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# Compressible Flow - TME085

Lecture 15

## Chalmers University of Technology

Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences
Division of Fluid Mechanics
Gothenburg, Sweden

Overview shock
reflection
expansion
fans

shock
noncon-
servation
form
substantial
derivative

expansion entropy
theory equation
governing conser-
oblique equations vation
shocks form
governing
2D Flow
friction nozzles equations
Crocco’s
equation
heat
1D Flow moving
diffusers shocks

1D Flow Conservation
normal
shocks laws PDE:s shock
reflection
integral form
traveling
isentropic waves
flow
acoustic
waves

governing
equations method finite
of char- non-linear
energy
acteristics waves
Compressible flow
Boundary
mo- conditions
mentum continuity
flow
regimes

Com- Shock
speed of pressibility handling
sound
Basic
CFD
Concepts
Spatial
dis-
thermally
perfect cretization
gas

Thermo- Time
High tem- equilibrium
dynamics gas integration
calorically perature Numerical
perfect effects
gas schemes

Boltzmann
entropy 1:st and distribution
2:nd law molecular
motion
internal
energy
Chapter 6
Differential Conservation
Equations for Inviscid Flows

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 3 / 57

Overview

noncon- substantial
servation derivative
form
n entropy
equation
governing conser-
equations vation
form
governing
nozzles equations
Crocco’s
equation

Quasi
1D Flow moving
diffusers shocks

PDE:s shock
reflection

traveling
waves
acoustic
waves
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 4 / 57

## 4 Present at least two different formulations of the governing

equations for compressible flows and explain what basic
conservation principles they are based on

## the governing equations for compressible flows on

differential form - finally ...

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 5 / 57

Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

## conservation of mass PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of momentum
conservation of energy

## The substantial derivative:

PDE:s on non-conservation form
D ∂
= +v·∇
Dt ∂t
The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 6 / 57

Chapter 6.2
Differential Equations in
Conservation Form

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 7 / 57

Differential Equations in Conservation Form

## Basic principle to derive PDE:s in conservation form:

I Convert to volume integral via Gauss Theorem
I Arbitrary control volume implies that integrand equals to zero
everywhere

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 8 / 57

Continuity Equation
Mass conservation:

## Control volume formulation

d y {
ρdV + ρv · ndS = 0
dt
Ω ∂Ω

## Applying Gauss Theorem gives

{ y
ρv · ndS = ∇ · (ρv)dV
∂Ω Ω

Also,

d y y ∂ρ
ρdV = dV
dt ∂t
Ω Ω
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 9 / 57
Continuity Equation

Therefore
y  ∂ρ 
+ ∇ · (ρv) dV = 0
∂t

and thus

∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρv) = 0
∂t

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 10 / 57

Momentum Equation
Momentum conservation:

## Control volume formulation

d y { y
ρvdV + [ρ(v · n)v + pn] dS = ρfdV
dt
Ω ∂Ω Ω
where Ω is a fixed control volume

## Applying Gauss Theorem gives

{ y { y
ρ(v · n)vdS = ∇ · (ρvv)dV ; pndS = ∇pdV
∂Ω Ω ∂Ω Ω

Also,

d y y ∂
ρvdV = (ρv)dV
dt ∂t
Ω Ω
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 11 / 57
Momentum Equation

Therefore
y ∂ 
(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p − ρf dV = 0
∂t

## Ω is an arbitrary control volume, can be made infinitesimally small

and thus

(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p = ρf
∂t

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 12 / 57

Momentum Equation

## In cartesian form (v = uex + vey + wez ):

∂ ∂p
(ρu) + ∇ · (ρuv) + = ρfx
∂t ∂x
∂ ∂p
(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + = ρfy
∂t ∂y
∂ ∂p
(ρw) + ∇ · (ρwv) + = ρfz
∂t ∂z

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 13 / 57

Momentum Equation

or expanded:

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p
(ρu) + (ρuu) + (ρuv) + (ρuw) + = ρfx
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p
(ρv) + (ρvu) + (ρvv) + (ρvw) + = ρfy
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p
(ρw) + (ρwu) + (ρwv) + (ρww) + = ρfz
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 14 / 57

Momentum Equation

(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p = ρf
∂t

 
(ρuu + p) ρuv ρuw
 ρvu (ρvv + p) ρvw  = ρvv + pI
ρwu ρwv (ρww + p)

(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv + pI) = ρf
∂t

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 15 / 57

Energy Equation
Energy conservation:

## Control volume formulation

d y { y
ρeo dV + ρho (v · n)dS = ρf · vdV
dt
Ω ∂Ω Ω

## Applying Gauss Theorem gives

{ y
ρho (v · n)dS = ∇ · (ρho v)dV
∂Ω Ω

Also,

d y y ∂
ρeo dV = (ρeo )dV
dt ∂t
Ω Ω
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 16 / 57
Energy Equation

Therefore
y ∂ 
(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) − ρ(f · v) dV = 0
∂t

## Ω is an arbitrary control volume, can be made infinitesimally small

and thus

(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) = ρ(f · v)
∂t

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 17 / 57

Partial Differential Equations in Conservation Form

∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρv) = 0
∂t

(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p = ρf
∂t

(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) = ρ(f · v)
∂t

## These equations are referred to as PDE:s on conservation form

since they stem directly from the integral conservation equations
applied to a fixed control volume

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 18 / 57

Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

## Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

## The substantial derivative:

PDE:s on non-conservation form
D ∂
= +v·∇
Dt ∂t
The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 19 / 57

Chapter 6.4
Differential Equations in
Non-Conservation Form

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 20 / 57

The Substantial Derivative

## Introducing the substantial derivative operator

D ∂
= +v·∇
Dt ∂t

”... the time rate of change of any quantity associated with a particular moving fluid element is given by
the substantial derivative ...”

”... the properties of the fluid element are changing as it moves past a point in a flow because the
flowfield itself may be fluctuating with time (the local derivative) and because the fluid element is simply
on its way to another point in the flowfield where the properties are different (the convective derivative)
...”

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 21 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Continuity Equation

## Applying the substantial derivative operator to density gives

Dρ ∂ρ
= + v · ∇ρ
Dt ∂t

Continuity equation:

∂ρ ∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρv) = + v · ∇ρ + ρ(∇ · v) = 0 ⇒
∂t ∂t

+ ρ(∇ · v) = 0
Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 22 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Continuity Equation

+ ρ(∇ · v) = 0
Dt

## ”... the mass of a fluid element made up of a fixed set of

particles (molecules or atoms) is constant as the fluid
element moves through space ...”

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 23 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Momentum Equation

(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv + pI) = ρf ⇒
∂t
∂v ∂ρ
ρ +v + ρv · ∇v + v(∇ · ρv) + ∇p = ρf ⇒
∂t ∂t
   
∂v ∂ρ
ρ + v · ∇v +v + ∇ · ρv +∇p = ρf
∂t ∂t
| {z } | {z }
= Dv =0
Dt

Dv 1
+ ∇p = f
Dt ρ

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 24 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇
∂t
p
h o = eo + ⇒
ρ

(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρeo v) + ∇ · (pv) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇ ⇒
∂t

∂eo ∂ρ
ρ + eo + ρv · ∇eo + eo ∇ · (ρv) + ∇ · (pv) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇ ⇒
∂t ∂t

   
∂eo ∂ρ
ρ + v · ∇eo +eo + ∇ · (ρv) +∇ · (pv) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇
∂t ∂t
| {z } | {z }
= Deo =0
Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 25 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

Deo
ρ + ∇ · (p + v) = ρf · v + ρq̇
Dt
1
eo = e + v · v ⇒
2
De Dv
ρ + ρv · + ∇ · (pv) = ρf · v + ρq̇
Dt Dt
 
Dv 1
Using the momentum equation, + ∇p = f , gives
Dt ρ

De
ρ − v · ∇p + ρf · v + v · ∇p + p(∇ · v) = ρf · v + ρq̇ ⇒
Dt

De p
+ (∇ · v) = q̇
Dt ρ
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 26 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

De p
+ (∇ · v) = q̇
Dt ρ
From the continuity equation we get

Dρ 1 Dρ
+ ρ(∇ · v) = 0 ⇒ ∇ · v = − ⇒
Dt ρ Dt
 
De p Dρ De D 1
− 2 = q̇ ⇒ +p = q̇
Dt ρ Dt Dt Dt ρ

De Dν
= q̇ − p
Dt Dt

where ν = 1/ρ
Compare with first law of thermodynamics: de = δq − δW
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 27 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

## If we instead express the energy equation in terms of enthalpy:

   
De D 1 De D 1
= q̇ − p ⇒ +p = q̇
Dt Dt ρ Dt Dt ρ

 
p Dh De 1 Dp D 1
h=e+ ⇒ = + +p ⇒
ρ Dt Dt ρ Dt Dt ρ

Dh 1 Dp
= q̇ +
Dt ρ Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 28 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation
and total enthalpy ...

1 Dho Dh Dv
ho = h + v · v ⇒ = +v·
2 Dt Dt Dt

## From the momentum equation we get

Dv Dv 1
ρ + ∇p = f ⇒ = − ∇p + f ⇒
Dt Dt ρ

Dho Dh 1
= − v · ∇p + f · v ⇒
Dt Dt
|{z} ρ
Dp
q̇+ ρ1 Dt

 
Dho 1 Dp
= q̇ + − v · ∇p + f · v
Dt ρ Dt
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 29 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

 
Dho 1 Dp
= q̇ + − v · ∇p + f · v
Dt ρ Dt

Dp
Expanding the substantial derivative gives
Dt
Dp ∂p
= + v · ∇p ⇒
Dt ∂t

Dho 1 ∂p
= + q̇ + f · v
Dt ρ ∂t

## Let’s examine the above relation ...

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 30 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

Dho 1 ∂p
= + q̇ + f · v
Dt ρ ∂t

## The total enthalpy of a moving fluid element in an inviscid flow

can change due to
I unsteady flow: ∂p/∂t 6= 0
I heat transfer: q̇ 6= 0
I body forces: f · v 6= 0

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 31 / 57

Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

Dho 1 ∂p
=
Dt ρ ∂t

Dho
=0
Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 32 / 57

Additional Form of Energy Equation
Start from
 
De D 1
= q̇ − p
Dt Dt ρ

## Calorically perfect gas:

R
e = Cv T ; Cv = ; p = ρRT ; γ, R = const
γ−1

   
De DT R D p 1 D p
= Cv = = ⇒
Dt Dt γ − 1 Dt ρR γ − 1 Dt ρ

   
1 D p D 1
= q̇ − p ⇒
γ − 1 Dt ρ Dt ρ
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 33 / 57
Additional Form of Energy Equation

       
1 D 1 1 Dp D 1
p + = q̇ − p
γ − 1 Dt ρ ρ Dt Dt ρ

     
D 1 1 Dp D 1
p + = (γ − 1)q̇ − (γ − 1)p
Dt ρ ρ Dt Dt ρ

   
D 1 1 Dp
γp + = (γ − 1)q̇
Dt ρ ρ Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 34 / 57

Additional Form of Energy Equation

Continuity:

 
Dρ D 1 1 Dρ 1
= −ρ(∇ · v) ⇒ =− 2 = (∇ · v) ⇒
Dt Dt ρ ρ Dt ρ

 
γp 1 Dp
(∇ · v) + = (γ − 1)q̇
ρ ρ Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 35 / 57

Additional Form of Energy Equation

Dp
+ γp(∇ · v) = (γ − 1)ρq̇
Dt

Dp
+ γp(∇ · v) = 0
Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 36 / 57

Conservation Form

∂Q ∂E ∂F ∂G
+ + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

where Q(x, y, z, t), E(x, y, z, t), ... may be scalar or vector fields

## Example: the continuity equation

∂ρ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ (ρu) + (ρv) + (ρw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

## If an equation cannot be written in this form, it is said to be in

non-conservation form

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 37 / 57

Euler Equations - Conservation Form
Continuity, momentum and energy equations in Cartesian coordinates, velocity components u, v, w (no body forces, no

∂ρ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ (ρu) + (ρv) + (ρw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρu) + (ρuu + p) + (ρuv) + (ρuw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρv) + (ρvu) + (ρvv + p) + (ρvw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρw) + (ρwu) + (ρwv) + (ρww + p) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρeo ) + (ρho u) + (ρho v) + (ρho w) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 38 / 57

Euler Equations - Non-Conservation Form
Continuity, momentum and energy equations in Cartesian coordinates, velocity components u, v, w (no body forces, no
added heat), calorically perfect gas

 
∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂u ∂v ∂w
+u +v +w +ρ + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p
+u +v +w + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x

∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p
+u +v +w + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂y

∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w 1 ∂p
+u +v +w + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂z
 
∂p ∂p ∂p ∂p ∂u ∂v ∂w
+u +v +w + γp + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 39 / 57

Conservation and Non-Conservation Form

## The governing equations on non-conservation form are not,

although the name might give that impression, less physically
accurate than the equations on conservation form. The
nomenclature comes from CFD where the equations on
conservation form are preferred.

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 40 / 57

Conservation and Non-Conservation Form

## Conservation forms are useful for:

1. Numerical methods for compressible flow
2. Theoretical understanding of non-linear waves (shocks etc)
3. Provide link between integral forms (control volume
formulations) and PDE:s

## Non-conservation forms are useful for:

1. Theoretical understanding of behavior of numerical methods
2. Theoretical understanding of boundary conditions
3. Analysis of linear waves (aero-acoustics)

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 41 / 57

Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

## Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

## The substantial derivative:

D
Dt
=

∂t
+v·∇

PDE:s on non-conservation form

Crocco’s theorem

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 42 / 57

Chapter 6.5
The Entropy Equation

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 43 / 57

The Entropy Equation

 
De Ds D 1
=T −p
Dt Dt Dt ρ

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 44 / 57

The Entropy Equation

 
De Ds D 1
=T −p
Dt Dt Dt ρ

 
De D 1
= q̇ − p
Dt Dt ρ

we see that

Ds
T = q̇
Dt

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 45 / 57

The Entropy Equation

Ds
=0
Dt

## Furthermore, if the flow is steady we have

Ds ∂s
= + (v · ∇)s = (v · ∇)s = 0
Dt ∂t

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 46 / 57

Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

## Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

## The substantial derivative:

D
Dt
=

∂t
+v·∇

PDE:s on non-conservation form

The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

Chapter 6.6
Crocco’s Theorem

Crocco’s Theorem

## ”... a relation between gradients of total enthalpy,

gradients of entropy, and flow rotation ...”

Crocco’s Theorem

## Momentum equation (no body forces)

Dv
ρ = −∇p
Dt
Writing out the substantial derivative gives

∂v ∂v 1
ρ + ρv · ∇v = −∇p ⇒ + v · ∇v = − ∇p
∂t ∂t ρ
First and second law of thermodynamics (energy equation)
1
dh = Tds + dp
ρ
Replace differentials with a gradient operator
1 1
∇h = T ∇s + ∇p ⇒ T ∇s = ∇h − ∇p
ρ ρ
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 50 / 57
Crocco’s Theorem
With pressure derivative from the momentum equation inserted in
the energy equation we get

∂v
T ∇s = ∇h + + v · ∇v
∂t

1 1
h = ho − v · v ⇒ ∇h = ∇ho − ∇( v · v)
2 2

1
∇( v · v) = v × (∇ × v) + v · ∇v
2

A=B=v⇒

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 51 / 57

Crocco’s Theorem

∂v
T ∇s = ∇ho − v × (∇ × v) − v · ∇v + + v · ∇v
∂t

∂v
T ∇s = ∇ho + − v × (∇ × v)
∂t

## Note: ∇ × v is the vorticity of the fluid

1
the rotational motion of the fluid is described by the angular velocity ω = (∇ × v)
2

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 52 / 57

Crocco’s Theorem

∂v
T ∇s = ∇ho + − v × (∇ × v)
∂t

## ”... when a steady flow field has gradients of total

enthalpy and/or entropy Crocco’s theorem dramatically
shows that it is rotational ...”

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 53 / 57

Crocco’s Theorem - Example

shock
M∞ constant
ho constant
s constant

## I s is constant upstream of shock

I jump in s across shock depends on local shock angle
I s will vary from streamline to streamline downstream of shock
I ∇s 6= 0 downstream of shock

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 54 / 57

Crocco’s Theorem - Example

shock
M∞ constant
ho constant
s constant

## I Total enthalpy upstream of shock

I ho is constant along streamlines
I ho is uniform
I Total enthalpy downstream of shock
I ho is uniform

∇ho = 0

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 55 / 57

Crocco’s Theorem - Example

## Crocco’s equation for steady-state flow:

T ∇s = ∇ho − v × (∇ × v)

## I v × (∇ × v) 6= 0 downstream of a curved shock

I the rotation ∇ × v 6= 0 downstream of a curved shock

means!

## Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 56 / 57

Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

## Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

## The substantial derivative:

D
Dt
=

∂t
+v·∇

PDE:s on non-conservation form

The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem