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Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia has been experiencing the severe impacts of
the climate change. The physical characteristics of the city make it very vulnerable to climate-
related disaster. First, there is an issue of the sea level rise which causes land subsidence in
the coastal area. Rapid rate of urbanization and also excessive ground water extraction then
worsen this condition. Second, the intense rainfall combined with other factors such as poor
drainage system further increases the risk of flooding. Third, the increase in temperature also
threatens the biodiversities whether in land or in the ocean.
Despite the fact that climate change is one of the most staggering issues in the recent
years, it is such a pity that climate risks campaign is still limited to the government circle and
academics. There is still yet socialization from the government towards the Jakarta
inhabitants about the awareness of climate change.
Therefore, there needs to be some kind of plannings in order to both mitigate and
adapt to the climate change impacts. As for the action, it will be expected to bring some
results toward the prevention and the minimization of damage. The planning actions of
climate change are as follows:
1. Defense of the coastal area
The defense of the coastal area can be categorized into 2 main sections: the first one is
to build a man-made giant sea wall in order to cope with the sea level rise. The seawall is
expected to minimize the impacts caused by the ocean current. While the second one is
the revitalization of the natural ecosystem in the coastal areas. Mangrove forest has been
proven as one of the best measures to protect the coastal area. Aside from being able to
reduce the greenhouse gasses emission and being a shield to ocean current, mangrove
forest is also a host of bio diversities. The defensive action in the coastal area is expected
to minimize the impact of sea level rise and land subsidence in particular.
2. Flood mapping and management
The flood mapping will be able to depict better reasons and impacts as to why an area is
vulnerable to flood. The knowledge of vulnerable areas and the likelihood of occurrence
will be able to become an indication as to where the shelter for the flood disaster victims
will be built. Aside of that, the flood mapping will also become one of the base systems
of flood early warning establishments.
3. Reduce greenhouse gasses emission
One of the biggest contributors of greenhouse gasses emission in Jakarta is the
transportation. People tend to take private vehicles instead of being in public
transportation. The method is to improve the facilities and infrastructure that
accommodate the public infrastructure in order for people to switch their transportation
mode. The incentives for people to use public transportation will also be very
encouraging. Another method is there are some rejuvenations toward transportation
which is older than 5 years since they will usually emit more greenhouse gasses. And
then, there will a transition of fuel use, from fossil fuel into biofuel particularly produced
by oil palm.
4. Deal with the heat waves
The lack of open green space is one contributor to climate change since Jakarta has less
than 10% from what is supposed to be 30%. Therefore, some revitalizations regarding
the proper use of land will be performed especially to illegally used land which is
supposed to be open green space. The open green space will able to reduce the heat and
also greenhouse gasses at the same time.
5. Drainage management
Drainage management is very potential in term of adapting with climate change. The
smooth flow of water in the drainage types will accommodate the water a lot more
efficiently. Regarding this, then natural drainage such as river will be restored to its initial
function. Another plan is to build absorption wells since it’s proven to be very effective
in handling the flood disaster.
6. Raise awareness of climate change
The government is not the only stakeholders involved in the process of adaptation and
mitigation of the climate change. The lack of awareness especially comes from the
economic-oriented mindset of which people neglect the importance of environmental
sustainability. The government as an influential stakeholder must do some socialization
to the community to work together in dealing with climate change. The smallest scale of
climate change mitigation is by changing the mindset of individual to be a lot more aware
regarding the climate change and its implications.

Tommy Firmana,*, Indra M. Surbaktib, Ichzar C. Idroesc, Hendricus A. Simarmata, ‘Potential climate-
change related vulnerabilities in Jakarta:Challenges and current status’, 2010, accessed on June 14th 2016