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Compressible Flow - TME085

Lecture 15

Niklas Andersson

Chalmers University of Technology


Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences
Division of Fluid Mechanics
Gothenburg, Sweden

niklas.andersson@chalmers.se
Overview shock
reflection
expansion
fans

shock
noncon-
servation
form
substantial
derivative

expansion entropy
theory equation
governing conser-
oblique equations vation
shocks form
governing
2D Flow
friction nozzles equations
Crocco’s
equation
heat
addition Quasi
1D Flow moving
diffusers shocks

1D Flow Conservation
normal
shocks laws PDE:s shock
reflection
integral form
traveling
isentropic waves
flow
acoustic
waves

governing
equations method finite
of char- non-linear
energy
acteristics waves
Compressible flow
Boundary
mo- conditions
mentum continuity
flow
regimes

Com- Shock
speed of pressibility handling
sound
Basic
CFD
Concepts
Spatial
dis-
thermally
perfect cretization
gas

Thermo- Time
High tem- equilibrium
dynamics gas integration
calorically perature Numerical
perfect effects
gas schemes

Boltzmann
entropy 1:st and distribution
2:nd law molecular
motion
internal
energy
Chapter 6
Differential Conservation
Equations for Inviscid Flows

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 3 / 57


Overview

noncon- substantial
servation derivative
form
n entropy
equation
governing conser-
equations vation
form
governing
nozzles equations
Crocco’s
equation

Quasi
1D Flow moving
diffusers shocks

PDE:s shock
reflection

traveling
waves
acoustic
waves
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 4 / 57
Addressed Learning Outcomes

4 Present at least two different formulations of the governing


equations for compressible flows and explain what basic
conservation principles they are based on

the governing equations for compressible flows on


differential form - finally ...

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Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass PDE:s on conservation form


conservation of momentum
conservation of energy

The substantial derivative:


PDE:s on non-conservation form
D ∂
= +v·∇
Dt ∂t
The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

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Chapter 6.2
Differential Equations in
Conservation Form

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Differential Equations in Conservation Form

Basic principle to derive PDE:s in conservation form:


I Start with control volume formulation
I Convert to volume integral via Gauss Theorem
I Arbitrary control volume implies that integrand equals to zero
everywhere

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Continuity Equation
Mass conservation:

Control volume formulation

d y {
ρdV + ρv · ndS = 0
dt
Ω ∂Ω

where Ω is a fixed control volume

Applying Gauss Theorem gives


{ y
ρv · ndS = ∇ · (ρv)dV
∂Ω Ω

Also,

d y y ∂ρ
ρdV = dV
dt ∂t
Ω Ω
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 9 / 57
Continuity Equation

Therefore
y  ∂ρ 
+ ∇ · (ρv) dV = 0
∂t

Ω is an arbitrary control volume, can be made infinitesimally small


and thus

∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρv) = 0
∂t

which is the continuity equation

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 10 / 57


Momentum Equation
Momentum conservation:

Control volume formulation

d y { y
ρvdV + [ρ(v · n)v + pn] dS = ρfdV
dt
Ω ∂Ω Ω
where Ω is a fixed control volume

Applying Gauss Theorem gives

{ y { y
ρ(v · n)vdS = ∇ · (ρvv)dV ; pndS = ∇pdV
∂Ω Ω ∂Ω Ω

Also,

d y y ∂
ρvdV = (ρv)dV
dt ∂t
Ω Ω
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 11 / 57
Momentum Equation

Therefore
y ∂ 
(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p − ρf dV = 0
∂t

Ω is an arbitrary control volume, can be made infinitesimally small


and thus


(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p = ρf
∂t

which is the momentum equation

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 12 / 57


Momentum Equation

In cartesian form (v = uex + vey + wez ):

∂ ∂p
(ρu) + ∇ · (ρuv) + = ρfx
∂t ∂x
∂ ∂p
(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + = ρfy
∂t ∂y
∂ ∂p
(ρw) + ∇ · (ρwv) + = ρfz
∂t ∂z

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Momentum Equation

or expanded:

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p
(ρu) + (ρuu) + (ρuv) + (ρuw) + = ρfx
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p
(ρv) + (ρvu) + (ρvv) + (ρvw) + = ρfy
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p
(ρw) + (ρwu) + (ρwv) + (ρww) + = ρfz
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z

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Momentum Equation


(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p = ρf
∂t

 
(ρuu + p) ρuv ρuw
 ρvu (ρvv + p) ρvw  = ρvv + pI
ρwu ρwv (ρww + p)


(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv + pI) = ρf
∂t

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Energy Equation
Energy conservation:

Control volume formulation

d y { y
ρeo dV + ρho (v · n)dS = ρf · vdV
dt
Ω ∂Ω Ω

where Ω is a fixed control volume

Applying Gauss Theorem gives


{ y
ρho (v · n)dS = ∇ · (ρho v)dV
∂Ω Ω

Also,

d y y ∂
ρeo dV = (ρeo )dV
dt ∂t
Ω Ω
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Energy Equation

Therefore
y ∂ 
(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) − ρ(f · v) dV = 0
∂t

Ω is an arbitrary control volume, can be made infinitesimally small


and thus


(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) = ρ(f · v)
∂t

which is the energy equation

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Partial Differential Equations in Conservation Form

∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρv) = 0
∂t

(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv) + ∇p = ρf
∂t

(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) = ρ(f · v)
∂t

These equations are referred to as PDE:s on conservation form


since they stem directly from the integral conservation equations
applied to a fixed control volume

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Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

The substantial derivative:


PDE:s on non-conservation form
D ∂
= +v·∇
Dt ∂t
The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

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Chapter 6.4
Differential Equations in
Non-Conservation Form

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The Substantial Derivative

Introducing the substantial derivative operator

D ∂
= +v·∇
Dt ∂t

”... the time rate of change of any quantity associated with a particular moving fluid element is given by
the substantial derivative ...”

”... the properties of the fluid element are changing as it moves past a point in a flow because the
flowfield itself may be fluctuating with time (the local derivative) and because the fluid element is simply
on its way to another point in the flowfield where the properties are different (the convective derivative)
...”

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 21 / 57


Non-Conservation Form of Continuity Equation

Applying the substantial derivative operator to density gives

Dρ ∂ρ
= + v · ∇ρ
Dt ∂t

Continuity equation:

∂ρ ∂ρ
+ ∇ · (ρv) = + v · ∇ρ + ρ(∇ · v) = 0 ⇒
∂t ∂t


+ ρ(∇ · v) = 0
Dt

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Non-Conservation Form of Continuity Equation


+ ρ(∇ · v) = 0
Dt

”... the mass of a fluid element made up of a fixed set of


particles (molecules or atoms) is constant as the fluid
element moves through space ...”

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 23 / 57


Non-Conservation Form of Momentum Equation


(ρv) + ∇ · (ρvv + pI) = ρf ⇒
∂t
∂v ∂ρ
ρ +v + ρv · ∇v + v(∇ · ρv) + ∇p = ρf ⇒
∂t ∂t
   
∂v ∂ρ
ρ + v · ∇v +v + ∇ · ρv +∇p = ρf
∂t ∂t
| {z } | {z }
= Dv =0
Dt

Dv 1
+ ∇p = f
Dt ρ

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Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation


(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρho v) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇
∂t
p
h o = eo + ⇒
ρ

(ρeo ) + ∇ · (ρeo v) + ∇ · (pv) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇ ⇒
∂t

∂eo ∂ρ
ρ + eo + ρv · ∇eo + eo ∇ · (ρv) + ∇ · (pv) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇ ⇒
∂t ∂t

   
∂eo ∂ρ
ρ + v · ∇eo +eo + ∇ · (ρv) +∇ · (pv) = ρ(f · v) + ρq̇
∂t ∂t
| {z } | {z }
= Deo =0
Dt

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Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

Deo
ρ + ∇ · (p + v) = ρf · v + ρq̇
Dt
1
eo = e + v · v ⇒
2
De Dv
ρ + ρv · + ∇ · (pv) = ρf · v + ρq̇
Dt Dt
 
Dv 1
Using the momentum equation, + ∇p = f , gives
Dt ρ

De
ρ − v · ∇p + ρf · v + v · ∇p + p(∇ · v) = ρf · v + ρq̇ ⇒
Dt

De p
+ (∇ · v) = q̇
Dt ρ
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Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

De p
+ (∇ · v) = q̇
Dt ρ
From the continuity equation we get

Dρ 1 Dρ
+ ρ(∇ · v) = 0 ⇒ ∇ · v = − ⇒
Dt ρ Dt
 
De p Dρ De D 1
− 2 = q̇ ⇒ +p = q̇
Dt ρ Dt Dt Dt ρ

De Dν
= q̇ − p
Dt Dt

where ν = 1/ρ
Compare with first law of thermodynamics: de = δq − δW
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 27 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

If we instead express the energy equation in terms of enthalpy:

   
De D 1 De D 1
= q̇ − p ⇒ +p = q̇
Dt Dt ρ Dt Dt ρ

 
p Dh De 1 Dp D 1
h=e+ ⇒ = + +p ⇒
ρ Dt Dt ρ Dt Dt ρ

Dh 1 Dp
= q̇ +
Dt ρ Dt

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Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation
and total enthalpy ...

1 Dho Dh Dv
ho = h + v · v ⇒ = +v·
2 Dt Dt Dt

From the momentum equation we get

Dv Dv 1
ρ + ∇p = f ⇒ = − ∇p + f ⇒
Dt Dt ρ

Dho Dh 1
= − v · ∇p + f · v ⇒
Dt Dt
|{z} ρ
Dp
q̇+ ρ1 Dt

 
Dho 1 Dp
= q̇ + − v · ∇p + f · v
Dt ρ Dt
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 29 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

 
Dho 1 Dp
= q̇ + − v · ∇p + f · v
Dt ρ Dt

Dp
Expanding the substantial derivative gives
Dt
Dp ∂p
= + v · ∇p ⇒
Dt ∂t

Dho 1 ∂p
= + q̇ + f · v
Dt ρ ∂t

Let’s examine the above relation ...


Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 30 / 57
Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

Dho 1 ∂p
= + q̇ + f · v
Dt ρ ∂t

The total enthalpy of a moving fluid element in an inviscid flow


can change due to
I unsteady flow: ∂p/∂t 6= 0
I heat transfer: q̇ 6= 0
I body forces: f · v 6= 0

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Non-Conservation Form of Energy Equation

Adiabatic flow and without body forces ⇒

Dho 1 ∂p
=
Dt ρ ∂t

Steady-state adiabatic flow without body forces ⇒

Dho
=0
Dt

ho is constant along streamlines!

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 32 / 57


Additional Form of Energy Equation
Start from
 
De D 1
= q̇ − p
Dt Dt ρ

Calorically perfect gas:

R
e = Cv T ; Cv = ; p = ρRT ; γ, R = const
γ−1

   
De DT R D p 1 D p
= Cv = = ⇒
Dt Dt γ − 1 Dt ρR γ − 1 Dt ρ

   
1 D p D 1
= q̇ − p ⇒
γ − 1 Dt ρ Dt ρ
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Additional Form of Energy Equation

       
1 D 1 1 Dp D 1
p + = q̇ − p
γ − 1 Dt ρ ρ Dt Dt ρ

     
D 1 1 Dp D 1
p + = (γ − 1)q̇ − (γ − 1)p
Dt ρ ρ Dt Dt ρ

   
D 1 1 Dp
γp + = (γ − 1)q̇
Dt ρ ρ Dt

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Additional Form of Energy Equation

Continuity:

 
Dρ D 1 1 Dρ 1
= −ρ(∇ · v) ⇒ =− 2 = (∇ · v) ⇒
Dt Dt ρ ρ Dt ρ

 
γp 1 Dp
(∇ · v) + = (γ − 1)q̇
ρ ρ Dt

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 35 / 57


Additional Form of Energy Equation

Dp
+ γp(∇ · v) = (γ − 1)ρq̇
Dt

Adiabatic flow (no added heat):

Dp
+ γp(∇ · v) = 0
Dt

Non-conservation form (calorically perfect gas)

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Conservation Form

∂Q ∂E ∂F ∂G
+ + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

where Q(x, y, z, t), E(x, y, z, t), ... may be scalar or vector fields

Example: the continuity equation

∂ρ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ (ρu) + (ρv) + (ρw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

If an equation cannot be written in this form, it is said to be in


non-conservation form

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Euler Equations - Conservation Form
Continuity, momentum and energy equations in Cartesian coordinates, velocity components u, v, w (no body forces, no
added heat)

∂ρ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ (ρu) + (ρv) + (ρw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρu) + (ρuu + p) + (ρuv) + (ρuw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρv) + (ρvu) + (ρvv + p) + (ρvw) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρw) + (ρwu) + (ρwv) + (ρww + p) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(ρeo ) + (ρho u) + (ρho v) + (ρho w) = 0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 38 / 57


Euler Equations - Non-Conservation Form
Continuity, momentum and energy equations in Cartesian coordinates, velocity components u, v, w (no body forces, no
added heat), calorically perfect gas

 
∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂u ∂v ∂w
+u +v +w +ρ + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p
+u +v +w + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂x

∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p
+u +v +w + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂y

∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w 1 ∂p
+u +v +w + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂z
 
∂p ∂p ∂p ∂p ∂u ∂v ∂w
+u +v +w + γp + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 39 / 57


Conservation and Non-Conservation Form

The governing equations on non-conservation form are not,


although the name might give that impression, less physically
accurate than the equations on conservation form. The
nomenclature comes from CFD where the equations on
conservation form are preferred.

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Conservation and Non-Conservation Form

Conservation forms are useful for:


1. Numerical methods for compressible flow
2. Theoretical understanding of non-linear waves (shocks etc)
3. Provide link between integral forms (control volume
formulations) and PDE:s

Non-conservation forms are useful for:


1. Theoretical understanding of behavior of numerical methods
2. Theoretical understanding of boundary conditions
3. Analysis of linear waves (aero-acoustics)

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 41 / 57


Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

The substantial derivative:

D
Dt
=


∂t
+v·∇

PDE:s on non-conservation form

The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

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Chapter 6.5
The Entropy Equation

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The Entropy Equation

From the first and second law of thermodynamics we have

 
De Ds D 1
=T −p
Dt Dt Dt ρ

which is called the entropy equation

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The Entropy Equation

Compare the entropy equation


 
De Ds D 1
=T −p
Dt Dt Dt ρ

with the energy equation (inviscid flow):

 
De D 1
= q̇ − p
Dt Dt ρ

we see that

Ds
T = q̇
Dt

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The Entropy Equation

If q̇ = 0 (adiabatic flow) then

Ds
=0
Dt

i.e., entropy is constant for moving fluid element

Furthermore, if the flow is steady we have

Ds ∂s
= + (v · ∇)s = (v · ∇)s = 0
Dt ∂t

i.e., entropy is constant along streamlines

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 46 / 57


Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

The substantial derivative:

D
Dt
=


∂t
+v·∇

PDE:s on non-conservation form


The entropy equation

Crocco’s theorem

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Chapter 6.6
Crocco’s Theorem

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Crocco’s Theorem

”... a relation between gradients of total enthalpy,


gradients of entropy, and flow rotation ...”

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Crocco’s Theorem

Momentum equation (no body forces)

Dv
ρ = −∇p
Dt
Writing out the substantial derivative gives

∂v ∂v 1
ρ + ρv · ∇v = −∇p ⇒ + v · ∇v = − ∇p
∂t ∂t ρ
First and second law of thermodynamics (energy equation)
1
dh = Tds + dp
ρ
Replace differentials with a gradient operator
1 1
∇h = T ∇s + ∇p ⇒ T ∇s = ∇h − ∇p
ρ ρ
Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 50 / 57
Crocco’s Theorem
With pressure derivative from the momentum equation inserted in
the energy equation we get

∂v
T ∇s = ∇h + + v · ∇v
∂t

1 1
h = ho − v · v ⇒ ∇h = ∇ho − ∇( v · v)
2 2

1
∇( v · v) = v × (∇ × v) + v · ∇v
2

∇(A · B) = (A · ∇)B + (B · ∇)A + A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A)

A=B=v⇒

∇(v · v) = 2[v · ∇v + v × (∇ × v)]

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 51 / 57


Crocco’s Theorem

∂v
T ∇s = ∇ho − v × (∇ × v) − v · ∇v + + v · ∇v
∂t

∂v
T ∇s = ∇ho + − v × (∇ × v)
∂t

Note: ∇ × v is the vorticity of the fluid


1
the rotational motion of the fluid is described by the angular velocity ω = (∇ × v)
2

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 52 / 57


Crocco’s Theorem

∂v
T ∇s = ∇ho + − v × (∇ × v)
∂t

”... when a steady flow field has gradients of total


enthalpy and/or entropy Crocco’s theorem dramatically
shows that it is rotational ...”

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 53 / 57


Crocco’s Theorem - Example

Curved stationary shock (steady-state flow)

shock
M∞ constant
ho constant
s constant

I s is constant upstream of shock


I jump in s across shock depends on local shock angle
I s will vary from streamline to streamline downstream of shock
I ∇s 6= 0 downstream of shock

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 54 / 57


Crocco’s Theorem - Example

Curved stationary shock (steady-state flow)

shock
M∞ constant
ho constant
s constant

I Total enthalpy upstream of shock


I ho is constant along streamlines
I ho is uniform
I Total enthalpy downstream of shock
I ho is uniform

∇ho = 0

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 55 / 57


Crocco’s Theorem - Example

Crocco’s equation for steady-state flow:

T ∇s = ∇ho − v × (∇ × v)

I v × (∇ × v) 6= 0 downstream of a curved shock


I the rotation ∇ × v 6= 0 downstream of a curved shock

Explains why it is difficult to solve such problems by analytic


means!

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 56 / 57


Roadmap - Differential Equations for Inviscid Flows

Control volume formulations:

conservation of mass
conservation of momentum

PDE:s on conservation form

conservation of energy

The substantial derivative:

D
Dt
=


∂t
+v·∇

PDE:s on non-conservation form


The entropy equation


Crocco’s theorem

Niklas Andersson - Chalmers 57 / 57