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March/April 2019


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Machine control
Plantwide wireless
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March/April 2019 | Vol. 66, Issue 2


16 Empowering an effective
PAT methodology
By Lisa Graham, PhD, PE

Advanced analytics are key components of PAT

projects in pharmaceutical and biotech plants and


22 Machine automation
By Chip McDaniel

A machine automation system consists of multiple

10 subsystems for power and control.


insights 26 Striking a balance for

By Bill Lydon
plantwide wireless
Cybersecurity threats to manufacturing and process By Shuji Yamamoto
plants are coming from a widening range of attack
vectors, many driven by the application of Internet of Low-power wide-area networks are a lightweight
Things technologies. This article explores aspects of wireless solution tailored to IIoT implementations.
these issues with recognized cybersecurity experts Andy
Kling and Marty Edwards.


34 Improving maintenance Architectural Model for
by adopting a P-F curve Industrie 4.0
methodology By Bill Lydon

By Kevin Clark, CMRP RAMI 4.0 is gaining broad acceptance throughout

The P-F curve is a way of representing an asset’s the world. Its development focused on industrial
behavior or condition before it has reached a production as the primary area of application, and
failed state. The most important part of the P-F it ensures that all participants involved in Indus-
curve represents the time between when poten- try 4.0 discussions and activities have a common
tial failure is detected in an asset and when it framework to understand each other and identify
reaches the failed state. The P-F curve helps standards.
determine timing of maintenance for optimal
production and life-cycle cost.


Setting the Standard for Automation™
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Perspectives from the Editor | talk to me
Bill Lydon
Manufacturing tipping PUBLISHER
Rick Zabel
points: Evolution or

revolution Lynne Franke
By Bill Lydon, InTech, Chief Editor ART DIRECTOR
Colleen Casper

ncreasing numbers of manufacturers their company to build winning plans.
are investing in transforming manufac- Life-cycle cost analysis can help justify SENIOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER
turing and applying Industry 4.0 and new automation investments, but selection Pam King
digitization to achieve top competitive of all the factors—including the competitive
positions in their industries. manufacturing environment—is vital for a GRAPHIC DESIGNER
This was evident at the 23rd Annual reliable prediction. This is particularly impor- Lisa Starck
Automation Research Corporation (ARC) tant today with many new manufacturing
Industry Forum in February themed “Driv- and production competitors throughout the
ing Digital Transformation in Industry and world that are leveraging new technology to Charley Robinson
Cities.” A significant number of users take market share from traditional suppliers.
expressed plans and actions to transform The competitive manufacturing landscape
manufacturing based on opportunities en- is changing, and new technology is enabling
abled by new technology to ensure they re- manufacturers to defend their competitive ISA PRESIDENT
main competitive. Larry Megan, PhD, direc- position or create new opportunities. Paul Gruhn, PE, CFSE
tor – Praxair Digital at Praxair, Inc., made an History many times repeats itself; con- PUBLICATIONS VICE PRESIDENT
important point in his presentation that the sider Andrew Carnegie, who is known as Victor S. Finkel, CAP
focus is understanding your path to creat- a successful man of business, but he was
ing more value for customers, and a major also an innovator. In a desire to make steel
challenge is to get from the hype to reality. more cheaply and more efficiently, he suc-
Steve Valdez
Users are also asking, “To achieve digi- cessfully adopted the Bessemer process at GE Sensing
talization, should installed industrial auto- his Homestead Steel Works plant, result-
Joseph S. Alford PhD, PE, CAP
mation be improved through evolution or ing in greater efficiency and throughput,
Eli Lilly (retired)
revolution?” which contributed to major success.
Existing suppliers promote evolution, “My interest is in the future because I am Joao Miguel Bassa
modernizing industrial automation through going to spend the rest of my life there.” Independent Consultant
incremental add-ons, rather than through —Charles Kettering, American inventor, Eoin Ó Riain
core control and automation hardware at engineer, businessman, and head of research Read-out, Ireland
the edge. This can be an incumbent sup- at General Motors from 1920 to 1947
Guilherme Rocha Lovisi
plier trap if your key suppliers are out of Bayer Technology Services
step with the application of technology. Tipping points
David W. Spitzer, PE
Incremental changes can make your manu- The influx technology, combined with com- Spitzer and Boyes, LLC
facturing company less competitive. petitors applying new methods and tech-
Dean Ford, CAP
Should the application of installed auto- nologies, is driving us to a manufacturing
Westin Engineering
mation be continually improved or moved industry tipping point. A tipping point is the
to newer automation technology? This dis- critical point in an evolving situation that David Hobart
Hobart Automation Engineering
cussion repeatedly happens in all areas of leads to a new and irreversible develop-
technology, and over the years there are dif- ment. The shifts from stand-alone control- Smitha Gogineni
ferent factors to consider, leading to various lers to PID to DCS and relays to PLCs drove Midstream & Terminal Services
answers. Personally, many of us have made industry to tipping points. James F. Tatera
this value judgement when changing smart- Tatera & Associates
phones or computers to be more produc- Challenge
tive. Answering this question is not simple I think in this environment a key question
and should be based on a number of fac- to explore is, if you apply superior applica-
tors, including the knowledge and know- tion and project engineering to existing in-
how of automation professionals. Automa- dustrial automation, can you surpass your
tion professionals need to contribute to the competitors that will be deploying newer
management and investment discussion at and superior technology? n


your letters | Readers Respond

Survey insights September/October 2018

Alarm management
First of all, I really enjoyed and appreci- While the [“OPC: Interoperability standard
ated the article “The pay raise engineers for industrial automation”] article [Novem-
have been waiting for,” based on the A P U B L I C AT I O N O F T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L S O C I E T Y O F A U T O M AT I O N ber/December 2018 InTech,
results from the 2018 salary review [Sep- Global megatrends
Machine safety
intech/20181204] is generally excellent, I
tember/October 2018 InTech, Predictive maintenance
Industry 4.0
kept hoping, while reading it, that the ma-
Flow spotlight
intech/20181001]. This information is very jor challenge in trying to achieve informa-
interesting and the type of content that tion integration and OT standardization in
will interest all of the readers who are in- the many industrial situations (e.g., many
volved in automation, instrumentation, pharmaceutical plants) involving a plant’s
and control. It is well done, and I applaud use of numerous diverse packaged au-
the effort to put out the survey and to tomation systems from different vendors
analyze the input. might be included as an example.
I would like to bring up one point As Mr. Burke may be aware, the national
with respect to both the survey and the standard (ANSI/ISA 18.2), originally published
“recipe” on page 15. This includes some in 2009, and the similar international stan-
ingredients that will help professionals dard (IEC 62682) address alarm management

to maximize their salaries and expand in the process industries. The issues involved
their income. You include some excellent in achieving effective alarm management in
points—most of which I included in my books, manuals, standards, training classes, the process industries, which include infor-
career path and salary adjustments. and seminars as preparation for these cre- mation integration and OT standardization,
However, there is one major area that dentials to expand the professional devel- are so significant for plants using distributed
is not explicitly included that can have a opment of people in this profession. packaged automation systems (e.g., different
major impact on a person’s role with the Please consider including “credential- PLCs from different vendors controlling differ-
company and the future income. It may ing” in future salary surveys and using the ent plant operations) that ISA commissioned
not even be included on the survey, and data in the analysis—I think you will find a committee to develop a formal technical re-
if it is not, it should be added. That fac- a difference in the salary of a licensed en- port addressing this topic. The ISA18.2 WG7
tor is “professional credentialing,” such gineer as compared to someone with the worked for about five years on this issue,
as obtaining a legal license to practice same experience level, but not licensed. publishing their results (ISA-TR18.2.7) over a
engineering (PE), qualifying for a profes- Gerald Wilbanks, PE year ago. Their TR is titled “Alarm Manage-
sional certificate as a Certified Automa- ISA Fellow ment when Utilizing Packaged Systems.”
tion Professional (CAP), becoming a Cer- Anyway, alarm management is one of
tified Control Systems Technician (CCST), Author’s response several topics that has received significant
or some other professional certification Thanks so much for the kind words. We attention in recent years regarding some of
(CSFE, safety, etc.). actually did include professional licensing OPC’s objectives. I was hoping some of this
These are all achievements following in the survey, but opted not to include it in effort might be mentioned in the article.
some professional education or degree the article, which now I see was a mistake. Joe Alford
that add to the status and reputation of It will be included in future articles.
the individual, while making him or her Looking at the raw data, you are ab-

more employable. The individuals find solutely correct. Of the roughly 1,600
that these credentials not only increase respondents that answered the licensed
their salaries, but also open new doors of professional engineer question, 23.8
opportunity for advancement in the com- percent said they were licensed and re-
pany leadership roles. I speak from expe- ported a $22,000 increase over those Interoperability
standard for
rience. My company gave an automatic who were not. industrial automation
salary increase for obtaining a PE license, For the ISA certifications question, 30.1 In today’s complex economy,
information is the key to business success
which opened up new salary grades, and percent of respondents answered that and profitability
was required for a person to become a they had been certified. Their salaries av-
By Thomas J. Burke he OPC Foundation is working with consor- al technology (OT) and information technology
tia and standard development organizations (IT) worlds to communicate, have seamless in-
to achieve the goals of superior production teroperability, and be able to agree on syntacti-

department manager. eraged $2,460 more annually than those with digitalization. The year 2018 has been an
interesting, record-breaking year, with end us-
ers, system integrators, and suppliers focused on
cal and semantic data exchange formats.
The OPC Foundation started developing a
service-oriented architecture, recognizing the
maximizing their engineering investments and opportunity to separate the services from the

In fact, ISA is a major supporter of the who were not. increasing productivity. End users are capitalizing
on the data and information explosion. Consortia
and standard development organizations (SDOs)
data. It consciously developed a rich, complex
information model that allowed the OPC data to
be modeled from the OPC classic specifications.

legal license to practice engineering and of- Thank you so much for sharing these
are helping suppliers to exceed expectations.
OPC Foundation
Integration opportunity The mission of the OPC Foundation is to manage
Information integration requires standards a global organization in which users, vendors, and

fers many certifications in our professional insights and experiences; they are incred- organizations to work together for interoper-
ability with synergistic opportunities to ad-
dress convergence and to prevent overlapping
consortia collaborate to create standards for mul-
tivendor, multiplatform, secure, and reliable infor-
mation integration interoperability in industrial
complex information model architectures. The automation and beyond. To support this mission,

field of practice. This is a prime activity for ibly helpful and very, very much appreci- standards organizations have been working in-
dependently, and now it is time for them work
to together to harmonize their data models with
the OPC Foundation creates and maintains speci-
fications, ensures compliance with OPC specifica-
tions via certification testing, and collaborates with
other standard organizations. The criteria for standards organizations.

the professional development department ated. These points will definitely be imple- success for an SDO should be measured by the
level of open interoperability provided.
When OPC UA was first conceived, it focused
OPC technologies were created to allow informa-
tion to be easily and securely exchanged between
diverse platforms from multiple vendors and to

of ISA and a key to many of the educational mented in articles going forward.
on developing a strategy for platform indepen- allow seamless integration of those platforms with-
dence and a solution that allowed the operation- out costly, time-consuming software development.


efforts of the society. ISA also offers many Cory Fogg


Change the way you look at
pressure measurement
oem pressure transmitters
Industry experts provide perspectives
on cybersecurity issues and challenges
By Bill Lydon



l Cybersecurity threats to manufacturing and process plants are
coming from a widening range of attack vectors.
l The digital transformation of manufacturing to increase efficiency
and productivity will increase the number of connected IIoT devices
and the cybersecurity attack surface.
l The digital transformation requires integrating control and
automation, which can create many new vulnerabilities that have
to be addressed and mitigated.

ybersecurity threats to manufacturing of business accelerates, you need to be able to
and process plants are coming from a control your business variables and risks in real
wide range of attack vectors, including time. The natural result of all this new connec-
supply chain, logistics, enterprise comput- tivity is a wider attack surface. To take advantage
ing, remote connections, operator stations, of the value the IIoT promises, organizations
programmable logic controllers, distributed must expand connectivity amongst people, as-
control systems (DCSs), smart sensors, and sets, and systems, which allows them to extract
new smart devices. Many emerging Internet of and make data work for them. To protect these
Things (IoT) and communications technolo- new connections, you first need to understand
gies offer greater connectivity, but they make the risks associated with moving to an IIoT envi-
the cyber landscape more complex. This article ronment: Will all the new information and data
explores aspects of these issues with cyberse- from the edge provide business benefits that ex-
curity experts Andy Kling, senior director of ceed the risks it takes to retrieve and apply it? It
cybersecurity and architecture at Schneider is a simple question, and if you cannot answer, it
Electric, and Marty Edwards, director of strate- is likely because you do not yet know and under-
gic initiatives at ISA and managing director of stand the full risk landscape. So get expert ad-
the Automation Federation (AF). I asked these vice. Once you determine the value is there, then
recognized industry experts for their thoughts focus on data integrity. One compromised input
and opinions on a number of items: device can poison the data repository. Cyberse-
curity can no longer be an afterthought. There is
Edge-to-enterprise communications too much at stake, financially and operationally.
IoT communications technology not only fol- Edwards: There are a number of issues to con-
lows traditional information technology (IT) sider here, I think. Firstly, just due to the sheer
routes, but also connects to process, machines, volume of new devices coming on the market,
material handling, and factory floor devices to which might mean having to work with new
close the IT/OT divide. manufacturers and vendors, we should expect
to have a bunch of new vulnerabilities that will
How do you characterize new challenges need to be addressed and mitigated. End users
created by direct edge-to-enterprise com- will have to contend with that and understand
munications, and do you have any advice the implications and risks these new vulnerabil-
for users? ities will have on their operations.
Kling: Without a doubt, the digital transfor- It then depends on how you bring in the data.
mation will increase the number of connected If your application vendor is backhauling all of
IIoT [Industrial Internet of Things] devices. En- the device data into the cloud through a service
terprise business is constantly seeking new, bet- provider network like 5G and all you are getting
ter ways to get closer to operations. This is gen- is the data through the same vendor, then “device
erally a very good thing, because as the speed security” really becomes a vendor problem. At



the opposite end of the spectrum is ions showcasing 5G in manufacturing sense, it is descriptive of something off
that if all of these devices are intercon- applications and educational sessions in the distance over the Internet. We are
nected to your own control networks, on the topic. just not sure where or what is storing in-
then you really need to take a look at formation and performing computing.
bringing the data in via a protected How do you characterize new Some claim the term was used in inter-
enclave, i.e., a section of an internal cybersecurity challenges created by nal documents at Compaq Computer in
network that is subdivided from the 5G, and do you have any advice for 1996. Others suggest the term was first
rest of the network, much like we do users? commercially used in 2006 when Google
with roaming Wi-Fi-enabled operator- Kling: When it comes to industrial and Amazon began using “cloud com-
interface solutions, for example. operations, 5G feeds the IoT beast. In puting” to describe the new approach to
part, the definition of IoT is a connected access software, computer power, and
5G wireless device. With the increased bandwidth files over the Web instead of from local
A digital transformation requires in- and security of coming 5G networks, servers or a desktop computer.
creased connectivity and data trans- there is a promise of many new vertical Whatever the history, cloud comput-
ference, and 5G wireless can satisfy solutions. As a result, availability (resist ing, or “cloud” for short, is now a com-
this demand. Process automation jamming), integrity (protect from sig- mon term. Pictures of local computers
systems today primarily rely on hard- nal corruption and man-in-the-middle networked to the image of a cloud in
wired networks for communications, replays), and confidentiality all bear a presentations and literature have be-
particularly Ethernet, but to achieve heightened importance. 5G will be in come popularized. The National Insti-
the goals of new digital initiatives, like places not really thought of previously. tute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Industry 4.0 and IIoT, there are increas- Yes, the SCADA [supervisory control defines cloud computing as “a model
ing bandwidth requirements. In addi- and data acquisition] pipeline ex- for enabling convenient, on-demand
tion to plant automation, 5G wireless amples already exist, but imagine 5G- network access to a shared pool of con-
capabilities are suited for linking pro- enabled drones running continuous figurable computing resources (e.g.,
cess sensors and instruments to busi- thermal imaging of a plant. They could networks, servers, storage, applica-
ness enterprise systems. quickly isolate problems that would tions, and services) that can be rapidly
Previous generations of mobile net- have been difficult to locate previously. provisioned and released with minimal
works predominantly addressed con- Uniquely, everybody has access to management effort or service provider
sumers for voice and SMS in 2G, Web this transport layer. In 3G/4G tech- interaction.” NIST also defines essential
browsing in 3G, and higher-speed data nologies, jamming or “smart” jamming characteristics of cloud computing:
and video streaming in 4G. The tran- was always a concern. 5G has attacked
sition from 4G to 5G will better serve this problem, making the wireless stan- On-demand self-service
consumers and industries alike. New dard more resilient to jamming. The A user can unilaterally provision com-
5G wireless technologies provide the bottom line is that when it comes to puting capabilities, such as server time
network characteristics manufactur- 5G—similarly to the IoT ramp up—5G and network storage, as needed auto-
ing requires, including high band- will enable many new solutions. Like matically without requiring human
width, connection density, low latency, IoT, its use must be tempered with an interaction with each service provider.
and high reliability to support critical appropriate understanding of the risks
applications. Mobile 5G technology involved. Our challenge will be to use it Broad network access
will allow higher flexibility, lower cost, securely and appropriately. Capabilities are available over the net-
and shorter lead times for factory floor Edwards: I pretty much agree with work and accessed through standard
production reconfiguration, layout what Andy has said. I hadn’t thought of mechanisms (i.e., Web services) that
changes, and alterations. a lot of those things, but from a security promote use by various platforms (e.g.,
It is not necessary to wait for com- perspective, I view 5G as just another mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and
mercial wireless carriers to implement transport layer. If the 5G vendors “get workstations).
5G before manufacturers can take ad- it right” with security and bake it into
vantage of these benefits. Production the implementations from the begin- Resource pooling
plants are already implementing 5G for ning, then it will be less of an issue for The cloud provider’s computing re-
in-house communications. the end user. sources are pooled to serve multiple
A number of 5G industrial applica- consumers using a multitenant model,
tions were demonstrated at the 2018 Cloud computing with different physical and virtual re-
Hannover Fair, including an extremely Cloud computing using third-party off- sources dynamically assigned and reas-
impressive concept of deterministic, site providers is growing in popularity signed according to user demand. There
high-speed coordinated motion over as a technology beneficial for indus- is a sense of location independence in
5G wireless communications. The 2019 trial automation. The origin of the term that the customer generally has no con-
Hannover Fair will have multiple pavil- “cloud computing” is unclear. In some trol over or knowledge of the exact loca-



tion of the provided resources. Examples also be aware of all that surrounds the makes them fluid. That means they can
of resources include storage, processing, use of the cloud. Each of these techno- move east to west (device to device)
memory, and network bandwidth. logical elements brings new challenges. and north (to cloud) or south (closer
Edwards: Love it or hate it, the cloud to the cyber/physical edge). As a result,
Rapid elasticity is here to stay. There has been some security features must “follow” the ap-
Capabilities can be automatically pro- fear, I think, in the adoption of cloud plication. For example, certificates that
visioned and scaled to rapidly meet techniques in the control system space might traditionally be stored in hard-
computing and storage needs based and rightly so. We need to look at sig- ware will have to find a way to become
on user demand. To the user, the capa- nificant change in our systems design more fluid as virtualized applications
bilities available often appear to be un- very carefully. As far as cybersecurity, move between platforms.
limited and can be appropriated in any you can get the best and the worst. In Fog bridges the gap between edge
quantity at any time. some ways cloud services let you bun- computing and cloud computing and
dle security services onto something in comes with its own unique challenges.
Measured service a very easy way, but like anything, if you Your first step is to understand those
Cloud systems automatically control don’t configure your containers and the challenges: It demands virtualization,
and optimize resource use by leverag- like correctly, you can introduce secu- and it is often required to be more per-
ing a metering capability at some level rity issues very easily. formant to run IACS [industrial auto-
of abstraction appropriate to the type of Here’s an interesting story to prove mation control system] solutions than
service (e.g., storage, processing, band- the point. I saw a wide geographic traditional cloud technology.
width, applications, and active user SCADA application in which the user Make sure that, as a bridging tech-
accounts). Resource use can be moni- had moved their entire SCADA envi- nology, your security solution does not
tored, controlled, and reported, provid- ronment—front end servers, comms, fall to just the lowest common denomi-
ing transparency for both the provider etc.—into the cloud, which surprised nator between the layers but maintains
and consumer of the utilized service. me. Their rationale, which was very a robust set of security features unique
The application of cloud computing well thought out, was that the uptime to large amounts of virtualization.
has the potential to change industrial of the cloud provider’s infrastructure Edwards: Fog is essentially an “on-
automation system architectures that was guaranteed contractually to be premise cloud infrastructure.” If that is
have been traditionally on-site sys- much higher than what they could the case, then end users will have many
tems requiring capital investment to accomplish with their own infrastruc- of the same challenges they confront
add functions. In contrast, the cloud ture. By the time they looked at main- when enabling a cloud infrastructure.
computing model provides significant taining the communications and all
storage, computing, and application the servers, the cloud implementation Edge computing
software on demand with engineers looked very attractive and has per- IoT is creating a flood of new technol-
only paying for what they use. Cloud formed very well for them. ogy and driving communication and
computing and on-demand analytics computing to the edge of system ar-
are also being developed for a much Fog computing chitectures. The number of connected
broader range of applications outside Fog computing, also known as fog net- IoT devices worldwide will increase
of industrial automation, providing working or fogging, is a decentralized 12 percent on average annually, from
powerful and more cost-effective new computing infrastructure in which nearly 27 billion in 2017 to 125 billion
capabilities for automation engineers. data, compute, storage, and applica- in 2030, according to new analysis from
tions are distributed in the most logi- global information provider IHS Markit.
How do you characterize new cal, efficient place between the data This is particularly the case with smart
cybersecurity challenges created source and the cloud. Fog computing sensors that have embedded process-
by cloud services used in industrial essentially extends cloud computing ing and communication to controllers,
automation applications, and do and services to the edge of the net- enterprise, and cloud servers. These
you have any advice for users? work, bringing the advantages and IoT devices are uniquely identifiable
Kling: The cloud brings so much power of the cloud closer to where data electronic devices using Internet “data
promise, it is hard to ignore its poten- is created and acted upon. plumbing,” including Internet Protocol,
tial. Several supporting technologies— Web services, and cloud computing.
improved communications, virtualiza- How do you characterize new An example of this trend is the
tion, improved compute power—make cybersecurity challenges created Industry 4.0 for Process Automation
the cloud happen. All of this support- by fog computing, and do you have initiative started by NAMUR. Indus-
ing infrastructure brings, in turn, its any advice for users? try 4.0 and IoT concepts are being
own set of cybersecurity challenges. So, Kling: Similar to cloud, fog brings a applied to process automation to
it is not enough to just ask about cloud unique set of security challenges. Ap- achieve a holistic integration of au-
security-related challenges. You must plications become virtualized, which tomation, business information, and



manufacturing execution function to services are becoming loosely bound to other advancements we have dis-
improve all aspects of production and their guest OSs. This unbinding allows cussed. Something I really like about
commerce across company boundar- for an increase in computing fluidity. virtualization is the ability to separate
ies for greater efficiency. It becomes far easier to leverage cloud, the software from specific hardware
fog, and edge computing platforms as dependencies. As an old DCS guy com-
Does edge computing pose any the application can move easily be- ing from “the software only works on
unique new cybersecurity chal- tween environments. this specific hardware version,” that
lenges, and do you have any advice is a huge benefit, and gives end users
for users? Does virtualization pose any unique enormous flexibility and redundancy.
Kling: With more powerful proces- new cybersecurity challenges, and But yes: You need to be aware of new
sors, embedded sensing technologies, do you have any advice for users? vulnerabilities that come with virtu-
increased abilities to communicate, Kling: Virtualization means we can alization. My advice here would be
lower power consumption, smaller now use applications we no longer don’t mix security levels on the same
footprints, and mobile applications, have to install and customize to fit VM hardware. You need a unique set of
we can start to take an application that their platforms. Applications, services, hardware for each security level.
used to run on a server and run it where and microservices are preinstalled on
it makes the most sense. At the end of a virtual machine. Essentially, they Analytics, machine learning, and
the day, what we are talking about is are their own platforms. Isolated from artificial intelligence
pushing control further toward the pe- their neighbors, they inherently bring The application of technology to im-
riphery of the plant, right down to the security improvements. Maintaining prove and optimize production opera-
equipment asset level. With more con- the VM [virtual machine] repositories tions has been an ongoing industrial
nectivity and computing power, these securely and using them in a secure automation journey over the years.
smarter, connected assets, like pumps, fashion by ensuring integrity is a some- Cloud, fog, and edge computing and
for example, will be able to control, what new challenge. But with these software developed for a wide range
monitor, and secure themselves in real new challenges comes an incredible of IT, Internet, scientific, and business
time. And if we take the next step, it is amount of value. applications have become easier to use
easy to imagine extending this level of Once we see network convergence, and more cost effective for industrial
real-time control upward to the enter- network virtualization, and application automation applications. This does,
prise. It will revolutionize how com- and service virtualization, paired with however, connect production process-
panies improve the profitability and traditional IoT and sensors, we will wit- es directly to a broader number of net-
performance of their operations and ness automation solutions that carry a works and computers.
assets. But regardless of what it looks lighter physical footprint. You can take
like, be it cloud, fog, or edge, a robust advantage of these virtual resources Does the broad application of
cybersecurity strategy will have to be in on premise or off premise. It is entirely analytics, machine learning (ML),
place, because, as we said, all this new conceivable to imagine a rack of vir- and artificial intelligence (AI) pose
connectivity broadens the attack sur- tualized computers replacing control, any unique new cybersecurity chal-
face. Every new connection has to be I/O processing, and other applications. lenges, and do you have any advice
secured. This will be the challenge. Think of a rack of compute power tied for users?
Edwards: The scale we are going to see to an array of edge-based sensors and Kling: Absolutely. In traditional DCS
with these deployments creates a massive actuators. But once again, you must ex- or discrete applications, the con-
asset-management problem. I mean, if ecute your applications where it makes trol algorithms have a precise under-
today we can’t even identify what devices the most sense, i.e., where it drives the standing. Control engineers have been
are currently on our ICS networks, what most value within your risk threshold. trained in these algorithms. Machine
will it be like when we have two orders of A new vision is coming, one that lever- learning and artificial intelligence bring
magnitude more devices? Seems like an ages value from virtualization. With a new level of discerning patterns from
opportunity for a robust “management it comes the challenges unique to the data and offer new ways to improve the
of change” type system. technology being used. For example, safety, efficiency, reliability, and even
know and understand how network profitability of the operation and the
Virtualization convergence places higher importance business. But before a single operator
In the traditional architecture of digi- on confidentiality and integrity. Be decision is made, time must be taken to
tal services, applications are tightly ready for communication prioritiza- understand these new algorithms and
bound to the platform on the operating tion schemes to rise in importance to to ensure the integrity of the data be-
system (OS). Virtual machines began a help ensure critical traffic is treated ing fed into them, so they can explain
revolution to loosen the tight binding appropriately to maintain availability. their results. Only then can confidence
between OS and platform. Containers Edwards: Virtualization presents be found.
are taking that one step further. Now similar issues as the cloud, fog, and From a security standpoint, as men-



tioned in the cloud discussion, the in- curity. This includes ensuring everyone I am optimistic that we will follow some
tegrity of the data is paramount. The is trained, with defined, clearly under- of the trends of other industries, such
convergence of data availability via stood roles, responsibilities, and pro- as the financial services industry, where
an increase in sensor technology, our cedures to prevent, mitigate and, most this type of information sharing is very
ability to move that data, and now importantly, respond to cyberattacks. well accepted and functions with a very
the compute resource made available Second, we have to work together to high level of success. n
to act upon that data have reached a establish best processes, practices, and
point where ML/AI are viable. Securing policies, especially as it relates to per- Author’s note
the acquisition at the lowest levels and forming regular risk and threat assess- Thank you to Andy Kling and Marty
ensuring the integrity of that data is es- ments and gap analyses. That approach Edwards for sharing their knowledge
sential to using it securely. is proven to identify holes in our sys- and thoughts on industrial cybersecu-
Edwards: Access to powerful com- tems and our overall security posture. rity. The International Society of Auto-
puting platforms is a big win for ad- Additionally, there is an opportunity for mation has a wide range of industrial
vanced control. The industry will industry to work together to help end cybersecurity training resources (see
continue to see unique optimiza- users contain, mitigate, and even pre-
tion opportunities that we could only vent the spread of any virus and mal-
dream of before. Having that much ware via network segmentation, the ap- ABOUT THE AUTHOR
data in one place for the algorithms to plication of zones and conduits, and the
Bill Lydon ( is InTech’s
eat for breakfast, though? That could establishment of other processes. This
chief editor.
pose a challenge from an intellectual includes strengthening an industrywide
property perspective, so I think even commitment to adhering to best prac-
these applications have to be thought- tices, especially a drive to remain com- ABOUT THE EXPERTS
ful from a security perspective or you pliant with prevailing, most-current in- Andy Kling, CSSLP, is industry automa-
might get into trouble. dustry standards, like IEC 62443. tion product security officer and se-
Third, we need to find ways for sup- nior director of system architecture at
Collaboration pliers to work together to strengthen Schneider Electric. He has more than
Cybersecurity is big and getting bigger, their products with today’s threats in thirty years of software development
and the level of complexity is rising. mind. Keep in mind that end users are experience in multiple industries. Kling
One way to overcome the complex- frequently using a mix of systems from has ushered the company’s process au-
ity of securing disparate systems from various vendors and vintages. Can we tomation development organization to
multiple vendors is to join together and collaborate and evolve our technology compliance with IEC 62443 standards
collaboratively share knowledge. This to help them address cybersecurity at the process, product, and system lev-
is one of the primary ways we as an issues in their frequently complex op- els. Kling is a participating senior mem-
industry can grow to be more effective. erating environments? The answer is ber of ISA, primarily contributing to the
Kling: Taking on new and increas- yes, but it requires a cultural shift and ISA/IEC 62443 cybersecurity standards.
ingly dangerous cyberthreats can’t be a strong commitment from industry
limited to a single company, industry, or leaders. Marty Edwards ( is
region. That’s why everyone associated It really is time for industry as a whole director of strategic initiatives at ISA and
with industrial manufacturing—sup- to step up. By collaborating openly and managing director of the Automation
pliers, end users, third-party provid- transparently, we increase our collec- Federation. He was previously director
ers, integrators, standards bodies, and tive ability to protect the world’s most of the Industrial Control Systems Cyber
even government agencies—must come critical operations and the people and Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT),
together. We need to collaboratively de- communities we all jointly serve. Let’s an operational division of the National
velop new ways of ensuring legacy and get it done. Cybersecurity and Communications Inte-
emerging technologies alike can with- Edwards: This is an area that can really gration Center.
stand sophisticated cyberattacks. help advance cybersecurity. We are all in
On the whole, our industry is gener- this together, and cybersecurity should View the online version at
ally pretty conservative, but we have to not be a competitive differentiator be-
change that culture when it comes to tween vendors. If we could truly come
cybersecurity. The most effective way to together as an industry and share the in- RESOURCE
do this is to encourage a collaborative, formation about threats and attacks with “Number of Connected IoT Devices
three-pronged approach that focuses each other in an open yet safe environ- Will Surge”
on people, processes, and technology. ment, then I think we could all advance
First, we have to work together to our capabilities to defend against these of-connected-iot-devices-will-surge-to-
make sure everyone—everywhere— things. This is sort of a hot button for me, 125-billion-by-2030-ihs-markit-says
knows they are responsible for cyberse- coming from my ICS-CERT background.


Empowering an effective
PAT methodology By Lisa Graham, PhD, PE

Operationalizing advanced analytics for

data-driven decision making

everaging process analytical technology the FDA’s document titled Guidance for Indus-
(PAT) advancements helps companies derive try PAT, which is “written for a broad industry
value by combining data from process and audience in different organizational units and
analytical instruments with advanced analytics to: scientific disciplines” and “discusses princi-
l empower subject-matter experts (SMEs) ples with the goal of highlighting opportuni-
l augment process development and scale up ties and developing regulatory processes that
l optimize the globally connected system encourage innovation.”
l realize the potential of the Industrial Internet From an innovation perspective, a strong
of Things (IIoT/Pharma 4.0) PAT methodology includes a plan for connec-
l reduce manufacturing cycle time tion to disparate data sets, advanced analytics,
The concept of PAT has grown into a broad and the culture change required to actively im-
field encompassing process analysis, chemical plement insights through improved workflows.
engineering, chemometrics, modeling, process This is important, because PAT should ulti-
automation and control, and knowledge and risk mately support data-driven decision making,
management. This approach is consistent with which requires a firm grasp of measurements,
data science, and analytics workflows—along
FAST FORWARD with a plan for summarizing and disseminat-
l Reasons to implement PAT include reduced cost, improved reliability, ing the knowledge gained (figure 1). Further,
and better quality. the value of the outcome should demonstrate a
l Leading challenges are changing company culture and accessing return on investment whether the analyses are
and analyzing data.
using an effective PAT methodology for diag-
l Two case studies show the results of applying advanced analytics nostic, predictive, monitoring, prescriptive, or
to PAT projects.
descriptive views (figure 2).



In this article, case studies will illustrate an PAT can help achieve these goals through pro-
effective use of a PAT methodology for optimiz- cess analysis, including the application of field-
ing the facility operations and active pharma- deployable instrumentation and chemometrics
ceutical manufacturing processes required to to monitor chemical or physical attributes, and
produce quality medicines for patients. But first, the detection of events that cannot be derived
let’s look at why PAT is important for improving from conventional physical measurements like
pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. temperature or pressure. Process analytical in-
strumentation can be organized into many cat-
Background: Why PAT? egories: (1) physical property analyzers measur-
The demand for new therapies, loss of revenue ing attributes like viscosity, refractive index, and
from biosimilar and generic competition, and thermal conductivity, (2) combustion analyzers,
the rapid growth of emerging markets are forcing (3) electrochemical analyzers measuring voltage
manufacturers to be more productive. To meet or current that correlates with concentration,
these challenges, pharmaceutical companies and (4) spectrophotometers that measure an at-
must capture process parameters and real-time tribute via electromagnetic interactions.
measurements of critical quality
attributes using analytical tech-
niques and data analysis/model-
Enabling capabilities
ing techniques, often referred to
as PAT. A robust PAT methodology
is essential to achieve:
l cost effectiveness:
—increase system automation
and control
—reduce or eliminate produc-
tion of waste
—enable the use of alternative
or less expensive raw materials
—reduce production cycle
—reduce energy use
—support a semi- to fully
continuous processing
approach Figure 1. Major elements of an effective PAT methodology include data cleansing, advanced
l reliability: analytics, reports and dashboards, and analytics workflows.
—achieve target quality
—prevent rejection of batches
Advanced analytics
—reduce time from manu-
facture to product release
—demonstrate confidence in
product quality
l productive system perfor-
—simplify and shorten
development cycles
through increased process
—enable extended automation
—achieve greater throughput
with minimal additional
time or resources
—incorporate real-time release
to reduce or eliminate many Figure 2. An effective PAT methodology can be used to provide diagnostic, predictive,
testing requirements monitoring, prescriptive, and descriptive benefits.



new method is a prime example of pro-

actively reevaluating the desired data
source, and then transitioning away
from using earlier PAT measurements
that are less directly connected to the
protein attributes.
Deploying these and other types of
process analytical instrumentation to
gather data is the first step. The second
is using advanced analytics software
to derive insights and improve opera-
tions. This data analytics component of
a strong PAT methodology consists of
empirical, multivariate, and first-prin-
ciples modeling techniques, including
mechanistic modeling, chemometrics,
and statistics packages.

Challenges: Data access, ease

of analysis and company culture
Although not always accurate, histori-
cal data can often bring insight into
the future performance of a process.
In development, for example, identi-
fying which unit operations are robust
and which are not, along with the ef-
fect on quality metrics, is key for de-
fining the required work to shorten
the scale-up process while ensuring a
quality-by-design approach ready for
For example, the relationships of the
process inputs to the respective critical
quality attributes must be determined
to define the design space of a process.
General challenges in using PAT effec-
Figure 3. Use capsules to easily identify periods of interest during a run, from which pre- tively include:
dictive models can be quickly developed. (a) Overview of using capsule logic to isolate
l Access to all the relevant data: Data
specific conditions (e.g., by time, limit, pattern) to create combined conditions, and (b)
Seeq helps identify only the periods of time where the process analytical instrument is connectivity continues to be a tre-
functioning properly, and the process is in the proper mode of operation. mendous source of frustration for
getting the most value out of PAT.
Examples of using spectroscopic Another example of innovation in For example, an important aspect
technologies for determining material process analytical instrumentation and of PAT is its role in supporting an ef-
characteristics in situ for traditional methodology is the recent implemen- fective quality-by-design approach
pharmaceutical processing include tation of a mass spectrometry-based for therapeutic molecule manu-
the determination of drug content approach to simultaneously monitor facturing, which requires a deep,
uniformity during powder blending the extensive array of product qual- molecular-level understanding of
and tablet manufacture, and drug- ity attributes present with therapeutic the attributes crucial to the safety
layering during pellet coating. Active molecules. This approach has success- and efficacy of the medicine. Quite
pharmaceutical ingredient manu- fully enabled the real-time monitor- often, these datasets are either main-
facture in reactors and cell growth/ ing of bioreactors and quality control tained off-line or trapped in a pro-
protein expression in bioreactors use release, and it has the potential to cess data historian. In either case, it
in situ methods like focused-beam replace several conventional electro- takes extra effort, often in the form
reflectance and dielectric spectros- phoretic and chromatographic meth- of spreadsheet gymnastics, to bring
copy, respectively, to monitor product ods currently used to release therapeu- the datasets together and make them
attributes in real time. tic molecules. The development of this available to the engineer or scientist



performing the data analysis. Appli- Leveraging PAT throughout an organization

cations that connect to and present
data from a multitude of disparate
to enable continuous improvement
data sources, including process his-
torians, should be a core element of
the PAT implementation strategy.
l Ease of data analytics and visualiza-

tion: The ability to view data from

both the process instrumentation
and the process analytical instru-
mentation together in one place
during select times of operation is
crucial for performing investigations
and monitoring, and for develop-
ing accurate models. Analytics tech-
niques, including multivariate- and
first-principles-based modeling, only
work well when the PAT methodology
— a centralized, single location to
overlay multiple experiments or
multiple conditions from within
an experiment
—automated file transfer from Figure 4. Leveraging an effective PAT methodology for continuous improvement
off-line instruments to eliminate benefits SMEs and the entire organization.
cutting and pasting various data
files into spreadsheets fundamental change in company examples of pharmaceutical unit op-
— handling samples from different mindset from the top down and the erations include:
time intervals, including analy- bottom up. This is especially true in l crystallization in reactors and pro-
sis when a sample may have been groups that have not already imple- tein expression in bioreactors
missed or skipped mented agile data collection and an l filtration and purification (e.g., chro-
— easy batch definition with the analysis methodology in their man- matography)
ability to search by key metadata ufacturing process. In these cases, l lyophilization
about the experiments the group needs to review work- l feeding and blending
— automated templates to apply flows to understand the existing l granulation
standard data views and calcula- obstacles for collecting and access- l tableting
tions for quick routine analysis, ing the right data, and then use the l tablet coating
tied in with report generation right data analytic software. This
Figure 3 illustrates how engineers software must be able to perform Both areas are subject to the inherent
can selectively query data to identify the required analysis and be imple- challenge of enabling engineers to ap-
stages of operation. For example, when mented so subject-matter experts ply their domain expertise to optimize
an analytical instrument is being tested can use it, as opposed to only data the operation of equipment such as
or recalibrated, the data signal no lon- scientists. A successful PAT meth- pumps, valves, compressors, and heat
ger represents the actual process. To odology is evidenced by a system exchangers.
develop a robust model, the engineer that the full organization can use The following case studies illus-
should be able to exclude these periods (figure 4), but this often requires trate the effective implementation of
of bad signals from the analysis. Fur- the adoption of new workflows. a complete PAT methodology. These
ther, the best data analytics application case studies showcase both the facility
can support the engineer in develop- Advanced analytics in action operations and active pharmaceutical
ing a model to predict what the values For robust, quality products, facilities manufacturing processes required to
should have been if the sensor had operations and product manufacturing produce quality products. For each case
been operating properly. processes must both run smoothly. On study, the PAT methodology being fol-
l Ensuring a dynamic culture that the facilities operations side, examples lowed employs the following aspects:
is ready to embrace change: Re- of unit operations include water purifi- l Proactive data type selection: Install-
alizing the full potential of the cation, filtration, heating, and cooling. ing instrumentation to deliver the re-
PAT methodology often requires a On the product manufacturing side, quired data



Facility operation: new batches

l Construction of a full process train
view: Comparing multiple differ-
ent unit operations side by side to
understand the effect of upstream
changes on downstream operations
l Workflow documentation: Using
journaling, annotation, and lab note-
book functionalities to capture criti-
cal steps in the workflow
l Knowledge management: Commu-
nicating key results in a report con-
taining a dashboard of current or
previous batches or runs.

Case study A: Robust facilities

When operating a pharmaceutical-
grade water system, it is imperative to
have a direct line of sight to the cur-
rent data and the historic trends. This
requires continuous availability of pro-
cess operations data and real-time par-
ticle and biologic counts. Benefits of
using a well-defined PAT methodology
in this case study include:
l enhanced quality assurance

l improved risk management

l energy savings

l reduced resource and labor require-

l extended facility and equipment life

In this example, an online water bio-

burden analyzer was the primary pro-
cess analytical instrument. This online
and real-time technology simultane-
ously detected particles and determined
biologic counts without requiring stain-
ing or reagents, or export of the data for
upload into a process data historian.
With connection to all relevant
Figure 5. Water system operation case study showing (a) an overview of how the PAT data established, the organization
methodology is applied to a facility’s water system operation and (b) key outputs from performed analysis using advanced
an analysis illustrating an optimized water system, including the use of Seeq Workbench analytics software to quickly iden-
for analysis and Organizer Topics to summarize and share learnings with the broader tify time periods outside sanitization
cycles and tank filling cycles to assess
l Connecting disparate data sources: — add and remove datasets of interest the impact on bioburden and particle
Encompassing all relevant informa- — define periods of interest using counts (figure 5). From these obser-
tion, including process operations capsule logic vations, statistical models were built,
data and process analytical instru- — perform profile searches to teach and 3 Sigma boundaries created to
ment data and find similar performance represent a robust operating space.
l Investigation: Having the full range of l Advanced analytics to analyze and To share the results, the organization
data signals available for each process, develop models: Using built-in and documented workflows in Seeq Jour-
batch, or asset readily available to: user-friendly tools for initial calcula- nal and created a dashboard in an Or-
— cleanse data tions and immediate application to ganizer Topic.



Figure 6. Pharmaceutical process example illustrating how a PAT methodology can be applied in production-scale chromatography to
track column efficiency degradation using Workbench and Journal.

Case study B: Column maintenance position, increasing productivity and cal engineering, and she has 20 years of
in production-scale chromatography reducing maintenance costs. Further, experience across many industries—includ-
A PAT methodology can be applied in this information can be captured as ing pharmaceuticals and life sciences and
production-scale chromatography to part of a continuous improvement pro- specialty chemicals. Graham was previ-
track column efficiency degradation cess through workflow documentation ously COO and SVP at Bend Research (now
using, for example, transition analysis in Journals and Organizer Topics. Lonza) and Alkemy Innovation, which she
and the calculated height equivalent founded. Graham was director of the Or-
to the theoretical plate (HETP), so en- Recipe for success egon governor’s STEM Investment Council
gineers can optimize column mainte- In a world currently trapped in unfocused and chair of the Oregon Board of Trustees
nance. This example shows conduc- data collection and time-consuming, for Oregon Tech University.
tivity and volume signals spanning a complicated, nontransferable spread-
View the online version at
variety of production, downtime, re- sheets, there is a path forward. Data in
generation, and transition analysis pe- and of itself is not useful unless one has an RESOURCES
riods (figure 6). approach to derive insights from it. Fortu-
First, the organization uses Seeq’s nately, there is a recipe for success. “It’s the right time for PAT”
Profile Search tool to identify all of the The keys are implementing an ad-
transition analysis periods, enabling vanced analytics solution where the
“What’s next for big data in process
calculation of the HETP during each datasets are gathered strategically with manufacturing”
transition. The HETP increases, indicat- an end use in mind upfront, and then
ing fewer resolved separations per unit providing a way for these datasets to
column length (i.e., lower efficiency), be easily accessed and analyzed within “Big data analytics need new
with total volume through the column, a user-friendly interface. With this ap- solutions”
as might be expected. This calculation is proach in hand, organizations can more
refreshed as the connected data sources fully realize the knowledge management
are updated, allowing engineers to con- practices essential to achieving business Guidance for Industry PAT — A
tinuously monitor column efficiency value within a PAT framework. n Framework for Innovative Pharma-
and schedule maintenance before the ceutical Development, Manufactur-
HETP exceeds the desired threshold, ABOUT THE AUTHOR ing, and Quality Assurance
which would decrease product purity. Lisa Graham, PhD, PE (lisa.graham@seeq.
Similar analyses could be used to com), leads the analytics engineering team ucm070305.pdf
optimize flow rates and eluent com- at Seeq Corporation. Her PhD is in chemi-


basics By Chip McDaniel

Systems must integrate

multiple power and control
aced with ever-increasing cost pressures
subsystems and components and demands for improved performance,
machine builders are actively seeking

into a coherent whole new automation solutions with improved cost/

performance ratios. In response to these de-
mands, vendors must often incorporate com-
mercial off-the-shelf components and other
technologies to deliver more performance at
lower costs in smaller form factors.
This article shows how machine builders
and vendors can work together to deliver the
automation systems demanded, and how to
successfully integrate the multiple power and
control subsystems and components.



Components and subsystems overcurrent related to

A machine’s automation system primarily consists short circuits. Overcur- l Power needs to be distributed to a
of power and control components. For a smaller rent protection devices, machine’s motors, drives, controllers, and
machine, these may be housed in one panel such as fuses and cir- other components.
(figure 1); whereas larger machines may require cuit breakers, must be l The machine’s safety system must remove
multiple panels, often one for control and another sized based on conduc- motion-causing energy when called upon,
for power. The main subsystems and components tor current-carrying ca- including both electrical and fluid power.
of a machine automation system are: pacity, device interrupt l It is a good practice to have multiple Ethernet

l power distribution rating, maximum fault and serial ports available to integrate to a
variety of equipment, computers, HMIs, and
l motor control and drives current, system voltage, business and enterprise systems.
l safety system load characteristics,
l programmable controllers and other factors.
l discrete and analog I/O For power circuits, branch-circuit-rated devices
l communication systems must be used to meet current-limiting and ground
l human-machine interface (HMI) fault protection requirements. Supplemental
The power distribution subsystem feeds pow- overcurrent protective devices are not suitable for
er to components, such as motors, drives, and use in these circuits but work well in downstream
controllers. The control subsystem primarily control circuits tapped from the load side of the
consists of safety systems, programmable con- branch circuit.
trollers, discrete and analog I/O, communica-
tion systems, and HMIs. Let’s look at each of Motor control and drives
these areas in more detail. Motors have special needs in machine control. For
every motor, a proper form of electrical control is
Power distribution required, from simple on/off to more complex
The National Electric Code (NEC, also NFPA 70) has variable speed applications. Motor control devices
much to say about using electricity properly to safe- include manual motor starters, motor contactors
guard persons and property. The code comes into and starters with overloads (figure 2), drives, and
play well before the power source connects to the soft starters.
machine control enclosure through a plug, discon- A motor circuit must include both overcurrent
nect, or terminal block. At the machine, the NFPA (short circuit) and overload protection. This typi-
79: Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery is cally consists of branch-circuit protection, such as
the benchmark for industrial machine safety related properly rated fuses, and a motor starter with over-
to fire and electrical hazards. Some of the major load protection devices, such as thermal overloads,
requirements in machine control power distribution but additional protection may be needed.
discussed in these standards include using proper Additional protection to consider for machine
disconnect means, protecting personnel from con- control components includes loss of cooling and
tact with electrical hazards, and protecting equip- abnormal temperatures. Ground fault protection
ment from overcurrent and overloads. is also needed, so a proper ground connection is
The disconnect—whether a switch, circuit important. Over, under, and loss of voltage must
breaker, or cord with a plug—must be provided for also be considered. Protection from lightning,
any control enclosure fed with voltages of 50 VAC overspeed, and loss
or more. It should be properly sized, positioned, of a voltage phase in
wired, labeled, and, in some cases, interlocked to three-phase supplies
the enclosure door. are additional con-
Protecting personnel from contact with electrical siderations for proper
hazards is always needed, both inside and outside machine control.
a machine power or control panel. All conductors Some motor control-
must be protected from contact by personnel. Most lers, such as drives and
power distribution devices are designed to facilitate combination control-
this level of protection, but live components, such lers, are self-protected.
as power buses, distribution blocks, and other If this is the case, the
power terminals, should be covered with a non- device’s rating or man-
conductive, see-through cover. ufacturer’s instruc-
Protecting equipment from overcurrent is criti- tions will clearly note Figure 1. For smaller machines, a single panel is
cal to reduce the chance of fire. Conductors and it is suitable for output often used to house both the power distribution
electrical components must be protected from conductor protection. system and the control components.



(PAC), or a PC. The complexity of the context to the discrete or analog data
machine control application, end-user by delivering diagnostics and detailed
specifications, and personal prefer- device status to the controller.
ence drive controller selection. Many
vendors have families of controllers Communication systems
to cover a range of applications from Another important part of machine
simple to complex, allowing a machine control now and for the future is exten-
builder to standardize to some extent. sive communication capability. It is a
Often three or more physical configu- good practice to have multiple Ethernet
rations—small, medium, and large and serial ports available to integrate
form factors—are available from the to a variety of equipment, computers,
controller manufacturer. HMIs, and business and enterprise sys-
Using the same software platform tems (figure 3).
to program a family of controllers is Multiple high-speed Ethernet ports
becoming the norm. This allows the de- ensure responsive HMI communica-
Figure 2. These Fuji manual motor starters signer to first program the system, and tion, as well as peer-to-peer and busi-
and contactors from AutomationDirect have then select the right controller based ness system networking. Support of
high switching capacity and integrate the on its capacity to handle the number industrial Ethernet protocols, includ-
functions of a molded case circuit breaker of I/O points needed, as well as special ing EtherNet/IP and Modbus TCP/IP,
and a thermal overload relay.
functions such as proportional, inte- is also important for scanner/client
gral, derivative control and data han- and adapter/server connections. These
Safety system dling. Required capabilities like exten- Ethernet connections enable outgoing
A risk assessment drives the safety sys- sive communications and high-speed email, webserver, and remote access
tem design as needed to remove motion- control should be carefully evaluated, communication functions—all impor-
causing energy, including electrical and as these are often the main factors tant options for machine control.
fluid power, to safely stop the equipment driving controller selection. Machine control often benefits from
for protection of both personnel and Discrete and analog inputs and the availability of legacy communica-
machines. Many safety standards come outputs connect the controller to the tion methods, such as serial RS-232
into play for proper machine control at machine sensors and actuators. These and RS-485. Modern controllers often
both a mechanical and electrical level. signals can originate in the main con- also include USB and MicroSD com-
Proper mechanical machine guarding trol panel through a terminal strip munication and storage options.
and access points, as well as elimination with wiring to field devices, but a dis- A big part of machine control commu-
of identified hazards, is a starting point. tributed I/O architecture is often a bet- nication is cybersecurity. Consider a lay-
Safety relays or safety-rated controllers ter solution. Distributed I/O reduces ered defense where protection includes
must be used to monitor safety switches, wiring by moving the input or output remote functions that are only enabled
safety limit switches, light curtains, and point closer to the field device, and by as part of the hardware configuration. For
safety mats and edges. multiplexing multiple I/O signals over further protection, all tags should be pro-
In small machine control applications, a single cable running from the remote tected from remote access unless the tag
a safety relay is probably the simplest way I/O component to the control panel. is individually enabled for that purpose.
to integrate safety functionality for emer- For distributed
gency stop, monitoring a guard door, or I/O at a smaller
protecting an operator reaching through scale, IO-Link is
a light curtain. In more advanced ma- a point-to-point
chines, safety-rated controllers provide serial communi-
the same functions, but can simplify the cation protocol
integration of multiple safety devices. where an IO-
Safety-rated controllers reduce hard- Link-enabled de-
wired safety logic by providing a platform vice connects to
to program the safety functions needed an IO-Link mas-
for proper and safe machine control. ter module. This
protocol commu-
Programmable controllers and I/O nicates data from
Available in form factors from small to a sensor or actua-
large, the machine controller can be a tor directly to a Figure 3. In addition to the multiple communication ports on this
programmable logic controller (PLC), a machine control- BRX controller, additional ports are added using a STRIDE Industrial
programmable automation controller ler. It adds more Ethernet switch and a GS drive serial-to-Ethernet adapter.



Human-machine interface may demand a detailed view of ma- nents to provide the required power
The HMI shows vital information about chine status, access to system param- distribution, safety, and real-time
machine conditions using graphical and eters, and recipe functionality. Clearly control. Each of these subsystems and
textual views. HMIs can be in the form of defining the need of the machine will components must work together, and
touch panels, text panels, message dis- help determine HMI size and capabili- many are often networked to each
plays, or industrial monitors. They are ties, and this should be done early in other via either hardwiring, or increas-
used for monitoring, control, status the design process. ingly via digital communication links.
reporting, and many other functions. HMIs can also act as data hubs by Careful design, selection, integration,
The purpose of the HMI must be connecting to multiple networked and testing will ensure the automation
clearly defined. Some machines may devices. In some machine control ap- system performs as required, both ini-
only need a fault message display with plications, multiple protocols may be tially and throughout the life cycle of
few control functions. Other machines used, and often HMIs can be used for the machine. n
protocol conversion. This functionality
can be used to exchange data, such as ABOUT THE AUTHOR
status and set points, among different Chip McDaniel (mcdaniel@automation-
“Start with risk assessment to
controllers and other smart devices. works in technical marketing
enhance safety”
Some HMIs can also send data to the for AutomationDirect and is a graduate of
cloud or enable remote access function- Georgia Tech. His 33 years of experience
“Explaining AC drives” ality through the Internet, given proper in the industrial automation field include user name and password authentication. designing, building, and commissioning
multi-axis servo systems, as well as market-
“Remote access to automation
Work together ing a wide range of automation products.
system components”
Machine automation systems consist
of multiple subsystems and compo- View the online version at

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4 June


Striking a balance for
plantwide wireless
Advantage of two industrial wireless technologies;
one for operations and one for infrastructure
By Shuji Yamamoto

eal life has a way of demonstrating that it is relatively
rare to find a case where the phrase “one size fits all”
truly applies. Many times, this assertion can be trans-
lated as “one size imposes compromises on all,” and so it is
with industrial wireless networking. Several options are avail-
able, and engineers scrutinize the right combination of
installed cost, connectivity, and power consumption to select
the winner. However, in many cases choosing two winners
may be the best answer.



A primary reason for moving to wireless sensors applications, while

is to minimize installation cost, because home-run lesser reliability may be l ISA100 Wireless is already established for
conduit and wire are removed from the equation. acceptable in others. critical process automation operations.
But even among wireless options, there are sustain- Operational net- l IIoT sensors are often numerous and widely
ing cost considerations, such as how often batteries works, such as ISA100 distributed but have low required polling
need to be replaced. Wireless, must directly rates and are typically used for noncritical
Some industrial wireless standards, such as operate process devic- maintenance and environmental sensing.
ISA100 Wireless, are already established wireless es and safety systems. l LPWA, specifically the LoRaWAN protocol,

local area networks in many process plants for Therefore, these net- is a low-cost wireless technology suited
for connecting to many IIoT devices over
critical operations like monitoring and control of works are expected to a wide area, powered only by
equipment, or even safety-related automation. deliver: long-life batteries.
This type of industrial wireless must have extremely l real-time monitor-
high reliability and operate in a close to real-time ing and command with less than 1-second
manner for process control and safety applications. response
By comparison, the use of Internet of Things l high reliability of communication infrastructure
(IoT) and Industrial IoT (IIoT) devices throughout l high integrity of data transmission
facilities is quickly expanding for monitoring and l excellent security
even controlling noncritical infrastructure relating l medium-range communication
to maintenance and environmental management. l flexible topologies (redundancy, backbone,
For these types of applications, there are many rea- mesh, star)
sons to select a protocol within a networking class l coexistence with wired systems
known as low-power, wide-area (LPWA) network- l robustness within typical industrial environments
ing. A prominent protocol in this area is LoRaWAN. Infrastructure LPWA networks, on the other hand,
Implementing LPWA for IIoT devices in con- typically monitor equipment and the environment.
junction with a protocol like ISA100 Wireless for Therefore, these networks are expected to have:
process devices lets end users strike an optimal bal- l wide-area coverage, kilometers or tens of kilo-

ance between price and performance to achieve meters

advanced, efficient, and safe plant operations. This l ultra-multipoint connections, up to 1,000 or
article examines why LPWA is a compelling choice even 10,000 points
within a sitewide wireless network architecture for l variable communication cycles ranging from 60
implementing IIoT devices. seconds to 60 minutes to three days
l easy physical installation to minimize field costs

Operations and infrastructure overlaps and gaps l a possibility for data sharing by multiple top-

When designing or expanding sitewide wireless level systems

network architectures, users must categorize the l a focus on long-term data as opposed to instan-
desired service for various field devices. Typical taneous values
plant or factory wireless needs can be roughly l suitability for use in multiple operating conditions
divided into one of four types: safety, operation, l relatively low cost per point
maintenance, and environment (figure 1). The first Based on the listed criteria, almost any conceiv-
two are considered operational, while the last two able field device can be logically categorized. Set-
are infrastructure related. ting aside cost and technical details, a significant
Safety is usually considered the most criti- deciding issue is the poll time required for a signal.
cal application, followed closely by operation.
Maintenance and environmental monitoring
are most likely somewhat less critical, but im- ISA100 Wireless LPWA
portant, nonetheless. With this in mind, wire-
less networking technologies should be selected
Figure 1. Typical plant
based on these roles. Operation Maintenance wireless categories: Process
To do this, it is helpful to review some specific plants usually have safety,
requirements for operational networks in compari- operational, maintenance,
son with infrastructure networks. Weighing these Plant and environmental net-
requirements drives the network technology selec- working needs. The first
two are best served by an
tion, since sometimes the choices are gray rather
operational network like
than black or white. For instance, some charac- Safety Environment ISA100 Wireless, while the
teristics such as “reliability” are always desirable. last two find a better fit
However, high reliability may be crucial in some with LPWA networking.



Operational devices are associated with results in responsive control (action time Power
immediacy and quick action, while infra- less than about 1 second), the design of
structure devices are often trended over a operational wireless networks is neces-
much longer time base. sarily more heavily engineered up front. high
A closer look at wireless networking Sometimes this involves specifying ISA100 Wireless
technologies reveals why different types redundancy options. In cases where
are best suited for certain roles. operational wireless networks are used
in conjunction with classically wired
Power struggle systems, a well-engineered system will
One consistent and common-sense bot- handle the two similarly, although of
tom line when evaluating wireless tech- course they would be distinguishable. long
nologies is the trade-off between power There are ways to leverage opera- Figure 2. Wireless balancing act: When
consumption and range (figure 2). Com- tional wireless networking to monitor comparing power consumption against
mon consumer Wi-Fi is a large power infrastructure-type signals, but the end communication range, it is easy to see why
consumer with relatively short range, user would be overpaying for hardware LPWA networking occupies the sweet spot
for IIoT implementations.
although it delivers massive bandwidth. and design efforts every step of the way.
Low-power networks like Zigbee are find- Instead, it makes more sense to select a cation networks at this time, as opposed
ing a place in home automation scenar- networking technology targeted for infra- to being considered workable for general
ios, but their extremely low range limits structure applications. wireless sensor networks. Also, end users
them to personal area network applica- would likely be concerned about build-
tions. Industrial wireless networking such Focused on infrastructure ing their sensor networks on systems that
as ISA100 Wireless occupies a balanced Contemporary LPWA networks have be- make them beholden to outside network
region somewhere in the middle. come available as the core technologies providers.
This leaves LPWA residing by itself in have improved, often based on consumer For these reasons, LPWA networks and
the low-power, wide-area position indi- electronics breakthroughs. Advances in small field devices are an excellent fit for
cated by its name. For IIoT implementa- reduced power consumption (such as with infrastructure monitoring applications.
tions, this is the sweet spot for two main handheld devices and consumer Blue- They can easily be used to retrofit existing
reasons. The first is that low-power en- tooth wireless) and maximized wireless equipment with instrumentation to sup-
ables IIoT devices to be operated with network bandwidth have translated into port preventive maintenance efforts, and
just batteries, only needing replacement similar benefits for industrial applications. they can minimize personnel exposure
after years of service. No additional local LPWA implementations, such as Lo- by being installed in areas that formally
power conduit and wire, or a local power RaWAN, have now reached a practical required operator rounds.
source such as solar cells, are required, level where they can be used to integrate The data delivered by IIoT devices in a
making these devices very convenient for thousands of sensors at a site. Addition- LoRaWAN system can be used by analyti-
hard-to-reach locations. The power con- ally, LPWA is extensible beyond an on- cal applications in parallel with operation-
straint is not about saving power strictly premises solution to connect over the al systems, or it can be cross-connected to
for consumption costs, it is instead about cloud, which effectively makes the trans- operations (figure 3). Many times, IIoT data
enabling the device to be installed as a mission distance Fig. 3: Connected industrial enterprise
truly wireless physical island requiring unlimited as long Connected industrial enterprise Connected ConnectedEnterprise
minimal maintenance. as Internet access
The second reason is that IIoT devices is available. IIoT
tend to be widely scattered around a site, It is worth not-
IIoT data
so long-range communications are nec- ing that 3G/4G/5G Analyze Decide
essary. This also means it is far easier to mobile network-
add future sensors as funding allows with- ing systems are a OT Monitor &
out requiring additional components. form of LPWA but Mission cri�cal control
At the end of the day, power consump- are not considered
tion, range, and the resulting available here for industrial Measure Take ac�on

bandwidth determine where an industri- networking use

Connected Plant/Factory
Connected plant/factory
al wireless network technology fits best. due to relatively • Safety and stability
• High performance
Conventional industrial wireless net- high service pro- • Autonomous issue resolu�on
work efforts were originally focused vider costs. This is • Response to change
• Value crea�on
around supporting the operational type because they are • Transfer of know-how

of applications, mostly due to the avail- more aligned as the Figure 3. Benefits of wireless: Industrial wireless technologies, whether
able underlying technologies at the time. backbone of com- for operations or IIoT infrastructure, should be used where they fit best
To achieve sufficient performance that mercial communi- to sense conditions, initiate controls, and empower decision making.



is processed offline and separately from will continue to experience a growing

live operational data, such as to determine presence in automation systems for
when rotating equipment is experiencing high-performance control and moni-
increased temperatures or vibration and toring. However, to truly take advan-
should undergo preventive maintenance. tage of widespread IIoT advancements,
When engineers have gained confi- it is important to adopt LPWA network-
dence in the IIoT platform, they may ing technology such as LoRaWAN to
choose to use the information to proac- economically integrate multitudes of
tively modify active control strategies. sensors on a sitewide basis.
This overarching concept of using all LPWA is a just-right fit of cost, power
available data to produce optimal actions consumption, range, and bandwidth
is the ultimate goal of any completely for monitoring infrastructure condi-
connected industrial enterprise. Next, tions such as temperature and vibra-
let’s look at a typical application. tion. This data is key to preventative
and predictive maintenance programs.
Figure 4. LPWA LoRaWAN in action: This
Applying small sensors diagram depicts a basic installation where The nature of LPWA devices means
IIoT sensors for infrastructure are gener- many field-located Yokogawa Sushi Sensor they are economical to install initially,
ally small sensors, easily installed even devices connect through a plug-and-play since no wiring is required, and they
in remote or difficult physical locations. gateway. The data is transmitted to an on- are also cost effective on a long-term
premises or cloud-based system for use by a
This allows extremely granular installa- basis due to minimal maintenance
higher-level host system or portable devices.
tions, providing condition-based sensing NFC connectivity enables local configura- requirements.
exactly where needed, as opposed to a tion and monitoring of the sensors with a Operational and LPWA infrastruc-
wired installation where it is more impor- smartphone. ture wireless networking work espe-
tant to centralize devices to minimize the cially well in conjunction with each
wired infrastructure installation effort. look for larger trends, or to compare the other, because the combination covers
This granular nature also makes wire- different facilities against each other. such a wide range of wireless needs.
less infrastructure monitoring systems Process controls have always been the Used together in a sitewide industrial
very scalable. Users can initially install domain of operational technology (OT) wireless network, they deliver a com-
sensors anywhere to meet immediate personnel, but infrastructure monitoring prehensive balance of immediate and
needs, and then add more sensors later in recent years has often been dependent proactive plant operations. n
as funding allows or where experience on information technology (IT) staff.
proves valuable. Although IT staff are proficient at net- ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Figure 4 depicts a basic IIoT installa- working and databases, they are often less
Shuji Yamamoto (shuuji.yamamoto@
tion and integration. Numerous IIoT field experienced with industrial concepts and is the wireless promo-
devices are installed as needed in the field the nature of time-series process data.
tion manager at Yokogawa’s marketing
and report over a LoRaWAN system to a Implementing infrastructure condition
headquarters for External Affairs & Tech-
plug-and-play gateway. This gateway in monitoring with LPWA plug-and-play
nology MK Center. He joined Yokogawa
turn transmits the field data up to an on- functionality puts the maintenance and
after completing a master’s degree in elec-
premises or cloud-based system, where environmental monitoring tasks squarely
tronic engineering from Shinshu University
the data becomes available to any higher- in the hands of OT personnel, who are
with a specialty in high frequency research.
level host or supervisory system. In fact, best equipped to use it. This results in a far
He has had a variety of responsibilities with
the cloud connectivity also means there more efficient integration.
the company over his career, all primarily
are options to publish the data directly to One other note is that some IIoT sen-
related to wireless networking and IIoT.
portable devices, so field personnel can sors offer near-field communications
monitor the data from anywhere, espe- (NFC) wireless capability. This very short- View the online version at
cially near the equipment. range (just a few centimeters) wireless
Host systems could be one or more of link is not useful for ongoing data trans-
the following: the operational control sys- mission but does enable common smart-
“Essential wireless network layout
tem, a database and trending package, an- phones to act as local configuration and
alytical software, or possibly even a system monitoring tools for sensor status. This is
offering advanced machine intelligence yet another case where IIoT devices can
algorithms. IIoT systems provide just the save end users money. “Getting IIoT to live up to the hype”
kind of “big data” that analytical software
needs to do its work. In fact, the cloud im- Just right wireless
“Convergence and commercial momentum”
plementation means that applicable data Conventional industrial wireless opera-
from multiple sites can be aggregated to tional networks, such as ISA100 Wireless,


RAMI 4.0
Reference Architectural Model
for Industrie 4.0
Three-dimensional map showing how to approach Industry 4.0
in a structured manner

By Bill Lydon he RAMI 4.0, Reference Architecture Model strategy. Remaining competitive and flexible can
Industrie 4.0 (Industry 4.0), was developed only be accomplished by leveraging advanced
by the German Electrical and Electronic technologies, centering on automation to enable
Manufacturers’ Association (ZVEI) to support In- a successful transition. Germany’s Industrie 4.0
dustry 4.0 initiatives, which are gaining broad ac- initiative has ignited cooperative efforts in China,
ceptance throughout the world. Industry 4.0 (also Japan, and India.
termed Industrie 4.0) is a holistic view of manu- Industry 4.0 is interdisciplinary, where the
facturing enterprises, started in Germany, with standards applicable in mechanical engineer-
many worldwide cooperative efforts including ing, electronics, electrical engineering, and
China, Japan, and India. Industry 4.0 concepts, communications and information technology
structure, and methods are being adopted world- need to be combined with the respective tech-
wide to modernize manufacturing. nologies needed for their implementation.

Effective manufacturing Discrete and process industries

Throughout the world, there is a recognition that The development of RAMI 4.0 focused on in-
to be competitive, manufacturing needs to mod- dustrial production as the primary area of ap-
ernize. The Industry 4.0 movement in particular plication, including discrete manufacturing to
continues to accelerate defining the pattern of process industries. Industry 4.0 concepts are
how all industrial automation can achieve being applied to process industries to achieve
the goal of holistic and adaptive automa- a holistic integration of automation, business
tion system architectures. A driving information, and manufacturing execution
force behind the development of function to improve all aspects of production
Industry 4.0 is the realization and commerce across process industry value
that pursuing low labor chains for greater efficiency. The “Process Sen-
rates is not a winning sor 4.0 Roadmap” initiated by NAMUR and VDI/
VDE, in collaboration with several prominent
leaders in the industry (including ABB, BASF,
Bayer Technology Services, Bilfinger Mainte-
nance, Endress+Hauser, Evonik, Festo, Krohne,
Lanxess, Siemens, and Fraunhofer ICT), reflects
the intent of creating fundamental building
blocks to advance process automation system
architectures. A number of NAMUR working
groups are part of Working Area 2 (WA 2), Auto-
mation Systems for Processes and Plants.



Related to this activity, the OPC Foundation have a common frame- FAST FORWARD
and FieldComm Group have an initiative to work to understand l RAMI 4.0 ensures that all participants

create a protocol-independent, process auto- each other. The RAMI involved in Industry 4.0 discussions and
activities have a common framework and
mation device information model (PA-DIM) 4.0 framework is in- terminology.
specification based on the industrial interoper- tended to enable stan-
l RAMI 4.0 focused on industrial production
ability standard OPC UA. PROFIBUS/PROFINET dards to be identified as the primary area of application, including
International is now participating in this vision, to determine whether discrete manufacturing to process industries.
which is supported by NAMUR as part of its there is any need for l The Industry 4.0 movement continues to
Open Architecture (NOA) initiative. The goal is additions and amend- accelerate defining the pattern for all
enabling end users to dramatically reduce time ments. This model is industrial automation to achieve the
to implement advanced analytics, big data proj- complemented by the goal of holistic and adaptive
automation system architectures.
ects, and enterprise cloud solutions that rely on Industry 4.0 compo-
information from thousands of geographically nents. Both results are
dispersed field devices using multiple process described in DIN SPEC 91345 (Reference Archi-
automation protocols. tecture Model Industrie 4.0). DIN (
represents German interests within the Interna-
RAMI 4.0 definition tional Organization for Standardization (ISO).
The RAMI 4.0 Reference Architectural Model and Today, roughly 85 percent of all national standard
the Industry 4.0 components give companies a projects are European or international in origin.
framework for developing future products and Putting the RAMI 4.0 model in perspective, in
business models. RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional the glossary of the VDI/VDE-GMA 7.21 Indust-
map showing how to approach the deployment of rie 4.0 technical committee, a reference model is
Industry 4.0 in a structured manner. A major goal defined as a model that can be generally applied
of RAMI 4.0 is to make sure that all participants and can be used to derive specific models. There
involved in Industry 4.0 discussions and activities are many examples of this in the field of technol-

Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0

(RAMI 4.0)

RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional map showing the most important aspects of Industrie 4.0. It ensures that
all participants involved share a common perspective and develop a common understanding,” explains
Kai Garrels, chair of the working group Reference Architectures, Standards and Norms at the Plattform
Industrie 4.0, and head of standardization and industry relations at ABB (



ogy. The most well known is the seven- l functions bound to hardware ternational standards series for enter-
layer ISO/OSI model, which is used as a l hierarchy-based communication prise IT and control systems. These
reference model for network protocols. l isolated product hierarchy levels represent the differ-
The advantage of using such models is ent functionalities within factories
a shared understanding of the function The “New World: Industry 4.0” manu- or facilities. (Note that the IEC 62243
of every layer/element and the defined facturing system characteristics are: standard is based upon ANSI/ISA-95.)
interfaces between the layers. l flexible systems and machines To represent the Industry 4.0 environ-
l functions distributed throughout the ment, these functionalities have been
Important characteristics network expanded to include work pieces, la-
RAMI 4.0 defines a service-oriented l participants interact across hierar- beled “Product,” and the connection
architecture (SOA) where application chy levels to the Internet of Things and services,
components provide services to the l communication among all partici- labeled “Connected World.”
other components through a commu- pants
nication protocol over a network. The l product part of the network “Life Cycle Value Stream” axis
basic principles of SOA are indepen- l RAMI 4.0 structure The left horizontal axis represents the
dent of vendors, products, and tech- RAMI 4.0 consists of a three-dimen- life cycle of facilities and products,
nologies. The goal is to break down sional coordinate system that de- based on IEC 62890, Life-cycle manage-
complex processes into easy-to-grasp scribes all crucial aspects of Industry ment for systems and products, used in
packages, including data privacy and 4.0. In this way, complex interrelations industrial-process measurement, con-
information technology (IT) security. are broken down into smaller and sim- trol, and automation. Furthermore, a
ZVEI characterizes the changing pler clusters. distinction is made between “types”
manufacturing systems. The current and “instances.” A “type” becomes an
“Old World Industry 3.0” manufactur- “Hierarchy Levels” axis “instance” when design and prototyp-
ing system characteristics are: On the right horizontal axis are hier- ing have been completed and the actu-
l hardware-based structure archy levels from IEC 62264, the in- al product is being manufactured. The

Implement communications
How do valves systems safely and securely
control your process? in automation and
control environments
Reflecting the latest Gain a solid
knowledge of fluid understanding of:
mechanics and • legacy and advanced
acoustics relating to communications systems
control valves, this • advances in communication
practical, best-practice technology
reference guide • cybersecurity methods
explains the function and standards (including
and purpose of ANSI/ISA/IEC 62443)
control valves along • SCADA, DCS, and fieldbus
with their various
types, features, • Ethernet and router
and limitations.
• wireless

Order your copy today at Order your copy today at



The German ZVEI ( industrial association, founded in 1918, represents the interests of
the high-tech sector with a wide portfolio. ZVEI is committed to the common interests of the electrical
industry in Germany and internationally. This commitment is supported by about 160 employees in the
main office and 5,000 employees from the member companies in an honorary capacity.
ZVEI is based in Frankfurt with offices in Berlin and Brussels. Through its EuropeElectro working
group, ZVEI also has an office in Beijing. More than 1,600 companies, which employ about 90 percent of the staff of the electrical
industry in Germany, have opted for membership in ZVEI. Its members include global, medium-sized, and family-owned compa-
nies. The sector has 868,000 employees in Germany, plus more than 736,000 employees all over the world.
The basis of the association’s work is the exchange of experience and views between the members about current technical,
economic, legal, and socio-political topics in the electrical industry. From this exchange, common positions are drawn up, including
proposals on research, technology, environmental protection, education, and science policy; ZVEI is a pacemaker of technological
progress. It also supports market-related international standardization work.
The association works with national business associations and organizations, European industry and trade associations, and
international organizations. It is divided into 22 trade associations that comprise all member companies, each operating in the same
market segment. In addition, ZVEI maintains nine state offices in Germany that represent the interests of the electrical industry in the
country. Since June 2014, Michael Ziesemer, vice chairman of the board of the Endress + Hauser Group, has been president of the
ZVEI. Klaus Mittelbach has been the executive director of the ZVEI management since 2008. n

model also combines all elements and IT components in ABOUT THE AUTHOR
the layer and life-cycle model. Bill Lydon ( is chief editor of InTech. Lydon has
been active in manufacturing automation for more than 25 years.
“Layers” axis In addition to experience at various large companies, he co-
The six layers on the vertical axis describe the decompo- founded and was president of a venture-capital-funded industrial
sition of a machine into its properties, structured layer by automation software company.
layer, i.e., the virtual mapping of a machine. Such represen-
View the online version at
tations originate from information and communication
technology, where properties of complex systems are com-
monly broken down into layers.
Within these three axes, all crucial aspects of Industry
4.0 can be mapped, allowing objects such as machines to
be classified according to the model. Highly flexible Indus-
try 4.0 concepts can thus be described and implemented
using RAMI 4.0. The model allows for step-by-step migra-
tion from the present into the world of Industry 4.0.

Benefits of RAMI 4.0

The model integrates different user perspectives and pro- Convert Your Mobile Device into a
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RAMI 4.0 can be regarded as a map of Industry 4.0 solu-
Full line of registered HART Modems
tions. It is an orientation for plotting the requirements of - USB, RS232, Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy
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sectors together with national and international standards
to define and further develop Industry 4.0. There is a refresh- Use your own host device or one of our complete systems.
Hazardous area options available.
ing interest with Industry 4.0 initiatives for various organiza-
Significant cost savings • Mobile convenience • Satisfaction guaranteed
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talization of the national standardization bodies. NEW! iOS Version now available!

The challenge
The influx of technology is starting to dramatically improve
manufacturing. However, to do this effectively takes planning,
and the RAMI 4.0 model is a focal point for understanding
the entire manufacturing and supply chain. n


Improving maintenance
by adopting a P-F curve

The P-F curve: One of the first,

yet hardest, things to learn

By Kevin Clark,

he P-F curve is a way of representing an completely fail,” says John Bernet, a product
CMRP asset’s behavior or condition before it has application specialist at Fluke with decades of
reached a failed state. It illustrates an as- experience in vibration monitoring. “The P-F
set’s progression toward failure. On the chart, the curve is a conceptual representation only and
x-axis represents the time to failure, starting with does not have any units or scale.”
an asset’s installation, and the y-axis represents The P-F curve is highly dependent on pat-
an asset or component’s resistance to failure. terns. For example, if one motor ramps up to a
Potential failure (PF) indicates a detectable specific rpm during operation, then an identical
state of failure, or the point at which degrada- motor used on another asset should behave in
tion begins. Functional failure (FF) is when the the same way. The P-F curve is something that
asset or component has reached a failed state we—those of us in the maintenance and reli-
or no longer performs satisfactorily. The most ability space—depend on from a mature stand-
important part of the P-F curve is the P-F inter- point. As reliability engineers using the P-F
val, which represents the time between when curve, we have gotten to the point of trying to
potential failure is detected in an asset and design out failure, of trying to indicate failure,
when it reaches the failed state. The length of rather than simply waiting for it to happen.
the P-F interval is largely determined by the The way motors are built today, they have
technology used to detect failure. onboard diagnostics indicating how they per-
form—but not how they feel. Similarly, our
Highly dependent on patterns human bodies are built to take care of them-
“Most assets follow a curve in their life cycle, selves—but when things go wrong, we need
from good to progressively worse, until they doctors to help us determine what is wrong and



l Used in conjunction with
condition monitoring, the P-F
curve improves maintenance by
allowing staff to do more than
just react.
l Detecting failures when they are
actionable but still early allows
organizations to plan the best
time to take corrective action.
l Using P-F and condition
monitoring tools improves
productivity and uptime.

what needs to be done to fix it. A motor takes Each of these methods of testing has some-
care of itself. It knows how to run, and it knows thing specific to say about an asset’s operation,
how to deliver power and energy to whatever it and the timing information has even more to
is attached to. But when something starts to go say about the future of the asset. Using these
wrong, it needs a diagnosis to determine the modes of inspection and methods of detection
repair required. can provide an early warning of decreased per-
The method and frequency of detection essen- formance.
tially determine the length of the P-F interval. The “Early indicators, like oil analysis and ul-
more often assets are inspected and the more trasound, may just be a signal for additional
sensitive the method of inspection, the more time maintenance actions, such as lubricating
there will be between detection of potential failure bearings, or beginning to plan and schedule
and when failure actually takes place. maintenance to avoid surprises,” Bernet says.
“Late indicators, like thermography, may not
Modalities of the P-F curve be soon enough to prevent damage to the
Technologies and tools used to detect failure shaft, bearings, and components of the rotat-
can include (earliest to latest): ing machine.”
l oil analysis The cost of maintenance commonly increas-
l ultrasound es the closer you get to the failed state, as there
l vibration is less time to mitigate or eliminate failure.
l thermography And, at a certain point, there is no potential
l motor testing failure anymore—the asset has reached failure
l physical inspection and must be repaired or replaced. It is also true



faults,” Bernet continues. “Even a

healthy machine is going to have vibra-
tion, so it’s easy to identify what is nor-
mal for a good rotating machine and
then to be able to look for patterns in
the change in the vibration.”

Why condition monitoring pairs well

with the P-F curve
Condition monitoring is the use of
continual screening technologies to
detect changes in the operation of
assets, which means you are alerted to
potential issues well before failure or
downtime occur. It gives you real-time
situational awareness of your opera-
tion and enables you and your team
to schedule maintenance and correc-
tive actions in advance. Furthermore,
condition monitoring can provide a
longer P-F interval than other mainte-
nance methods.
that the further away from the failed P-F curve on is equipment with rotat- “Reactive maintenance is all based
state you detect potential failure, the ing assets, which makes vibration a on failures that have already occurred.
more sophisticated (and thus expen- perfect technology to use. Rotation Planned or calendar-based mainte-
sive, considering both equipment and is something that is fairly consistent. nance is based on taking some kind of
training) the detection technology. When you have a consistently behav- corrective action globally but not hav-
ing piece of equipment, using the P-F ing any indication of which machines
Importance of timing curve makes a lot of sense. actually need it,” Bernet said. “Condi-
Sometimes taking corrective action too tion monitoring is based on knowing
soon can have bigger consequences, P-F curve and vibration monitoring that a fault is coming—but has not
such as higher costs or more downtime, All machinery vibrates, but excess occurred yet—and gives you some
than not acting. If you are repairing vibration in rotating equipment can prewarning and the ability to schedule
things too quickly, you are going to be make potential issues known early on. corrective repairs before the efficiency
spending money on changing out com- Vibration monitoring can measure or capability of a machine is reduced.”
ponents more often than necessary. In changes in the amplitude, frequency, Identifying anomalies before they
such cases, you either have inaccurate- and intensity of forces that can cause result in damage, downtime, or dis-
ly identified the actual point of failure damage to rotating equipment. ruptive repairs decreases costs, un-
or have your parameters set incorrectly. “Compared to other technologies— expected downtime, and production
By detecting failures when they are like ultrasound, oil analysis, and loss. Other benefits include extended
actionable but still early, you are able thermography—vibration is kind equipment life and smaller spare parts
to plan the most advantageous time to of like Goldilocks,” says Bernet. inventories. And, when you have suffi-
take corrective action. When used in “Thermography can be too late, while cient lead time to order parts on an “as
conjunction with condition monitor- ultrasound and oil analysis can be too needed” basis, you can even eliminate
ing, the P-F curve improves mainte- early, but vibration is just right. With expedited costs.
nance by allowing you to do more than vibration, we can see indications of Other maintenance methods, such as
just react. faults 12 to 18 months in advance— calendar-based maintenance, simply
Oil analysis is one of the first indi- when there is still life left in the do not fit as well with the P-F curve. The
cators of potential failure. It tells you components—and not react too soon.” real-time data provided by condition
a lot about what is going on with a The four most common vibration monitoring lets you stay on top of where
piece of equipment by indicating what faults are imbalance, looseness, mis- each critical asset is on the P-F curve.
kind of particles are in the oil. But not alignment, and bearing wear. Rare
all assets have oil, so you cannot use machine faults do happen, but almost Tools to optimize
oil analysis for everything. Vibration all vibration faults fall into these four Maintenance is neither about fixing
is typically the next earliest indicator. categories. “Vibration is especially everything the moment potential fail-
The most common thing to use the effective in diagnosing mechanical ure is detected nor about waiting until



everything fails before replacing it. It business. Think about it this way: You helps you understand how each asset
is about finding the right balance be- have two identical motors on different affects your operation, and that helps
tween taking action at the most oppor- pieces of equipment, and they have you see where you need to spend your
tune time for each asset and allocating two totally different rankings. That is time, money, and energy.
your resources in the right way. because a criticality analysis consid-
One way to manage the trove of ers the impact an asset has on product The future of maintenance
data and insights you will get from quantity and quality, on the environ- Emerging technologies, namely artifi-
condition monitoring is with a com- ment, on safety, and on how that par- cial intelligence and machine learning,
puterized maintenance management ticular machine affects everything else. promise to take that kind of focus to
the next level. With pattern recognition
capabilities beyond human capacity,
Identifying anomalies before they result in damage, down- they will advance and enhance your
time, or disruptive repairs decreases costs, unexpected maintenance operations.
Data is one of the most valuable
downtime, and production loss. things in the world—if you know what
to do with it. One of the biggest benefits
system (CMMS). This software main- When you do a criticality analysis, of condition monitoring is that, as you
tains a database of information on an you are looking at every factor sur- learn exactly how your assets perform
organization’s assets and maintenance rounding each asset and how integral and fail over time, you will be able to
operations. they are to the process. Any time you sharpen and refine your maintenance
In addition to software like a CMMS, start to analyze, you are likely to hear program. And by taking advantage of
each organization should go through from your team that, “It’s all critical. If emerging technologies, you will have
the process of performing a critical- I don’t have any of these assets, then extremely powerful software watch-
ity analysis. This crucial assessment I can’t produce products.” It is not ing for patterns and learning more
evaluates and classifies all of an opera- until you start breaking it down in de- every day.
tion’s assets to provide a clear under- tail that they start seeing how assets For a long time, maintenance was
standing of which require immediate truly differ in importance. In general, seen as just a cost to doing business.
attention, which can wait, and even assets are broken down into three Now, with the concept of reliability
which can run to failure. This evalua- different categories: A, high critical- engineering gaining traction and new
tion will help clarify and inform your ity; B, medium criticality; and C, low technologies becoming more widely
maintenance decisions and efforts. criticality. used, companies are recognizing ways
From a dollars and cents standpoint, Typically, 10 to 20 percent of assets to achieve operational excellence and
the P-F curve applies more to critical are highly critical. Between 20 to 30 per- gain strategic advantage. Maintenance
assets. cent of assets are in the medium range. can help companies carve out a com-
A criticality analysis helps you iden- And the rest, up to 40 to 60 percent, are petitive edge, especially once they
tify how pivotal each asset is to the low criticality. The criticality analysis have started using the P-F curve. n


Kevin Clark, CMRP (,
vice president, Accelix, Fluke Digital Sys-
tems, joined Fluke in December 2016.
He has more than 30 years of industrial
experience, working with both Fortune
500 and smaller start-up manufacturing/
technology companies in various leader-
ship capacities. He currently maintains
his conference board position with the
Society of Maintenance & Reliability Pro-
fessionals and is on the advisory board
with Pumps & Systems. Clark has a BS,
computer-integration in manufacturing,
from Purdue University and an MBA from
Colorado State University.

View the online version at


association news | Highlights & Updates

ISA Energy and Water Automation


he ISA Energy and Water Auto- tion providers have to engage in mean- and treatment of wastewater.
mation Conference, scheduled ingful dialogue to find those synergies. ISA’s Power Industries Division plans to
for 7–8 August 2019 at the Omni ISA can be a venue for those discussions host sessions covering automation and
Championsgate Resort in Orlando, Fla., in multiple ways, from standards devel- control solutions for oil and gas explora-
will have interactive sessions led by ISA’s opment to content creation to in-person tion, processing, and refining with a focus
power generation, alternative energy, events.” on power generation methodologies, in-
municipal water, and industrial water ex- ISA’s Water/Wastewater Industries Divi- cluding harnessing wind and solar energy.
perts. The conference program will cover sion will bring expertise and content fo- Many industries rely on sourcing, trans-
technologies and best practices that apply cused on effective utility management, porting, handling, recycling, and dispos-
to multiple infrastructure sectors. water/wastewater operations and main- ing industrial water as a core element of
Challenges the industry faces today in-
clude using data analytics in a meaningful
way, navigating the new world of Indus- “Part of ISA’s mission is to increase technical competency
trial Internet of Things with safety and by connecting automation professionals, and this event is a
cybersecurity in mind, and applying the
insights of recent “Smart Cities” initiatives perfect example of how that can benefit our industries.”
to improve operations. —Mary Ramsey
“Part of ISA’s mission is to increase
technical competency by connecting auto- tenance, IT/OT coordination, engineering their power generation strategies. Infra-
mation professionals, and this event is a best practices, integration/programming, structure that supports both power and
perfect example of how that can benefit supervisory control and data acquisition, water are also at the heart of the “Smart
our industries,” said ISA Executive Director programmable logic controllers, instru- Cities” initiatives.
Mary Ramsey. “Technology applications mentation, cybersecurity, and asset man- For more information about the
that are working in one sector can often agement related to the treatment and event, visit
translate to another, but users and solu- distribution of water and the collection ewac2019. n

New book on situation management available

The new book, er or not the enterprise operates safely New contributions, Rothenberg points
Situation Manage- and productively. These include accurate- out, are the concepts and technology
ment for Process ly and appropriately assessing the current of weak signals and their use to supple-
Control (www.isa. operating environment, transforming ment the alarm system and cover situ-
org/situationmg- that assessment into needed action for ations that alarms are not intended or
mt), is intended proper management of abnormal situa- able to manage.
to unify industry tions, and validating the effectiveness of “Weak signals are small indicators of
understanding the action. things that don’t appear quite right,” he
of how to deliver “Properly understood and executed, it explains. “They can be discovered every-
real value to con- is a game changer in safe and effective where; understanding and exploiting them
trol room opera- operation of industrial plants and opera- will lead to valuable clues and the ability to
tions. Written by tions,” states Rothenberg. “It advances confirm something likely going amiss.”
Douglas H. Rothenberg, PhD—an expert a firm technical framework that ties to- Rothenberg emphasizes the impor-
in alarm management and operator sup- gether all of the traditional individual tance and relevance of the book to man-
port technology—the book explores con- aspects (e.g., procedures, the human- agers, supervisors, operators, human-
trol room management as a discipline, machine interface, control room design, factors engineers, safety personnel, and
focusing on the applicable tools, technol- and more) into a technology to under- technicians in industrial enterprises and
ogy, and methodologies that foster safer, stand and design effective control room operation centers. It will also be useful
more effective control room functioning management operations. This is a unified for regulators, specialists, engineers, sys-
and improved industrial production. approach with explicit tools to deliver tem designers, and trainers at commercial
Situation management is the sum total situation management to control room firms who create monitoring and controls
of the real-time decisions and actions that operators. The tools to see problems are hardware, software, and technology for
the operator makes to determine wheth- followed by the tools to manage them.” end users. n


Certification Review | association news

ISA Certified Automation New CAPs and CCSTs

Professional (CAP) program Certified Control System Technicians

Name Company Location

RPM = (Frequency • 120) / (# of poles
Certified Automation Professionals Level 1
in the motor)
(CAPs) are responsible for the direc- David M. Gwin None U.S.
tion, design, and deployment of sys- Varying the frequency affects both the Geoffrey B. Rousseau None U.S.
tems and equipment for manufactur- motor speed and the strength of the mag- Randy A. Dugger None U.S.
ing and control systems. netic field. When the frequency is lowered David N. Jones None U.S.
(slower motor speed), the magnetic field James E. Anderson None U.S.
CAP question increases, and excessive heat is gener- Robert G.W. Whalen None U.S.
Why must voltage be reduced along with ated. When the frequency is increased Hiram G. Page None U.S.
frequency in a variable frequency speed (higher motor speed), the magnetic field Russell Daniel Reed Holly Frontier U.S.
controller? decreases, and lower torque is produced.
Evan B. Williamson None U.S.
In order to keep the magnetic flux con-
A. to let the motor cool off Travis D. Russell None U.S.
stant, the V/Hz ratio must remain con-
B. because of capacitive reactance Brandon Weibley Prime Controls U.S.
stant. This keeps torque production sta-
C. to maintain the volts/hertz ratio Angel J. Hernandez None U.S.
ble, regardless of frequency. As frequency
D. to keep the motor from overspeeding Joel M. Martinez None U.S.
changes, we want to maintain a constant
Marco A. Venegas Orange County U.S.
flux density to maintain the torque devel- Sanitation District
CAP answer
oped by the motor. Henry Ng Orange County U.S.
The correct answer is C, “to main-
Sanitation District
tain the volts/hertz ratio.” The speed Reference: Trevathan, Vernon L., A Guide
Albert Navarro None U.S.
of the motor is controlled by chang- to the Automation Body of Knowledge,
Gholamrezaei Reza Orange County U.S.
ing the frequency applied to the motor: Second Edition, ISA, 2006. Sanitation District
Ryan M. Raiford Orange County U.S.
Sanitation District
Level 2
ISA Certified Control Systems Timothy C. Secrest None U.S.

Technician (CCST) program Joshua A. Smith

Matt A. Hayes
Justin M. Kovalski None U.S.
Certified Control System Technicians Gain is a unitless number that defines Jason W. Gerard None U.S.
(CCSTs) calibrate, document, trouble- the ratio of the change in output, due to Rick M. Mirolla None U.S.
shoot, and repair/replace instrumenta- proportional control action, to the change
Edward V. Keen None U.S.
tion for systems that measure and con- in input, in percent of span.
Dominic D. Duffert None U.S.
trol level, temperature, pressure, flow,
From the above definitions: Pedro N. Gulbe None U.S.
and other process variables.
Jeffrey P. Campbell None U.S.
PB = [∆ INPUT / ∆ OUTPUT] × 100 (1)
Jan A. Gramley None U.S.
CCST question and
Joseph D. Davis None U.S.
If the proportional band on a controller GAIN = ∆ OUTPUT / ∆ INPUT (2)
Robert C. Davis None U.S.
is 100 percent, then the controller gain is
equal to: Benjamin J. Smith None U.S.
Combining equations 1 and 2: Mitch E. Maloof None U.S.
A. 0.50
PB = 100 / GAIN
B. 0.20 Certified Automation Professionals
C. 1
GAIN = 100 / PB Name Company Location
D. 100
Saad Rehman Qatar Chemical Qatar
For a PB = 1: Hashmi Co. Ltd.
CCST answer
The correct answer is C, “1.” The propor- GAIN = 100 / 100 = 1 Servio Uribe None U.S.
tional band is defined as the amount of Michael J. Bartlett None U.S.
change in input (or deviation), as a per- Sudhakar WorleyParsons Abu
cent of span, required to cause the con- Reference: Goettsche, L. D. (Editor), Main- Rajendran Dhabi
trol output to change from 0 percent to tenance of Instruments and Systems, Sec- Arthur Eugene Nichols None U.S.
100 percent. ond Edition, ISA, 2005. Tom J. Hilty None U.S.


executive corner | Tips and Strategies for Managers

The mobile revolution invades the controls space

By Steve Hechtman

obile computing has now sur- with desktop design a secondary con- when signals are back in range.
passed desktop computing in sideration. In most cases, within the But there’s more! Today most mobile
the consumer space, but as context of OT, both desktop and mo- (and many desktop) applications can
we all know, operational technology (OT) bile need to be first-class experiences, run as JavaScript inside the browser. In
trends tend to follow information tech- so blending the mobile-adaptive and essence, the browser has become the
nology trends by up to 10 years. Howev- mobile-responsive approaches is usu- operating system. This is good news, be-
er, the OT space is now seeing a prolifera- ally the better choice. Another term for cause nearly every device has a browser.
tion of mobile devices and applications this is “mobile-also.” This widens the This means applications can be written
that leverage them well, affording the skill set and understanding required of once and can run on any device or oper-
space a tremendous opportunity (with a the control system integrator, whose ating system.
few caveats). user interface design concepts need to This can reduce plant downtime im-
When considering mobile computing, evolve to fully leverage mobile-device mensely. Whereas the failure of a typi-
there are three important design concepts capabilities—all without abandon- cal plant floor human-machine interface
to understand: mobile responsiveness, ing prior workstation design concepts, (HMI) or touchscreen PC can take down
mobile adaptiveness, and mobile first. which are still fully applicable. a line for hours or more, browser-based
“Mobile responsiveness” refers to the
design of applications that are suitable Whereas the failure of a typical plant floor human-machine
for mobile devices. This is done by using a
dynamic layout that automatically renders interface or touchscreen PC can take down a line for hours
information to any screen size, resolution, or more, browser-based applications can be restored using
or orientation in a highly usable manner.
For example, text and images can change any device with a browser in a minute.
from a three-column display to a single-
column display, with unnecessary images Speaking of fully leveraging mobile- applications can be restored using any
hidden so they do not interfere or com- device capabilities, the real win comes device with a browser in a minute. One
pete with more important information on by leveraging the wide range of sensors could even imagine using a tablet device
a mobile device’s smaller screen. available in mobile devices. Today’s mo- in a ruggedized protective housing in lieu
One can test any website for mobile bile devices are packed with nearly 14 of proprietary HMI screens.
responsiveness by using a desktop brows- sensors that produce raw data for mo- We are just now starting to see viable
er and resizing it to see how the text and tion, location, and other things concern- mobility in action on plant floors and in
images flow. Mobile-responsive design ing the environment. This could include the field. This opens whole new vistas of
reflows and adapts to almost any size, using the camera for reading barcodes what is possible and can make plant
while still presenting the most important or using Bluetooth LE (low energy) for operations far more efficient. n
information in a usable form. determining the general location inside
“Mobile-adaptive” design is similar to a plant, and of course there is also GPS. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
mobile-responsive design, except that it How useful would it be to record the Steve Hechtman (info@inductiveauto-
uses different layouts, each suited to a location of events or navigate to appli- is the president, CEO, and
particular range of screen sizes and reso- cable screens or data based on location? founder of Inductive Automation. Before
lutions. Such a design detects the type Or how about using a mobile device’s starting the company in 2003, Hecht-
of device being used and presents the accelerometer for vibration analysis—a man had 25 years of experience as a
appropriate layout for that device. For way of predicting rotating equipment control system integrator, including at
example, if a PC is detected, one layout failure—with nothing more than your Calmetrics Company, which he cofound-
is used, and if a mobile device is detect- mobile phone? ed in 1988. After years of frustration
ed, another one is used that can better Being out of range of cellular towers or with expensive and impractical industrial
utilize the available screen space. Wi-Fi should not be a limitation, because software, he created a better solution.
Application design in the past focused applications can be built to work in un- He formed Inductive Automation, which
on optimal desktop presentation, and tethered mode. In this case, the record- has brought up-to-date technologies to
mobile design was an afterthought. ing of mobile sensor data or manual data the controls business with web-based,
“Mobile-first” design reverses this and entry is done offline, with the data being database-centric products, and sensible
makes mobile a first-class experience, automatically uploaded or synchronized licensing models.


New Benchmarks & Metrics | standards

UL panel upholds ISA appeal of UL cybersecurity


n appeal panel formed by Un- developed by the ISA99 standards com- be eligible to become an internationally
derwriters Laboratories (UL) has mittee as American National Standards recognized standard through the IEC. IEC
ruled in favor of an ISA appeal with simultaneous review and adoption leaders from TC65, the primary IEC com-
against a UL cybersecurity standard. ISA’s by the Geneva-based International Elec- mittee working with ISA99, had previous-
appeal was brought against UL 2900-2-2, trotechnical Commission (IEC). ISA99 ly indicated that the UL standard would
Standard for Software Cybersecurity for draws on the input of cybersecurity have a very low chance of achieving that
Network-Connectable Devices, Part 2-2: experts from across the globe in develop- status in any event.
Particular Requirements for Industrial Con- ing the widely used standards, which are The ISA/IEC 62443 series is cited
trol Systems, for which UL was seeking ap- applicable to all industry sectors and criti- throughout the U.S. NIST Cybersecurity
proval as an American National Standard. cal infrastructure. Framework. In late 2018, the United Na-
ISA’s successful appeal means the UL stan- ISA’s successful appeal asserted that tions Economic Commission for Europe
dard will not gain that status at this time. UL failed to follow a key clause in the confirmed it will integrate the ISA/IEC
ISA’s appeal was driven by an underly- UL accredited standards procedures that 62443 series in its Common Regulatory
ing principle of standards development— is intended to prevent duplication and Framework on Cybersecurity, which will
to avoid burdening users with overlap- overlap. Prior to the appeal, UL had ac- serve as an official UN policy position
ping and duplicating standards from knowledged that it missed earlier oppor- statement for Europe.
different standards developers. Based on tunities to identify potential overlap and For information on the ISA/IEC 62443
reviews by cybersecurity experts, ISA was duplication. standards and related training and learn-
concerned about UL overlap with the ISA/ Without approval as an American Na- ing resources, contact Eliana Brazda, ISA
IEC 62443 series of standards, which are tional Standard, the UL standard will not Standards, n

ISA76 seeks user input on sample probe design

ever, current practices either specifically time, ISA76 is asking users to indicate,
exclude sample probes or do not reflect anonymously if desired:
the most recent practices and industry 1. Do you design, or have you ever de-
knowledge. signed, a sample probe according to
As a first step in the process of creat- ASME PTC 19.3?
ing a new standard or proposing changes 2. Have you ever had a mechanical fail-
to an existing standard, ISA76 is seeking ure of the probe designed to ASME
input from the wider industry, includ- PTC19.3 (which could not be disre-
ing manufacturers, EPCs, and end user garded due to an engineering error
companies. ASME PTC 19.3 is believed such as material choice or corrosion)?
to be the most comprehensive standard If your answer to the second question
The ISA76 standards committee, Com- in terms of understanding the static and is yes, would you allow ISA76 leaders
position Analyzers, has undertaken a dynamic stresses on a probe (with the to follow up to understand the applica-
first step in the process of creating a current restriction that the thermowell tion and failure?
possible new standard or modifying an standard specifically eliminates probes Any additional information on quanti-
existing industry standard for the safe from its applicability). ties, current company design practices,
design of sample probes. The com- ISA76 is seeking to determine if any and other related information and any
mittee is investigating the mechanical users have designed a sample probe questions that could be considered by
design of sample probes and injec- according to ASME PTC 19.3 2010 and/ ISA76 will also be greatly appreciated.
tion quills in response to concerns by or 2016 and have experienced probe Please send your responses to Charley
industry users about a possible gap in failure due to static or dynamic loads. Robinson, ISA Standards, crobinson@isa.
current best practices. Several industry It is expected that this information will org, with the subject line “Sample Probe
standards are currently used, including enable ISA76 to understand the extent Survey,” and indicate clearly if (a) you
ASME PTC 19.3, Thermowells, and IEC/ that the nuances between a probe and a would like to remain anonymous, and (b)
TR 61831, On-line Analyzer Systems – thermowell impact the overall structural if ISA76 leaders may follow up with you
Guide to Design and Installation. How- performance on a practical level. At this to better understand your experience. n


How multivariable
DP flowmeters can
improve performance
Using a DP flowmeter to measure additional
variables beyond basic flow measurement
increases precision and reduces costs

By Connor Oberle ifferential pressure (DP) is a common meters to measure multiple variables using so-
and well-understood technology for phisticated transmitters. Let’s unpack this idea
measuring the flow of process fluids for and consider what flow is and how it is measured.
several reasons:
l Versatility: It can measure virtually any type Uncompensated versus compensated flow
of fluid: liquid, gas, or steam. When measuring flow, simple DP flowmeters
l Scalability: Installations can be any size. provide a reading using just a DP measure-
l Precision: When designed and executed well, ment. Using a simple formula, the DP value
DP has very high accuracy. can be used to determine a flow rate. For many
Another attribute is the ability of DP flow- processes, such as liquids where the density

Figure 1. Using a mix of

measured and config-
ured variables, a DP
flowmeter can provide
a variety of different



and other properties can be reasonably as- example, say the pressure drop at a given flow
sumed, this is what is required. However, there condition is 1.35 psi. This is an accurate reading,
are many applications where steam or a gas but it does not say anything about the pressure
is the process fluid, and an uncompensated in the line. It could be 20 or 200 psi, and there is
reading does not deliver much useful informa- no way to know without an additional pressure
tion. A compensated flow reading is required measurement. Or is there? Some DP transmit-
for steam or gas, or a mass flow measurement ters can also measure the line pressure in gauge
may be required for feeding liquids to critical
chemical reactions for custody transfer and
other applications.
Figure 2. A separate temperature
Some flowmeter technologies, such as Corio- probe (left, mounted from below
lis, measure mass flow natively. This technology the pipe) can capture an accurate
can provide a different range of variables than temperature profile for the pro-
DP flowmeters, so depending on the needs of cess fluid and send it to the DP
the process, it might be a more appropriate
selection. For example, this technology can cal-
culate specific gravity of a fluid along with solids
If a mass flow measurement is required for the
process, the flow measurement available from a
DP flowmeter (figure 1) can be conditioned by
using multivariable technology. Multivariable
DP flowmeters are capable of providing addi-
tional process measurements and process in-
formation, including process temperature, line
pressure, fluid properties, and specifics about
the pipe geometry and primary element. When
this information is available, a compensated flow
measurement will correct for changes in density,
viscosity, and other dynamic fluid properties, al-
lowing DP flowmeters to be used with more chal- or absolute terms. By using the differential and
lenging fluids or in critical applications. line pressure measurements together, the pres-
As a case in point, if the DP flowmeter using sure on either side of the primary element can
multivariable technology takes input from a be determined. In this example, the high side is
temperature sensor, it will be able to improve its 64.92 psig, and the low side is 63.57 psig.
flow accuracy by using the temperature value in Knowing the high and low line pressures
its flow calculations. If the transmitter has been when working with a gas or steam is enor-
programmed with the density value versus tem- mously important for generating an accurate
perature curve for the process fluid, it can per- flow measurement, and the DP transmitter can
form all the calculations necessary for a com- monitor changing conditions and make sophis-
pensated flow reading for any process liquid in ticated calculations in real time.
real time. We will talk about steam and gases in
a moment. Precision and cost
When temperature and other variables are Two elements were mentioned in the opening
used to compensate the flow value, precision of this discussion: precision and cost. So far, we
can be improved to ±1 percent or better, depend- have talked about the mechanics of measure-
ing on the conditions. Because sophisticated DP ment and how they affect precision. A sophisti-
flowmeters have a high degree of accuracy, this cated DP transmitter provided with the process
can be a very useful improvement. fluid’s characteristics combined with a tempera-
ture and line pressure measurement can very
Pressure matters too precisely measure mass or volume. Such a trans-
DP transmitters are designed to measure the mitter can go through the calculation routines 20
difference between two points in a process. In times or more per second to ensure a true real-
the case of a DP flowmeter, the pressure on the time measurement.
upstream side of the primary element is higher Where does cost come in? The type of DP
than on the downstream side. For the sake of flowmeter described performs the function



Figure 3. A HART interface ex- Figure 4. A WirelessHART adapter

tracts the extra variables and can send multiple variables via
presents them as if each were the wireless network without
coming from a discrete point. affecting the primary wired I/O

of several individual instruments: line size, embedded in the configura- is a simple matter. It can then send all
a DP-producing element such as tion. The transmitter uses this infor- its data through the network to any
an orifice plate, a DP transmitter, a mation constantly for its own internal point in larger systems where it needs
gauge or absolute transmitter, a tem- calculations. to be used. No additional wired I/O
perature transmitter, and a flow com- If the DP flowmeter or any other type slots are necessary.
puter. Using a single, multivariable of multivariable instrument is used
DP flowmeter with its sophisticated in a Foundation Fieldbus or HART- Advantages of multivariable
transmitter and ancillary measure- enabled I/O environment, capturing instruments
ments eliminates the need to install the additional data is very simple. The Today’s multivariable instruments are
all these additional devices, at least distributed control system (DCS) sim- possible thanks to advances in trans-
in most situations. ply needs to be programmed to access mitter electronics. The little circuit
Some process engineers may be re- the data and on how to use it in larger board inside the housing is truly a pow-
luctant to use a secondary variable for control efforts. erful computer able to perform calcu-
a critical measurement. For example, In a conventional analog I/O envi- lations with remarkable speed. When
the DP flowmeter can provide its own ronment, accessing the extra functions applied to DP flowmeters, these capa-
temperature reading, but perhaps and variables is more complicated. bilities provide exceptional accuracy
not with an update rate as fast as a HART multiplexers tend to take a long across a huge range of fluid types and
stand-alone temperature sensor and time to cycle through all the transmit- characteristics.
transmitter. Of course, it is probably ters they service, so the additional Where useful, secondary variables
a small number of situations where readings will not have a fast update can deliver process information with-
temperature changes occur so rap- rate. A HART interface (figure 3) can out additional instruments or process
idly, and if a critical loop is based on work with a single multivariable instru- penetrations. This double benefit of
temperature, it will certainly require ment, breaking out the additional read- performance and cost advantages can
its own instrument. ings and turning them into separate help optimize the process while reduc-
4–20 mA signals. This works well, but ing the cost of gathering the data nec-
Practicality of additional the DCS has to treat them as separate essary for effective decision making. n
measurements tags just like individual instruments,
The practicality of using the extra mea- adding to wiring costs. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
surements as part of a larger process WirelessHART may be the best ap- Connor Oberle (
automation strategy will depend on proach for retrofits in a simple wired connoroberle) is a global pressure product
how they are extracted. The DP flow- I/O environment, or for new instal- manager for Emerson Automation Solu-
meter has access to the measurements lations. Many plants now have Wire- tions in Shakopee, Minn., responsible for
we have already mentioned—along lessHART networks operating for a Rosemount™ MultiVariable™ transmit-
with any additional information, such variety of purposes and adding an ters. He has a BS in mechanical engineer-
as fluid density characteristics and adapter (figure 4) to a DP flowmeter ing from the University of North Dakota.


Tips and Strategies for Integrators | channel chat

Digital transformation creates new opportunities

for system integrators
By Jose M. Rivera

here is limited value in discerning this is a big accomplishment. Although (IT SI) closed its acquisition of Cimation, an
between smart industry, Industrial this core function is still valuable today, OT SI in oil and gas, pipeline, chemicals,
Internet of Things (IIoT), Industry standardization and smart tools are metals, and mining. Similar deals could
4.0, digitalization, and digital transforma- simplifying and automating the process become more common.
tion, to name a few trendy terms. They are and reducing the value-add at this level. By successfully delivering on the digital
all pulling in the same direction and repre- On the other hand, the solution scope transformation opportunity, SIs can address
sent a powerful disruptive force. These ini- delivered by SIs is growing to meet the several of their own current challenges:
tiatives are much more than a mere tech- demand for ever-more interconnected n core business commoditization and
nology play. Technology is important and systems. This, in turn, increases the need competition from equipment vendors
a key enabler, but only one of the several for more comprehensive cybersecurity n thinning tech pool at manufacturers
complexities to be addressed to achieve systems. New technologies come into and frequent changes in their organiza-
success. Viewing these concepts as buzz- the mix and need to be mastered. All of tion affecting established relationships
words or as an effort to place new labels this means SIs will be kept busy. n competing market entrants (e.g., IT) to
on past concepts comes with the grave the acquisition, development, and re-
risk of missing immense opportunities. Solution-centric SIs tainment of talent, increasing pressure
All you have to do is look around you Next are the solution-centric SIs. From on wages
to see the disruption—the use of mobile the perspective of their manufactur-
smart devices, connectivity, and new busi- ing clients, the value added by the SIs Digital transformation gives SIs the fol-
ness models has exploded. Uber and Lyft grows with the expertise in their vertical lowing options:
have disrupted the taxi industry, while and, sometimes, in a specific application n Stay ahead of the curve to create dif-
Airbnb is giving the lodging industry a run within that vertical. New technology, e.g., ferentiation.
for its money. digital twins, requires not only mastering n Develop stronger links to manufactur-

Manufacturing digital transformation the tool and the approach, but also gain- ers through deeper expertise and on-
is not far behind; in fact, many indus- ing a deep understanding of the client’s going services.
try experts tell you it is well under way. underlying assets and applications. When n Offer new and valuable business mod-
Digital transformation creates an enticing SIs are regarded as the experts, they be- els that reduce plant capital expenditure
proposition for manufacturers; leaders come trusted advisors to their clients, and and demand on the client’s thinning
among them understand that this is vital their involvement can start earlier in the tech pool.
for their survival. Some are planning their process. Geographical proximity, impor- n Update their culture, work environment,
initiative, starting their journey, or scal- tant in the past, becomes secondary. and pay grade to attract and retain next-
ing pilot programs. Most have struggled, generation talent.
because the transformation collides with Transformation-centric SIs
cultural (organization), technological, Digital transformation brings the opportu- The need to support manufacturers in
and application complexities that may nity for value creation to a new level. SIs can their digital transformation is real. Those
not have been properly addressed. use their solid technical and vertical applica- SIs able to do this will have an immense
This digital transformation will, in turn, tion expertise to complement a front-end opportunity and competitive advantage in
disrupt system integrators (SIs). Their consulting engagement that also tackles the coming years. Will SIs step up and seize
ways of adding value will evolve into the other complexities, particularly those this opportunity? This challenge comes at a
new areas, creating three basic segments: related to the human element (culture and time when business for SIs in the U.S. has
product-centric SIs, solution-centric SIs, organization). This creates immense value been very strong. More than half of Con-
and transformation-centric SIs. to those manufacturers joining the digi- trol System Integrators Association (CSIA)
tal transformation. These are brand new members indicated that their current or-
Product-centric SIs areas of expertise for SIs. To achieve this der activity was somewhat or significantly
For product-centric SIs, ingenuity and level, many SIs will turn to partnerships or stronger compared to six months ago, ac-
deep product knowledge are paramount outright acquisitions to complement their cording to a survey of CSIA members in the
and, most likely, their value proposition capabilities. The information technology/ spring and fall of 2018 conducted by the
to date. They often bridge platforms operational technology (IT/OT) convergence CSIA and JP Morgan. In a less formal sur-
from various vendors to deliver solutions could also take place at the system integra- vey on business sentiment from December
that manufacturers demand. On its own, tor level. In December 2015, Accenture Continued on p. 46


product spotlight | Flow

Continued from p. 45
2018, 92 percent of participating CSIA SIs
reported “things are looking good,” while
only 8 percent “saw trouble ahead.”
Clearly, SIs in the U.S. are busy with

their current, conventional business ap- he thermal mass ST51A biogas flowmeter is
proach. Digital transformation requires designed specifically for dirty, potentially haz-
diverting some of the thinly stretched re- ardous biogas processes. It gives system opera-
sources to develop new capabilities—not tors an accurate and repeatable mass flow measure-
an easy request. This is the classic trade- ment to facilitate system control, log gas production
off between focusing on today versus data, and provide mandated safety and environmental
investing for tomorrow. reporting information.
Throughout their history, SIs have To survive in biogas processes, the ST51 flowmeter
adapted to important technological comes standard with 316 stainless-steel body con-
changes and gone on to thrive. This struction and Hastelloy-C22 thermal sensors. It has no
time will be no different. I am confi- moving parts and is nonclogging, which eliminates the
dent that forward-thinking SIs will take need for constant cleaning in wet, dirty biogas condi-
advantage of this unique opportunity tions. The ST51A meter comes with full global Division
and create a sustainable competitive ad- 1, Zone 1, Ex safety approvals.
vantage. Whether it is through partner- The meter’s electronics are housed in a durable NEMA
ships, mergers, or some other means, 4X, IP67 dust/water ingress-protected and all-metal (alu-
these SIs will raise the bar for the entire minum or 316L stainless-steel) enclosure with dual con-
SI industry. Some SIs will follow; others duit ports in either NPT or M20 threading. The transmitter
will never change and continue to de- can be integrally mounted with the flow element (probe)
liver their traditional approach to a con- or can be remote-mounted for installation flexibility. The instrument comes standard with
tracting market. dual 4–20 mA, NAMUR NE43 compliant outputs and a 500-Hz pulse output.
As the CEO of CSIA, I strive to maxi- The model adds digital communications via the HART, Version 7, protocol. It provides
mize the number of SIs pursuing and plant staff with digital data on flow rate and temperature parameters, the instrument’s
thriving in the opportunity provided by health, fault diagnostics, and asset management information. It can also make field
digital transformation. This way, CSIA configuration changes if needed by using standard HART portable communicators.
can achieve its mission to advance the FCI,
control system integration industry for
the benefit of its members and their

Profinet interface
manufacturing clients. n

ABOUT THE AUTHOR he IN-FLOW mass flowmeters and
Jose M. Rivera (ceo@ controllers are made according to is the IP65 (i.e., dust- and waterproof).
CEO of CSIA. His career The instruments are available for flow
in the automation in- ranges from 0.05-1 mln/min up to 200-
dustry, which includes 10000 m3/h air-equivalent. In addition
Emerson, Schneider, to the optional ATEX approval for use in
and Siemens, has Category 3, Zone 2 hazardous areas, the
spanned six countries, most often with series is now offered with FM approval
regional or global leadership roles. Rivera for Class I, Division 2, which is important
has an MBA from Kellogg School of Man- in North America.
agement at Northwestern University, and A Profinet fieldbus interface is also
Lic (MS) and BS degrees in electrical engi- available on the company’s industrial mass
neering from the University of Costa Rica. flowmeters and controllers for gases (for this new fieldbus, the FM and ATEX approvals
Founded in 1994, CSIA (www.control- are pending). The flexible architecture with its scope of functions enables machine auto- is a not-for-profit professional mation: maximum performance and precision, flexible address assignment and modular
association of more than 500-member design, fast commissioning thanks to open access, and defined interfaces and optimal
companies in 40 countries advancing the diagnostics of devices and the network.
industry of control system integration. Bronkhorst,


Hot Stuff for the Automation Market | products & resources

Laminar flow sensor Flow sensors

The EE660, designed for laminar flow monitoring and clean room The company’s flow switches
applications, measures low air velocity. The transmitter is now also alert users to potential failures
available with an RS485 interface. The EE660 is suitable for mea- due to a reduction in neces-
surement of low air velocity down to 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min). It features sary fluid flow. The recently
an E+E hot film sensing element. Furthermore, the sensing element released BFF series of flow sen-
is resistant to contamination and has a low angular dependency. sors, which are available in both
In addition to current and voltage outputs, the device now has thread-in and inline versions,
an RS485 interface with Modbus RTU or BACnet MS/TP protocol, provide a switching output that
which allows for integration into a bus system. The EE660 is avail- is activated when the flow falls
able for duct mount or with remote probe. The enclosure with ex- below a user-defined rate. This
ternal mounting holes facilitates installation with a closed cover. The makes it possible to notify users
measured data is also available on the optional display. Backlight of system problems, such as the failure of a pumping system, a
and 180° rotatability allow reading in any mounting conditions. clogged filter, or leaks, before they cause critical issues or system
The EE660 is user configurable with jumpers on the electronics shutdowns.
board or via software. The adjustment and The completely solid-state calorimetric sensing technology
the display setup can be performed with an measures temperature differential on each side of the sensing
optional configuration adapter and the free probe and has no moving parts. They are resistant to failures
EE-PCS product configuration software. caused by dirt or foreign object buildup. The devices also have
E+E Elektronik, continual flow monitoring and visual display of flow with inte-
grated light-emitting diodes.
The BFF series of flow sensors complement the company’s ex-
isting line of temperature sensors and are an addition to the line
of process-oriented sensor products.

Coriolis mass flowmeter Process flowmeter

The Promass A flowmeter measures The Rosemount 9295 helps end users
substances drop for drop. The flow- streamline procurement, installation,
meter measures values with repeat- operation, and maintenance. Design
ability, even in cases where process and purchasing consists of specifying
and ambient conditions fluctuate. and buying one assembly. Most field
The measuring device is suited for welding, cutting, fabrication, and other
installation, for example, in modu- tasks are not required, because all com-
lar process facilities and skids. ponents are fully assembled and leak
The sensor system is mounted on checked. The Rosemount 9295 is a sin-
a base plate that acts as a “shock gle assembly, but individual components
absorber,” effectively shielding the Coriolis measurement from out- can be replaced while it is in service.
side interference, such as from pipe vibrations. Other contributing This integrated DP flowmeter assem-
factors are the oscillation frequency of the measuring tube and its bly withstands the challenging environ-
completely balanced oscillation behavior. At a specified maximum ments and piping requirements found in
measured error of ±0.1 percent, high-precision measurements down refineries, chemical processing, and other heavy industrial plants.
to 8 g/min are possible, or—if the maximum error is permitted to be The device also has a welded spool section for drop-in installation,
±1 percent—even a quantity of less than 1 g/min can be measured. an all-welded design that meets piping requirements for hydrocar-
Because of the variety of device options, such as nominal diam- bon applications, roddable impulse lines for removal of impulse
eter, material, process connection, certification, transmitter type, line blockages without shutting down the process, optional inte-
or degree of protection, Promass A can be used in numerous ap- gral RTD for critical temperature reading to assist mass flow calcu-
plications. It is a small measuring device with a nominal diameter lations, dual-tap configurations that support fully redundant DP
DN 1 (1/24”), so the flowmeter can also be installed in extremely transmitter assemblies for safety instrumented systems, and isola-
tight spaces, such as in skids. A multitude of process connections tion valves that meet API 602 requirements and are designed to
are available, such as flanges, lap joint flanges, couplings, internal operate through years of continuous service. The flowmeter uses
threads or Tri-Clamps. The flowmeter can be used at process tem- the Rosemount 3051S DP transmitter to deliver flow readings and
peratures between –50 and +205°C (–58 and +401°F). device diagnostic information via HART.
Endress+Hauser, Emerson,


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Sample of Jobs Available at

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ISA Members post resumes at no charge.

Senior process engineer implementation for assigned categories in alignment with

Pacira Pharmaceuticals: The successful senior process engineer the broader commodity strategy. The lead will manage the
will provide technical support to operations, automation, facili- supply base to ensure all suppliers meet the priorities of de-
ties engineering, product development, quality, and regulatory livery, quality, new product integration, and cost competi-
affairs. The engineer will focus on leading projects for improv- tiveness. He or she will also lead cross-function teams. A
ing and optimizing operations through implementing new bachelor’s degree in supply chain, business administration,
technology. A minimum of 25 percent travel from San Diego is or a technical area; six or more years of purchasing or rele-
required based on project timelines. The position also requires vant experience; a proven track record of strong leadership;
at least 10 years of relevant cGMP and technical experience and a high level of critical thinking and analysis is required.
and a BS in engineering. Knowledge of Bulk, Fill, CIP, and SIP APICS CPIM or ISM CPM/APP is desired . . . see more at
processes is preferred . . . see more at

Cybersecurity threat analyst

Senior scientist technical transfer
HP: The cybersecurity threat intelligence analyst, located in
Translate Bio: This Lexington, Mass., company is seeking a
Austin, Texas, is charged with advancing our knowledge of
highly motivated and scientifically rigorous individual to join
adversary intent, opportunity, and capability to cause harm to
the CMC team. The scientist will focus on drug substance and
the company’s global business. The analyst is responsible for
drug product manufacture and on regulatory and analytical
the collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence, en-
support (including development, validation, and data review)
abling internal cybersecurity teams to focus their prevention
for drug substances and products. He or she will assist in the
efforts and the business to make better decisions. An extensive
development of scalable and robust formulation processes for
knowledge of standards of intelligence collection and analysis
drug substance and drug products in addition to serving as
tradecraft; experience tracking and reporting on cyberespio-
the process knowledge link between process development and
nage, crime, and malicious cyberactors; extensive knowledge
manufacturing. The position requires a BS in chemistry, bio-
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apolis, Minn., is responsible for strategy development and function . . . see more at


the final say | Views from Automation Leaders

Evolve or become irrelevant

By Paul Gruhn, PE, CFSE

o one likes change, yet change is inevi- be different than what an employee wants.
table. The noted quality guru W. Edwards ISA has been evolving continuously since its incep-
Deming was known for saying, “It is not tion in 1945. Our leaders have not always agreed over
necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory.” the years. Early on, there was not complete agree-
There is no doubt that change is disruptive and ment regarding the composition of the society, the re-
often painful. Some people complain that automa- quirements for membership, or on holding an annual
tion is displacing workers. It has for hundreds of exhibit. In the late 1960s, six long-range planning
years. The printing press did away with scribes, who committees published a 300-page report with hun-
could then move on to bigger and better things. Fac- dreds of recommendations on ISA’s future direction.
tory robots have done away with jobs, but the same All in an effort to remain relevant. It is the same today.
thing happened in the first industrial revolution long ISA’s vision and mission statements were up-
Paul Gruhn, PE, CFSE
ago. Did those displaced workers not move on to dated last year. I believe they will help guide us in
bigger and better things? The automobile did away the future and help us remain relevant. Our vision
com), is the 2019 ISA
with an entire industry that had to pick up and dis- statement is: “Create a better world through auto-
society president and a
pose of horse “products.” And how many people mation.” Who wouldn’t want to be part of that?
global functional safety
wanting to remain in that job might have fought Our mission statement is: “Advance technical com-
consultant with aeSolu-
against the automobile? Automation simply moves petence by connecting the automation community
tions in Houston, Texas.
people into new and better-paying roles. to achieve operational excellence.” We are advanc-
The only constant in life is change. Many have ing people’s knowledge to help companies be more
written that we cannot even think of most of the successful. What employer wouldn’t be interested
jobs, products, or services that will exist in 20 years. in that? But how will we accomplish that?
So just how does one know what service, product, An organization’s high-level strategies should not
or organizational structure to develop or change? change year after year. It is better to have one five-
year plan than five one-year plans. ISA’s Executive
ISA’s vision and mission statements were updated Board sets ISA’s strategic direction. Our high-level stra-
last year. I believe they will help guide us in the future tegic priorities are to: (1) be recognized as a standards
authority, (2) be the global source for automation, (3)
and help us remain relevant. Our vision statement is: go through a content and digital transformation, (4)
“Create a better world through automation.” further education advocacy, and (5) review our gover-
nance and leadership culture. I doubt anyone would
Who wouldn’t want to be part of that?
question the appropriateness of those goals. They do
Customers do not always know what they want line up with our vision and mission statements.
or what they might need in the future. People once The question then becomes what specific pro-
could not conceive of—let alone ask for—the auto- grams and actions will we put in place to accomplish
mobile, airplane, television, personal computer, those goals? Some of the programs we are discussing
iPhone, or programmable logic controller. Surveys and fleshing out to accomplish our priorities are: (1)
will not always reveal such desires, either. Henry Ford market awareness and sponsorship, (2) membership
said that if he had asked people what they wanted, development and engagement, (3) technical educa-
they would have said “a faster horse.” (Well, that is tion and certification, and (4) leadership and profes-
essentially what he gave them!) sional development. The Executive Board has broken
Yet ISA, like any organization, must be data driven into four smaller working groups to address these
in order to understand its markets and the interests issues. We are working to make these programs and
of its members and customers. We cannot simply goals specific, measurable, and timely. These working
rely on the whims or personal opinions of leaders. groups will include other society leaders as needed.
What one leader may consider important, another After all, we’re all in this together.
may consider irrelevant, and neither may be of real If you care about the society, where it is going,
interest to actual industry professionals. Also, what and how it can better help you and your employer
a professional with two years of experience wants is accomplish your goals, please get involved. After
different than what a professional with twenty years all, the world is run by people who show up. Don’t
of experience wants. What an employer wants may abdicate your responsibility to others. n


2019 ISA Conferences
ISA’s unbiased technical conference programming provides
access to worldwide experts and content on the latest
technologies, trends, real-world challenges, and industry
updates needed to remain competitive in today’s marketplace.

Mark your calendars and make plans to attend

an ISA technical conference program in 2019!

Analysis Division Symposium

Targeted Training: 5 & 9 May • Conference: 6–8 May
programs! Galveston, TX, USA

Awesome Energy & Water Automation Conference

content! Training: 5–6 August • Conference: 7–8 August
Orlando, FL, USA

IIoT & Smart Manufacturing Conference

Fall 2019
Location TBD

Process Industry Conference

Training: 7 November • Conference: 4–6 November
Houston, TX, USA

Find developing program details at:
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Put that in your mug and drink it.

© Allied Electronics & Automation, 2019 Get your A&C fill at 1.800.433.5700
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RAMI 4.0
Flow spotlight
The #1 Value in Automation


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99.7% of orders ship complete same day

AutomationDirect: HQ, Developmen

much more than HQ and wareho

just a “.com”

AutomationDirect is a non-traditional Engineering, Development and Research

industrial controls company using the best

ideas from the consumer world to serve the
automation market. Because of that approach,
we can deliver quality products to you for Our campus is located
much less than traditional suppliers. WeÕre all here - ou
accounting, and of course
See below . . .

You need quality products You insist on getting

at great prices. and you want it FREE
Since 1994 our prices have been typically Our technical support ha
50% less than traditional suppliers. voted best in service for 1
in a row. And it won’t cos

AutomationDirect Competitor Many independent industry magazine reader surve

Product Price/Part Number Price/Part Number the top of their lists for service. In Control Design m
Proximity sensor, 18 mm, tops in service for multiple product categories fiftee
3-wire PNP DC shielded, $14.50 $89.04
PBK-AP-1H A-B 872C-D5NP18-D4
with quick disconnect
AC Drive, 5 hp, 460V $416.00
A-B 22B-D010N104

You want complete p

NEMA 12 Enclosure, steel, $256.00 $459.11
wallmount (20” x 16” x 8”) N12201608 Hoffman A-201608LP to make the right pu
*All prices are U.S. published prices, subject to change without notice. AutomationDirect prices as of 12/19/2018.
We have FREE documen
Hoffman prices are taken from 11/21/2018. Allen-Bradley prices are taken from 11/21/2018.
Prices may vary by dealer. Many other part numbers are available from vendors. of FREE videos, FREE softw
For decades we’ve been offering a better value on industrial controls by FREE CAD drawings avail
running our business efficiently and passing the savings on to our customers. Whether you’re deciding on purchasing our prod
you buy, why should you have to pay for the man
Download the manuals - no purchase necessa

You don’t want to wait for your order. We have hundreds of videos online for you to ge
We have same-day shipping, and learn about our products. When shopping on
looking at has video, it will be available right there
it’s even FREE if your order is over $49.*
We also provide FREE online PLC training to anyo
interested in learning about industrial control. Av
AutomationDirect has always maintained a huge inventory, allowing us to ship
97.5% of orders complete the same day.
*Order over $49, and get free 2-day (transit) shipping within the U.S. and Puerto Rico. Programming software for a complex product ca
(Certain restrictions apply; Canadian orders may take longer based on destination) help you out by offering FREE fully enabled sof
popular products, including the Do-more PLCs, P
You want to be confident CLICK PLCs and C-more Micro HMI. No license or
you’re buying quality products. and our support is free too!
We stand behind our products In addition to software and documentation onlin
drawings for the majority of our product lines.
and guarantee your satisfaction.
We want you to be pleased with every order. That’s why we offer a
30-day money-back guarantee on almost every stock product we sell, 99.7% of orders ship comp
including our software. (See Terms and Conditions online for exclusions.) See for yourself at www.Auto
nt Center and Warehouses This “.com” is powered
by “.awesomepeople”!
For over twenty years our sole focus has been customer service.
That takes many forms: great prices, fast delivery, and quality
products. But regardless of our product selection and other
tangibles like pricing, the intangible value of customer service
is something that cannot be faked, automated or glossed over.
Our team members here at approach every day
with this one goal in mind - serve the customer. It’s a simple philosophy
that many companies forget or make too complex and fail.
If the answer to any decision is “Yes, this is good for our customers”,
d about 45 minutes north of Atlanta, GA, USA.
ur sales and technical support teams, purchasing, then we do it.
e our huge warehouses and speedy logistics team. It’s common sense.

“Should we have real upfront pricing online

and realtime stock availability?
g better service Yes, this is good for our customers.”
as been “Should we have FREE tech support before, during,
and after any sale instead of charging yearly fees
15 years for tech support?
st you a cent! Yes, this is good for our customers.”

“Should we offer FREE software on many

eys have placed us at products instead of charging licensing fees?
magazine alone, we’ve been voted Yes, this is good for our customers.”
een years in a row.
“Should we have all our documentation
online for FREE so people can access anytime,
even before they choose to purchase?
Yes, this is good for our customers.”
product information
urchase decision. “Should we offer more selection by consistently
ntation, hundreds introducing more new quality products
with great prices monthly, sometimes weekly?
ware, and Yes, this is good for our customers.”
lable 24/7 online.
“Should we offer FREE shipping
for orders over $49?
ducts or learning our products after Yes, this is good for our customers.”
nuals? That doesn’t make sense.
ary. “Should we be fiscally responsible and run
an efficient business so customers can
et up to speed quickly rely on us decade after decade after decade?
nline, if a product you’re Yes, this is good for our customers.”
e for you to view.
All these are discussions we’ve had internally and all have had certain
one aspects of “can we do that?”, “that will be hard to accomplish”, “no one
vailable 24/7: else is doing that, how can we?”. But if you bring it back to the simple
answer, “Yes, this is good for our customers”, then the perceived
an be costly, so we try to obstacles really don’t matter.
ftware for a number of our most Our company has evolved dramatically since 1994 and it’s this type
Productivity series controllers,
of decision making by all our team members over the years that keeps
upgrade fees to deal with,
our customers coming back and new customers checking us out daily.

ne, we have FREE CAD If you’re a current customer, we sincerely thank you for your business.
We wouldn’t be here if it wasn’t for you and promise to do our best
for you every day. If you’re new and checking us out for the first time,
we hope you give us an opportunity to serve you.

plete same day!
#1 Value in Automation
The best values in the world . . .
We’ve shopped around to bring you the most practical industrial control products
that are in-stock, ready to ship and at the right prices!
Reuben in HUNTINGDON VALLEY, PA wrote : Murph in CHICAGO, IL wrote : Allen in NASHVILLE, TN wrote :
“Been shopping here for years and I don’t plan “Love this product, I specify materials for “I have had nothing but excellent service from
on stopping! Great products at a great price. breweries and distilleries and all of the panels Automation Direct. The purchases that I have
Can’t beat the customer service!” I design are exclusively AD . Love the fact that made have worked perfect and arrived quicker
we can get replacements sent to anywhere in than I expected. A+A+A+”
Lal in POLAND, OH wrote : the US in 2 days. Tech support has been consis-
“Automation direct is among the best web sites tently excellent.” Gregory in CINCINNATI, OH wrote :
to use in terms of price, selection and order “I was able to design and built a control system
tracking.” Terri in CLINTON TOWNSHIP, MI wrote : in weeks. Your website and technical informa-
“Website is easy to navigate. I can always find tion that was available allowed me to do this. In
Trent in COOLIDGE, AZ wrote : what I need. Product has always been in stock addition, the shipping was flawless. Great job.”
“Always accurate with estimated delivery time, and received in a timely manner.”
support responsive and helpful, product selec- Brian in LONE BUTTE, BC wrote :
tion grows every time I visit the site.” William in SEYMOUR, TN wrote : “My candid and detailed response is there are
“Products are good. Shipping is top notch. so many good choices from this company, I use
Jeff in SHERMAN, NY wrote : However, tech support keeps me coming back. them whenever I can. Always a pleasure to deal
“Love the products! Productivity PLC lines are They are patient and look for solutions not just with, and the products consistently outperform
awesome, Dura Pulse VFDs are awesome. Great answer questions. Good job!” their price point.”
prices on everything.”

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