minimum Tensile As-Welded Minimum


Strength, psi Elongation in 2 in., %
Stress- Stress
AWS Class As-Welded Relieved As-Welded Relieved

Not Not
RG 45 45,000 40,000 Reported Reported
RG 60 60,000 60,000 16 20
RG 65 67,000 67,000 20 25
VIII. Figures: A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other
illustrations (other than tables). See the Publication Manual (2010, pp. 150-167) for
detailed examples.
A. Pagination : Figures begin on a separate page.
B. Figure Caption : "Figure 1." (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed center aligned on the first
line below the figure, immediately followed on the same line by the caption
(which should be a brief descriptive phrase. Cite the source if possible).

Example:

Figure 4 shows a schematic representation of brazed joint


(www.google.com/images)

IX. Appendixes: A common use of appendixes is to present unpublished tests or to


describe complex equipment or stimulus materials.
A. Pagination: Each Appendix begins on a separate page.
B. Heading:If there is only one appendix, "Appendix" is centered on the first line
below the manuscript page header. If there is more than one appendix, use
Appendix A (or B or C, etc.). Double-space and type the appendix title (centered
in uppercase and lowercase letters).

Example on next page:


APPENDIXES

Appendix A

BILL OF MATERIALS

Quantity Description Unit Price Total


Price

1 Aluminum flat bar 105mm x 40mm x 20mm 29.17 29.17

1kg Brass rod 160.00 160.00

2 Allen cap screw 1.00 2.00

2 Rubber 4.5 mm 150.00 150.00

1cyl. Acetylene Gas 960.00 960.00

1cyl. Oxygen Gas 580.00 580.00

1cyl. Argon Gas 2400.00 2400.00

1kilo TIG filler wire E70S-10 280.00 280.00

I kilo Galvanized Wire 120.00 120.00

TOTAL 4,681.00
COST

LABOR 2,000.00
COST

TOTAL 6,681.00
OVERALL
COST

SAMPLE FORMAT

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents background of the study, objectives of the study as well

as the scope and limitation.

Background of the Study


(PRESENTATION OF BACKGROUND SHOULD BE FROM MACRO TO MICRO)

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to develop

Specific Objectives:

Specifically, the study aims to:

1. Design a Wire feeder device for Oxy-acetylene Welding and Brazing and Gas

Tungsten Arc Welding processes with the following features:

(WRITE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUR PROJECT/SYSTEM)

a. The device is provided with an aluminum handle for lightweight, which

also serves as the frame of the device.

b. It has a wire guide that directs the movement of the wire thereby aiding

the proper feeding of the wire to the weld pool.

c. It is equipped with a pair of thumbwheels with rubber rings to provide

traction for the feeding of filler wire;

2. Create the instructional device for an accurate and satisfactory weld bead

profile for filler metal application out of locally available materials;

3. Test the effectiveness of the device in accordance to its operational

parameters; and
4. Evaluate the acceptability of the device through a validated evaluation

instrument for prototype development as used by the College of Industrial

Education.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study involves the development

that will .

It made use of aluminium body, for lightweight and easy handling together

with designed and crafted wire guides, rubber rings, thumbwheel, wheel guide, Allen

cap screws and square nut. It was conducted during the three year curriculum

program of Welding Engineering Technology (WET) course.

The project is limited to feed round wire filler only with a minimum diameter of

1mm up to a maximum of 4.0 mm diameter. It is designed to feed wire for Oxy-

Acetylene Welding (OAW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) processes only.

Chapter 2

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies underlying the framework

of the study. It includes the conceptual model of the study and the operational definition of

terms.

(cite author of reference books

Review of Related Literature and Studies (Main title – bold, Title case)

Instructional Aids and Devices (sub concept - italic, bold)

(cite author of reference books)

According to Agun (1992), instructional materials are those materials which

are helpful to the teachers and students and which maximize learning in various

areas. Olawale (2013), states that most educators generally and equally agree that

the creative use of variety of instructional materials will increase the probability that

student would learn more, retain better and bring about the skills they are expected

to perform. Also, it is considered an important factor, the appropriateness of

instructional device in choosing them to be a more efficient in teaching.

TYPES OF WIRE CONSUMABLES (Main title – bold, Title case)

Oxy-Acetylene Filler Metals (sub concept - italic, bold)

Sacks (2005), explains that oxyacetylene welding is done by merely fusing

the metal edges together, and mostly done by adding a filler rod. The filler rod

provides the additional metal necessary to form a weld bead.

Classification of Oxy-acetylene Filler Wires (topic under sub concept – indent, bold
and italic)
Filler rods are available for the welding of mild steel, cast iron, stainless steel,

various brazing alloys, and aluminium. The usual rod length is 36”. The diameters

are 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, 3/16, 1/4, 5/16 and 3/8.

Steel rods are copper coated to keep them from rusting. Some types of

aluminum rods are flux coated to improve their working characteristics. Both steel

and aluminum rods are 28” in length. (en.wikipedia.org) (Do not forget to include citation-

the source of your infos)

a. Classification of AWS Steel Gas Welding Wires. (Concepts under sub-subtopic –

Italic, Not Bold) The American Welding Society has set up the following AWS

classification numbers for steel gas welding rods: RG-65, RG-60, and RG-

45. The letter R indicates that the filler metal is a gas-welding rod, and the

G indicates that it is used with gas welding.

b. Classification of AWS Cast Iron Gas Welding wires. The AWS provides

the following codes for welding and reconstructing cracked or broken cast

iron machinery parts…..

(Note: This format will provide distinction between main concept and

subtopics related to it. Incorporate related studies from other thesis to the

discussion of related literature)

TUP Evaluation System (Discuss the survey instrument used to evaluate the

project/system)

Describe the instrument and discuss its criteria or indicators. Sample is

shown below:
Appearance and Construction refers to the physical attributes of the

prototype. It involves the relevance of the use of colors, form, structure and style of

the design.

Functionality is the evaluation of the performance of the prototype. It also

measures the usefulness of the design with regard to its significance. (Discuss all

the criteria of the instrument)

Conceptual Model of the Study (Sample format)


On the basis of the foregoing concepts, theories and findings related

literature, studies and insights taken from them, a conceptual model was developed

as shown below.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. KNOWLEDGE 1. DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS  Sketching
 CAD Encoding Wire Feeder for
a. Oxy-acetylene Oxy-acetylene,
Welding 2. FABRICATION
b. GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc
 Turning Welding and
c. Brazing  Facing
d. Filler wires for Brazing Processes
 Knurling
- Oxy-acetylene
 Milling
- GTAW
- Brazing  Drilling
e. Machine tool processes  Bench Metal
f. Cutting internal and external Work Process
threads  Filing
 Hack-sawing
2. HARDWARE  Finishing
REQUIREMENTS  Assembly

A. Machines, Tools and 3. TESTING AND


Equipment Needed IMPROVEMENT
a. Lathe
b. Milling
c. Metal working hand tools and
equipment.
Evaluation
B. Supplies and Materials Functionality
Needed Safety
a. Aluminum Aesthetics
b. Brass Workability
c. Metal Fasteners Safety
d. Rubber Marketabilty……etc.

Figure 16. The Conceptual Model of the Study

The conceptualization and development of wire feeder device follows the

input-process-output model of developmental research. The input is classified into


two categories such as the knowledge requirements and the hardware requirements,

without which the prototype cannot be developed. Evaluation of the device was

based on the evaluation instrument approved and utilized by the College of Industrial

Education on prototype development.

(The brief explanation of the contents of the conceptual model)

Operational Definition of Terms

Wire Feeder Device is a safety implement developed to protect the hands of

welding students from burns and other injuries that may occur in their

attempts to do welding in gas tungsten arc welding, oxy-acetylene and

brazing processes. (Define first your project/system)

TIG is an acronym for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or GTAW where the developed

wire feeder device will be used extensively to facilitate safety and improve

work appreciation of students doing the process. (Then define other terms

operationally, or as it was used in the study)

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter contains the development strategy that includes the project

design and development, operation and testing procedure involved and the

evaluation procedure to measure the project acceptability.

Project Design

The Wire Feeder for Oxy-acetylene welding, Gas tungsten arc welding and

brazing is a unique design developed to aid students in filler wire feeding application.

It is made from Aluminum for lightweight handling. The project was designed to

address the existing problems of weldors regarding the inaccuracy in the hand fed

filler wire feeding method. Most weldors experience hard time in wire feeding. One

must possess steady hands and a good hand–to-eye coordination in order to evenly

feed the molten pool with the right amount of filler metal to obtain a satisfactory weld.

(Describe your project/system in terms of its parts and what it can do.

Provide a sketch/CAD/Isometric drawing, diagram or block diagram to clarify

the discussion. For IT systems, show context diagram, data flow diagram,

entity-relationship diagram or flow chart. Remember, do not to place any

actual picture of the device or prototype in this Chapter. All should be


6

presented in illustration or drawings)


5
2

7
Figure 1. Isometric View of the Prototype

Figure 17 illustrates the initial Wire Feeder Device

Project Development

Fabrication Procedure (Divide the project into sections then discuss the

procedures done to accomplish these sections or

parts)
A. Base handle

A.1Acquire aluminum flat bar 105 mm x 40 mm x 20mm.

B. Electrical Assembly
C. Control Assembly
Include other sections/parts

Operation and Testing Procedure (sample format)

Operation Procedure

The project is a filler wire feeding enhancement device capable of accurately

and satisfactorily supply the filler wire to the weld pool without frequent stoppage

resulting to a sound weld profile. In order to properly operate the device, the
following steps emphasizing on the selection of the round filler to use for the

operation and insertion of the filler wire, are listed:

1. Select the correct round filler wire for the welding operation;

2. Insert the filler wire to the filler wire guide;

3. Adjust the allen cap screw to tighten the setting enough to permit the right

hold for the filler wire ;

4. Move the thumbwheel to check if the filler wire will move smoothly;

5. Pre heat the weld specimen and start feeding the wire to the weld pool;

For more detailed information regarding the operation, usage and adjustment

of the device, please refer to the user’s manual in Appendix J.

Testing Procedure

Performance testing of the device within its working parameters was done

through an actual welding using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process and Gas

Welding process. The test was a comparative evaluation between the unaided hand

feeding of filler wire to that of the feeder device through a set of three trials in down

hand bead weld laying on a piece of sheet metal having a bead length of three (3)

inches. Actual comparative testing was based on two areas of concern namely;

speed of welding and appearance of weld deposit.

Performance testing was conducted using a group of ten (10) senior welding

students with working knowledge on both oxy-acetylene and tungsten inert gas arc
welding processes. In the testing, the students first performed welding on the two

processes without the device and afterwards with the feeder device.

Testing for its efficiency was measured in terms of speed in time of welding

via stop watch on each of the trials while the quality of weld in terms of appearance

of the bead was evaluated through visual examination of each of the finished weld

trials and the results were labeled with symbols for confidentiality where “O”, for very

satisfactory, equivalent to a numeric rating of 3.0; “Δ”, for satisfactory, equivalent to

a numeric rating of 2.0; and “X”, for needs improvement, equivalent to a numeric

rating of 1.0.

A matrix showing the outcome of tests was utilized to determine the difference

between them. The matrix format is shown in Table 2. Since the project was focused

on two conditions, the conditions were tested and compared with the conventional

filler wire hand feeding method.

The results of this performance testing conducted are discussed and

presented in the next chapter. Furthermore, the results of the tests were utilized as

evidence before the device was evaluated by the panel of experts.

Table 2 Presents the developed evaluation instrument in matrix form to record


student outputs for both oxy-acetylene welding and tungsten inert gas
welding processes using the hand fed and wire feeder device methods of
feeding filler wire into the weld zone.

Name of Student Welding Process

HAND FED WIRE FEEDER DEVICE


Criteria Manual manipulation by Manual manipulation using the
Hand Feed Device
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Efficiency

Speed of welding
in seconds

Quality

Appearance of
weld deposit

Legend on Appearance of Weld:

Ο = 3.0 or Very Satisfactory

Δ = 2.0 or Satisfactory

X = 1.0 or Needs Improvement

A likert scale specially developed to measure the overall quality of weld in terms of its

appearance is given below:

Numeric Rating Adjectival Rating Symbol Rating

1.00 – 1.50 Needs Improvement X

1.51 – 2.50 Satisfactory Δ

2.51 – 3.00 Very Satisfactory Ο

If the project was subjected to other testing such reliability,

repeatability/reproducibility tests, voltage/current test and others,

provide a separate testing procedure in numbered format.


Evaluation Procedure (Discuss here the steps undertaken from demonstrating

the project to collecting and interpreting mean scores)

The acceptability evaluation was conducted using a survey instrument utilizing the

standard format for prototype projects approved by the College of Industrial Education. The

device was evaluated through the following criteria namely; Functionality, Workability,

Economy, Safety and Instructional Applicability each having a set of three (3) indicators

answerable in a scale of 1 to 5, where five (5) is the highest and one (1) is the lowest.

(Please refer to Appendix F). The results were tabulated and the mean justified the rate of

the device.

A total of thirty (30) individuals paneled the evaluation composed of ten (10) faculty

members from TUP and other institutions offering welding engineering technology; ten (10)

welding practitioners/experts; and ten (10) senior welding students (Third year WET) of the

College of Industrial Technology (CIT). These people were tapped because of their line of

expertise in performing welding operations as well as teaching and imparting skills,

knowledge and correct attitude towards work in welding.

Treatment of Data

After the evaluation, the data were collated and tabulated. The mean scores

(X) for every criterion was computed and the grand mean (X) was derived from the

mean scores of each criterion. At this point, numeric ratings with adjectival

equivalents were also derived.

This is where:

Grand Mean (X) = x / N

Where:
X = the average mean

N = the total number of criteria for evaluation

This is further interpreted in accordance to the likert scale with the corresponding

adjectival rating:

Table 3 shows the Likert scale used in the evaluation of the device

Numeric Rating Adjectival Rating

4.51 – 5.00 Highly Acceptable

3.51 – 4.50 Very Acceptable

2.51 – 3.50 Acceptable

1.51 – 2.50 Fairly Acceptable

1.00 – 1.50 Not acceptable

Chapter 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the results and findings of the project. It includes the

project description, project structure, project capabilities and limitations, and project

evaluation results.
Project Description (Provide one to two paragraphs that describes your

project/system)

The developed instructional device is a handheld tool for filler wire feeding

application in Oxy-acetylene welding, Gas tungsten arc welding and brazing

process. The project is designed to address the problems present in the traditional

way of feeding the filler wire by hand to the weld pool, thereby keeping it stay at a

safe distance from the work.

Thumb Wheel Wire Guide

Thumb
Wheel Guide

Allen Cap Screw

Base Handle

Figure 26 the appearance of the finished Wire Feeder

Project Structure

Discuss each sections/part/segment of the project, support discussions

with actual photos; for IT systems like CAI, provide screenshots of each

system module. Below are samples of illustrations found in project structure

discussions. Be sure to explain every figure presented in this section.


The developed Wire feeder is made out of locally available materials namely,

aluminum, brass, and rubber.

The Base Handle is where the whole device assembly is mounted. It is made

of aluminum flat bar which is machined according to design specifications. The main

reason in selecting aluminum as the material for the handle is because of its

lightweight and machineability.

Figure 27 presents the appearance of the Base Handle

The Wire guides are made out of two pieces of extruded brass rods

machine turned to size, threaded on one end and drilled with an orifice to allow

the round filler wire to pass through it in a very smooth manner. Both are screwed

on opposite sides of the base handle where its central axis aligns in between the

thumb wheels thus, forming a funnel to guide the wire. These wire guides also

stabilizes the movement of the wire which aids in its proper feeding to the weld

pool.
Figure 28 Wire Guide

Project Capabilities and Limitations (Below is a Sample)

The device is specifically designed to cater to the needs of a safe, proper and

uninterrupted filler wire feeding application. Moreover, since it is a portable device, it

can be carried anywhere in any work area where it is needed.

The study is limited in the design, development, testing and evaluation of a

prototype Wire Feeder. It is expected to cater to the needs of welding training

institutions, training center and industries where welding is involved in their skills

training and manufacturing processes.

The project is designed exclusively for manual filler wire feeding in Oxy-

acetylene welding (AOW) and tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIGW) processes as

shown in figures 33 and 34. The maximum filler wire diameter that can be

accommodated by the device is 4mm.


Figure 33 presents the hand fed and the wire feeder method of feeding filler wire
in the weld pool as performed in oxy-acetylene welding.
(Photo taken in BIT welding shop, CIT – TUP Manila)

Figure 34 presents the hand fed and the wire feeder method of feeding filler wire
in the weld pool as performed in tungsten inert gas arc welding.
(Photo taken in PWS, MIRDC, DOST, Taguig)

Project Performance Test Results (Sample of test results that will serve as

evidence during the evaluation of the project)

The instructional device was tested via comparative method specifically

against that of the conventional process of hand feeding wire into the weld pool.

Tests were facilitated through the assistance of ten (10) 3 rd year welding students

trained and highly knowledgeable in performing actual welding using Gas tungsten
arc process and Gas welding process. They were tasked to perform three (3) trials in

laying a 3 inch weld bead using the traditional way of hand feeding filler rod to the

weld zone versus the developed wire feeder device with the following indicators;

speed of welding as measured in seconds and appearance of weld deposit through

visual examination.

The data for speed and appearance of the experiments conducted for both

Oxyacetylene welding (OAW) and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) outputs of each

student using the hand fed and the wire feeder method of feeding wire into the weld

zones were recorded and tabulated in a welding trials form as presented in appendix

D and E.

The summary and discussions of the gathered and tabulated data for speed

and appearance of the experiments are presented in tables 4 and 5.

Table 4 Shows the summary of result between the Hand Fed and the Wire Feeder Methods
for Oxy-acetylene welding process

SUMMARY FOR OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING PROCESS


HAND FED WIRE FEEDER DEVICE
Manual manipulation by Manual manipulation using the
Hand Feed device
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Average 89.41 86.70 54.38 55.13 55.17
Speed of 92.31
welding in
seconds
Overall
Average 89.47

54.89
Appearance Δ Δ Δ Ο Ο Ο
of or or or or or or
Weld Deposit 2.15 2.25 2.45 2.65 2.70 2.90

Overall 2.28 2 2.75


Appearance Satisfactory Very Satisfactory

Discussions on the Results of Student Assisted Experiments for OAW

In terms of speed of welding all ten (10) students showed longer time in laying

a bead weld using the hand fed method compared to that of the wire feeder. The

reason for this setback is that the hands were exposed periodically to heat causing

them to stop welding and pause for a while thus interrupting the welding operations.

The overall average speed in using the hand fed method was 89.47 seconds while

with the aid of the wire feeder device, the overall average speed was 54.89 seconds.

This shows that using the device, students were made aware of their proximity to the

heat generated by the gas flame or arc of

welding thereby keeping their hands stay at a safe distance from the weld pool and

preventing any interruption in the welding operations which is enough reason for

faster and efficient welding.

On the other hand, in the appearance of welding deposit under hand fed

method, the overall appearance garnered an overall rating of 2.28, equivalent to

satisfactory and 2.75 overall for the wire feeder assisted method equivalent to a
descriptive rating of very satisfactory proving that welding with the device can result

in sound and good quality welds.

Figure 35 shows a three (3) inch weld bead using Oxy-acetylene


welding process in Hand Fed versus the Wire feeder
comparative visual examination of test results by the
students

Table 5 shows the summary of result between the Hand Fed and the Wire Feeder
Methods for Gas tungsten arc welding process

SUMMARY FOR GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING PROCESS

HAND FED WIRE FEEDER DEVICE


Manual manipulation by Manual manipulation using the
CRITERIA Hand Feed device
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Average 83.21 79.41 52.37 52.45 51.71
Speed of 86.80
welding in
seconds

Overall
Average 83.14

Average52.18
Appearance X ∆ ∆ Ο Ο Ο
of or or or or or or
Weld Deposit 1.50 2.30 2.45o 2.55 2.85 2.90

Overall 2.08 2.76


Appearance Satisfactory Very Satisfactory
r

Discussions on the Results of Student Assisted Experiments for TIG

The same result was proven using Gas tungsten arc welding wherein in terms

of speed of welding, shows that most students weld faster using the instructional

device, as shown in Table 5. The overall speed for the hand fed method was

computed at 83.14 seconds, while 52.18 seconds overall speed using the

instructional device was derived. In terms of overall appearance, the hand fed

method came out with a 2.08 overall numeric rating equivalent to the descriptive

rating of satisfactory. On the other hand, the overall rating of the wire

feeder assisted welding in TIG was 2.75, equivalent to the descriptive rating of very

satisfactory. These results showed that welding with the wire feeder is also beneficial

for tungsten inert gas arc welding in as far as the attainment of quality welds is

concerned.

It was also observed that frequent welding stoppages or interruptions for both

OAW and TIG welding processes took place in the hand fed method of wire feeding.

This is attributed to the unawareness of the welder that the filler wire becomes
shorter as the welding progresses causing their hands to get near the welding flame

or welding arc.

Furthermore, based on examined weld outputs, the overall appearance on

both welding process shows that using the Wire Feeder device produces a sound

and straighter weld profile with lesser discontinuities compared to the Hand fed

method as shown in Figures 35 and 36.

Figure 36 shows a 3inch weld bead using Gas tungsten arc welding
process in Hand Fed versus the Wire feeder comparative
visual examination of test results by the students

Project Evaluation Results

To determine the acceptability and performance of the Wire feeder, the researcher

conducted an evaluation involving a total of 30 respondents. These respondents

were categorized in three groups composing of faculty members, welding

experts/practitioner and 3rd year welding students, who have specialized working

knowledge in the different welding processes.


The respondents evaluated the project based on the following criteria:

functionality, workability, economy, safety and instructional applicability. Table 8

shows the indicators used in the evaluation of the project.

Among the respondents were ten (10) are faculty members, ten (10) welding

experts/practitioner and ten (10) welding senior students, who were requested to

evaluate the device.

Table 6 Presents the Number of Respondents per Category

Category Number of Respondents


1 Faculty Members 10
2 Welding experts/practitioner 10
3 Senior welding students 10
Total 30

Table 7 shows the five (5) different criteria in evaluating the project. In each

criterion, there are three (3) indicators that used to describe the project during the

evaluation. This will serve as part of the evaluation instrument in evaluating the

project with corresponding numerical rating.

Table 7 Criteria for Project Evaluation

CRITERIA INDICATORS
Convenience in the dispensing of filler wire in the
weld pool
A. FUNCTIONALITY Distribute sufficient amount of filler wire in the weld
deposit
Facilitates sound and acceptable weld deposit
B. WORKABILITY Availability of materials needed
Fabrication
Appropriateness of size and structure
Economy in terms of materials needed
C. ECONOMY Economy in terms of time/labour spent
Economy in terms of machine/s required
Provides safety in the attainment of quality welds
D. SAFETY Absence of sharp corners
Provide utmost protection to the operators hands
Enhancement of knowledge and information transfer
Reinforcement of student's interest in welding
E. INSTRUCTIONAL
process
APPLICABILITY
Improvement of manipulative skill in wire feeding
operation

Table 8 Respondents Mean Rating in Terms of Functionality

Indicators Faculty Welding Senior Mean Descriptive


Members Experts/ Welding Rating
Practitioner Students
1.1 Convenient Very
dispensing of filler to 4.40 4.00 4.70 4.37 Acceptable
the weld pool
1.2 Distribute sufficient Very
amount of filler wire Acceptable
in the weld deposit 4.40 4.20 4.40 4.33
1.3 Facilitates sound
and acceptable weld Very
deposit 4.60 4.70 4.20 4.50 Acceptable
Overall Mean Very
4.47 4.30 4.43 4.40 Acceptable
Functionality of the Project

The functionality aspect of the device as shown in Table 8, got an overall mean

of = 4.40, which falls within the range of the scale “Very Acceptable” The highest

among the three indicators under functionality has a mean of = 4.50 falls within

the “Very Acceptable” range of the scale, means that the evaluators found the device

can facilitate sound and acceptable weld deposit.


Table 9 Respondents Mean Rating in Terms of Workability

Indicators Faculty Welding Senior Mean Descriptive


Members Experts/ Welding Rating
Practitioner Students
2.1 Availability of Highly
materials 4.70 4.70 4.70 4.70 Acceptable
needed
Highly
2.2 Fabrication 4.70 4.60 4.80 4.63 Acceptable

2.3 Appropriateness Highly


of size and 4.60 4.80 4.90 4.77 Acceptable
structure.
Highly
Overall Mean 4.67 4.70 4.73 4.70 Acceptable
Workability of the Project

In terms of workability, as shown in Table 9, the device falls within the range

of the scale “Excellent”, with an overall mean of =4.70. The senior welding

students gave a rating of =4.73 which is higher than the average mean of faculty

members and welding expert/practitioner of =4.67 and 4.70 respectively. The

prototype got the highest mean of =4.77, under the indicator

“Appropriateness of size and structure” only proves that the respondents found the

device very handy and easy to manipulate.

Table 10 Respondents Mean Rating in Terms of Economy


Indicators Faculty Welding Senior Mean Descriptive
Members Experts/ Welding Rating
Practitioner Students
3.1 Economy
in terms of
materials 4.70 4.80 4.40 4.63 Highly
needed Acceptable
3.2 Economy
in terms of
time/labour 4.50 4.80 4.70 4.67 Highly
spent Acceptable
3.3 Economy
in terms of Highly
machine/s 4.90 4.60 4.80 4.77 Acceptable
required
Highly
Overall Mean 4.70 4.73 4.63 4.69 Acceptable
Economy of the Project

The data shown in Table 9 is the overall mean of the project in terms of economy.

The device got =4.69, which falls under the limits of the descriptive rating of “Highly

Acceptable”. Among the evaluators, welding experts/practitioner got the highest overall

mean of =4.73 that falls within the descriptive rating of “Highly Acceptable” indicating that

the device is economically viable. The data also shows that the indicator under “Economy in

terms of machine/s required” got the highest mean of =4.77.

Table 11 Respondents Mean Rating in Terms of Safety

Indicators Faculty Welding Senior Mean Descriptive


Members Experts/ Welding Rating
Practitioner Students
4.1 Provides
safety in
the attain- Highly
ment of 4.80 4.90 4.70 4.80 Acceptable
quality
welds
4.2 Absence of
sharp Highly
corners 4.80 4.50 4.30 4.53 Acceptable
4.3 Provide
Utmost pro-
tection to Highly
the opera- 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.60 Acceptable
tors hands
Highly
Overall Mean 4.70 4.67 4.57 4.64 Acceptable
Safety of the Project

Table 11 shows the result of the evaluation in terms of safety. Safety got an overall

mean of = 4.64 and falls under the “Highly Acceptable” descriptive rating. The senior

students rated safety with an average =4.57, while the welding experts/practitioner gave a

rating of =4.67. Since, the device is a safety enhancement in wire feeding operation, the
faculty respondents gave the highest rating of =4.70, attesting that the device is safe to

use during laboratory shops.

Table 12 Respondents Mean Rating in Instructional Applicability

Indicators Faculty Welding Senior Mean Descriptive


Members Experts/ Welding Rating
Practitioner Students
5.1 Enhancement
of knowledge Highly
and informa- 4.70 4.80 4.60 4.70 Acceptable
tion transfer
5.2 Reinforcement
of student's
interest in 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.60 Highly
welding Acceptable
process
5.3 Improvement
of manipulati-
ve skill in wire 4.70 4.80 4.80 4.77 Highly
feeding opera- Acceptable
tion.

Overall Mean 4.63 4.73 4.70 4.69 Highly


Acceptable
Instructional Applicability of the Project

The instructional applicability’s evaluation data shown in Table 12 have generated an

overall mean of =4.69 and falls under the descriptive rating “Highly Acceptable”. The

faculty evaluators rated the device with an average of =4.63, welding experts/practitioner

gave the highest rating of =4.73 and senior students deliver a positive rating of =4.70. A

mean of =4.77 under the safety indicator “Improvement of manipulative skill in wire

feeding operation” proves that the prototype can be used as an aid in the actual application

of wire feeding in oxy-acetylene, gas tungsten arc welding and brazing process.
Table 13 Summary of the Evaluation Result on the Performance of the Wire
Feeder

Weighted Descriptive
Criteria Mean Rating

A. Functionality 4.40 Highly Acceptable


B. Workability 4.70 Highly Acceptable
C. Economy 4.69 Highly Acceptable
D. Safety 4.64 Highly Acceptable
E. Instructional Applicability 4.69 Highly Acceptable
Overall Weighted Mean 4.62 Highly Acceptable

The data in Table13 show the computed weighted mean per evaluation

criterion of the project as well as the overall weighted mean in terms of the following;

Functionality obtained =4.40 with a descriptive rating of “Highly Acceptable”. It

proves that the device is functional and can perform accurately and satisfactorily

feeding of wire filler to the weld pool. Workability, on the other hand, has an average

weighted mean of = 4.70, with the descriptive rating of “Highly Acceptable”.

The material used in the project was an aluminum which very lightweight and

corrosion resistant. Both economy and instructional applicability has the 2 nd highest

numerical rating with an average mean of = 3.83. This shows that the device is

economical because of locally available materials and its instructional applicability

has been proven also by the evaluators. Lastly, Safety has generated an overall

weighted mean of = 4.64, the third highest numerical rating proven to be a safety

enhancement device in filler wire feeding operation.

Overall, all the evaluation indicators obtained a “Highly Acceptable”

descriptive rating
Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings of the study, the conclusions

based on the findings and recommendations for improvement.

Summary and Findings Provide one to three paragraphs to describe the

project and to discuss test results if there are any.


The next discussion summarizes the evaluation results. A sample is

shown below:

The device was developed as a handy and portable tool meant to improve

safety, efficiency and quality in as far as oxy-acetylene and tungsten inert gas

welding processes are concerned. It is composed of parts namely: Base handle;

Wire guide; Rubber traction ring; Thumb wheel; Thumb wheel guide; Allen cap screw

and Square nut slide. It is adequately designed to cater the needs of trainees

regarding the safe and proper manual filler wire feeding method. Moreover, because

it is portable it can be easily carried, used in laboratory shops and outdoor trainings.
However, the device is only limited in welding processes that require manual filler

wire feeding activities.

Performance tests of the wire feeder were done through the assistance of

senior WET students. Final result of the experiment in terms of welding speed

conducted showed an overall average of 54.89 seconds for the wire feeder device

compared to that of the Hand Fed method which is at 89.47 seconds, a difference of

34.58 seconds using Oxy-acetylene welding process. Meanwhile, with the use of

Gas tungsten arc welding process the overall average speed using the instructional

device are 52.18 seconds and 83.14 seconds using the Hand Fed method. This

shows that efficiency in terms of speed of welding in both OAW and TIG can be

achieved using the developed instructional device. Likewise, very few errors were

encountered using the Wire Feeder compared to that of the Hand Fed method as

proven by the evaluation results of the appearance of weld deposits. On the other

hand, the Hand Fed filler feeding method showed more errors as expected because

of unstable filler wire movement and frequent stoppage.

Evaluation brought out by the panel of 30 respondents who are experts and

with high working knowledge in welding came out with an overall mean of =4.62,

equivalent to an overall descriptive rating of “highly acceptable” transcending to the

high acceptability of the device. This establishes the performance of the instructional

device accepted and proven to be helpful in the aid of instruction in wire feeding

operation using oxy-acetylene gas welding and tungsten inert gas arc welding.

The study has the following salient findings:


 Functionality – the project is functional as perceived by the

respondents with a mean rating of =4.40 or “highly acceptable”

 Workability – the respondents perceived the project as workable

with a mean rating of =4.70 or “highly acceptable”.

 Economy – development of the project was rated “highly

acceptable” with a mean rating of =4.64 in terms of economy.

 Safety – the evaluation found the project to be a safety

enhancement device with a mean of =4.69 that falls within the

range of “highly acceptable”.

 Instructional Applicability – the project was perceived to be a highly

acceptable instructional aide as it obtained a mean rating of

=4.69.

Conclusions (Answer the stated objectives)

Based on the foregoing discussions and results of evaluation the following

conclusions were derived:

1. The design of the Wire Feeder conforms to the specifications of a standard

manual filler wire feeding tool and was proven as an innovative design for the

welding industry and instruction;

2. The prototype device was fabricated in accordance to specified materials that

are locally available and required only simple tools, machines and equipment

to construct;
3. The prototype device performed within its operational parameters as attested

by the results of testing conducted for both efficiency in terms of speed by

which welding can be facilitated and the quality of weld results and;

4. The Portable Manual Filler wire feeder was evaluated highly acceptable by

the welding experts in terms of its Functionality, Workability, Economy, Safety,

and Instructional Applicability.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations were given:

1. The wire feeder must be used as a standard welding training tool for students

of the welding engineering technology program.

2. The evaluation of the wire feeder involving a bigger number of users must be

pursued in order to get a substantial feedback as basis for subsequent

improvement in certain features and appearance of the device.

3. The use of other materials for the device be pursued should it be

manufactured on a bigger scale; and

4. The device should be subjected to patent search and application.


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Brady, George S., Henry R. Clauser, and John A. Vaccari.1997. "Brass." In


Materials Handbook, 14th edition.New York: McGraw-Hill

Lardizabal, Amparo S. et al. 1991. Principles and Methods of Teaching


Quezon City. Phoenix Publishing House.

Rybczynski, Witold. 2000. One good turn: a natural history of the screwdriver and the screw,
Scribner, ISBN 978-0-684-86729-8.
JOURNALS

Sulaimain Kamal-deen Olawale. The use of instructional materials for effective learning of
Islamic studies, Islamic Civilization and Contemporary Issues, Department of
Religious Studies,Ekiti-State University, Ado-Ekti, Nigeria.

Matthew C. Nwike. Effects of Use of Instructional Materials on Students


Cognitive Achievement in Agricultural Science
Journal of Educational and Social Research Vol. 3 (5) August 2013

Agun, I. Importance of Audio visual Instruction. West African Journal of Education 20


(2) 1998

THESES and DISSERTATION

Ligaya, Jerry G., Development of a Universal Holder: An accessory for Conventional Lathe
Machine, Master Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines-Manila, 2012

Gebe, Annalyn N., Development of an Adjustable Dressform,


Master Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines-Manila, 2009

Alejandro A. Allen., Development of a Styrofoam cutter: an instructional tool for art classes
Master Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines-Manila, 2009

Fajutag, Gallito F., Development of a Drilling Guide: an aid for instruction


Master Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines-Manila, 2009

Torralba, Kristoffer R., Development of a Multi-Purpose Table.


Master Thesis. University of the Philippines-Manila, 2013

Orcine, Antoñio B., Development of a Three-Axis Pneumatic Welding Fixture


Master Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines-Manila, 2013

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

http://en.wikipedia.org./wiki/Tap_and_die

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacksaw
http://www.practicalstudent.com/subjects/metalwork/benchtools/pages/hacksa

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