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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engfailanal

R. Jones a,b,d,⇑, S. Barter c, F. Chen a

a

DSTO Centre of Expertise in Structural Mechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, P.O. Box 31, Victoria 3800, Australia

b

CRC for Infrastructure and Engineering Asset Management, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, P.O. Box 31, Victoria 3800, Australia

c

Air Vehicles Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer St., Fishermans Bend, Victoria, Australia

d

CRC for Rail Innovation, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, PO Box 31,Victoria 3800, Australia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper examines short crack growth in two quite different materials, viz: 7050-T7451

Available online 7 April 2011 aluminium alloy and a head hardened rail steel. The experimental data reveals that the so

called short crack effect associated with 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy arises as a conse-

Keywords: quence of attempting to relate da/dN to the range of the stress intensity factor (DK). We

Short cracks also ﬁnd that, in both cases, cracking crack growth conforms to the Generalised Frost–

Similitude Dugdale model.

Frost–Dugdale

Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fatigue

1. Introduction

This paper arose from the study of short crack growth in two very different materials. The ﬁrst case involved the growth of

short cracks in 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy. This study arose from an investigation into the crack length versus cycles data

presented in the compendium of F/A-18 fatigue crack growth data by Molent et al. [1]. This compendium examined more

than 350 different cracks mainly in 7050-T7451, but also in other 7000 series aluminium alloys, Mil Annealed Ti–6Al–4V

titanium, and AF1410 steel that arose in a variety of full scale fatigue tests and associated coupon tests. Cracking in Mil An-

nealed Ti–6Al–4V specimens tested under a representative F/A-18 ﬂight spectrum was subsequently studied in [2]. On

examining the crack length versus cycles data presented in [1,2] it was found that the majority of the fatigue life was gen-

erally consumed in the short crack regime, i.e. in growing to a size of approximately 1 mm. As such understanding the

growth of short cracks was particularly important. It was also found [1] that in almost all cases there was a near linear rela-

tionship between the log of the crack length/depth and the number of load blocks/ﬂight hours and that this relationship held

from a starting length of less than 100 lm to lengths in excess of 5 mm’s.

The second problem area studied was associated with the formation and the subsequent growth of small sub mm rail

squats [3]. Squats were ﬁrst observed in Australia over 19 years ago and in February 1999 the problem was identiﬁed as

being among the top 6 high priority items [3] in railway engineering. As such characterising the growth of sub mm cracks

in head hardened rail steel is vital if we are to fully understanding this problem.

As part of the F/A-18 program undertaken by the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation [3,4] it was

found that, for initial defects that had a size of approximately 3 lm, the crack growth programs FASTRAN1 [6] and AFGROW

(footnote 1) [7] were unable to model this (near) linear relationship between the log of the crack depth and the number of load

blocks/ﬂight hours. The need to develop a fracture mechanics based methodology that could accurately predict the growth of

⇑ Corresponding author at: DSTO Centre of Expertise in Structural Mechanics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University,

P.O. Box 31, Victoria 3800, Australia. Tel.: +61 398786265; fax: +61 399051825.

E-mail address: rhys.jones@eng.monash.edu.au (R. Jones).

1

Unmodiﬁed and uncalibrated.

1350-6307/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2011.03.012

1712 R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722

Nomenclature

a crack length

b fatigue strength exponent

c fatigue ductility exponent

C constant in the Paris fatigue crack growth law

C fatigue crack growth constant in the Generalised Frost–Dugdale model

da/dN increment in crack length per cycle

(da/dN)0 reﬂects both the fatigue threshold and the nature of the notch

EBV equivalent block variant

K stress intensity factor

Kmax maximum applied stress intensity factor in a block

DK stress intensity range

DKth threshold stress intensity range

Kc apparent cyclic fracture toughness

LEFM linear elastic fracture mechanics

N number of cycles to fail the ﬁrst element

n0 cyclic strain hardening exponent

p exponent of the Kmax dependency in the Walker law

R stress ratio

q critical distance

a constant in the stress strain law

c generalised Frost–Dugdale fatigue crack growth equation exponent

r remote applied stress

r0f fatigue strength coefﬁcient

e0f fatigue strain coefﬁcient

ry material yield stress

r0 distance in front of the crack at which the stresses are evaluated

short cracks in 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy under representative ﬂight load spectra, and yet still be consistent with constant

amplitude crack growth data, then led to the development of the Generalised Frost–Dugdale model [5,8–20] by the Monash–

DSTO Centre of Expertise in Structural Mechanics (CoE-SM) and DSTO. One form of this model is:

da=dN ¼ C að1c=2Þ ðDK ð1pÞ K Pmax Þc da=dN0 ¼ rcy C að1c=2Þ ðDK ð1pÞ K Pmax =ry Þc da=dN 0 ð1Þ

where a is the crack length, N is the number of cycles, da/dN is the increment in crack length per cycle, ry is the yield stress,

C⁄ and p are constants, DK (=Kmax Kmin) is the stress intensity factor range, Kmax and Kmin are the maximum and minimum

values of the stress intensity factors in the cycle, the term (da/dN)0 reﬂects both the fatigue threshold (DKth) and the nature

of the defect/discontinuity from which cracking initiates and c is a constant, which for local stresses below the material’s

yield stress, is often taken as c = 3 [21,22]. In this approach the time to crack nucleation is considered to be insigniﬁcant.

The link between this formulation, which is referred to as the Generalised Frost–Dugdale law, and other non-similitude

based crack growth laws is discussed in [5,19,23–25] and in the Appendix where it is shown that the Generalised Frost–

Dugdale law can be derived from the local crack tip stress and strain ﬁelds regardless of whether the crack is assumed to

be blunt, as in [5], or sharp.

This formulation has been used to accurately represent cracking in 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy in a range of laboratory

tests [14], a DSTO F/A-18 Hornet centre barrel test [5,12,16], cracking under several representative Joint Strike Fighter load

spectra [17], a representative helicopter spectrum [20], cracking in a number of laboratory coupon and sub-component tests

involving a range of steels (including D6ac steel, a large cross-section of rail wheel steels, a 350 MPa Grade locomotive mild

steel, and a propriety steel that is widely used in rail freight rolling stock), Grade 1 Austempered Ductile Iron, a range of 2000

and 7000 series aluminium alloys, and Mil Annealed Ti–6AL–4V ([5,8,10–13,15–20]).

At this stage it should be noted that whilst the ability of the Paris-type crack growth laws to model the Region II growth of

large/long cracks is well documented it has long been known [26–30] that in Region I, crack growth can be a function of the

test geometry. This Region I dependency of the da/dN versus DK data on the specimen geometry and the test methodology

means that the similitude hypothesis, which forms the basis of algorithms that are based on Paris-like crack growth laws, can

not be assumed to be valid in Region I. In this context it will be shown that tests performed at DSTO, NASA and at the Mon-

ash–DSTO CoE-SM on the growth of both short and long cracks in 7050-T7451 conﬁrm the breakdown of similitude in Region

I. Furthermore, these tests reveal that the so called short crack effect appears to arise as a consequence of attempting to re-

late da/dN to the range of the stress intensity factor (DK). Furthermore, the short crack tests presented in this paper show

that in each case crack growth conformed to the Generalised Frost–Dugdale model.

R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722 1713

It is commonly thought that da/dN can be related to DK, and/or the maximum stress intensity factor Kmax. This approach

was ﬁrst suggested in 1961 by Paris, Gomez and Anderson [31], who related da/dN to the maximum stress intensity factor

Kmax. The work of Liu [32] subsequently implied that the crack growth was a function of the stress intensity factor range DK

(=Kmax Kmin). A similar relationship was also proposed by Paris and Erdogan [33]. This led to the well known Paris equation:

da=dN ¼ C DK m ð2Þ

where C and m are experimentally obtained, and are considered to be a constant for a particular material and environment.

Over the years this relationship has continued to be modiﬁed to account for a variety of observations [34], including R ratio

(R = Kmin/Kmax), Kmax effects [35–37], crack tip plasticity e.g. Willenborg retardation models [38] and plastic wake-induced

crack closure [6,39,40]. The resulting crack growth laws are all based on the similitude hypothesis, viz:

Two different cracks growing in identical materials and thicknesses with the same stress intensity factor range DK and the same

Kmax, will grow at the same rate.

It is believed that for constant amplitude loading the relationship between da/dN and DK has three distinct regions, see

Fig. 1, with Region III being associated with rapid crack growth, tearing or static fracture modes. Region II, the ‘‘mid growth’’

range, is the region where the Paris equation, and its variants, is thought to hold. In Region I crack growth is slow and several

authors have introduced the concept of a fatigue threshold stress intensity factor range, DKth, beneath which cracks seem not

to grow [41].

It was originally thought that, for any given material and thickness, the da/dN versus DK relationship was unique. How-

ever, Pearson [42], at the Royal Aircraft Establishment Farnborough, revealed that this belief was false. In this work Pearson

[42] revealed that fatigue crack growth laws determined for macroscopic crack growth data could not be used to predict the

growth of small sub-millimetre cracks, and that the constants in the crack growth law were a function of the size of the

crack. He also stated that this inconsistency was not due to crack-tip plasticity effects. This ﬁnding essentially reﬂected

Frost’s earlier work [43] that revealed that the fatigue threshold was crack length dependent, a ﬁnding that subsequently

led to the development of the ‘‘Kitagawa diagram’’ [44].

Subsequent studies into cracking in 7075-T6 aluminium alloys [45] conﬁrmed that short fatigue cracks can propagate at

rates faster than that of long cracks subjected to the same nominal DK, i.e. there is an apparent crack length dependency.

Moreover, it is now known that short fatigue cracks can grow at stress intensities well below the long crack DK threshold.

As a result when analysing the growth of short cracks it is common to use data that differs from the long crack da/dN versus

DK data [46].

More extensive reviews of fatigue crack growth are presented in [34,47–51] and for short crack growth by Suresh and

Ritchie [52] and by Miller [30], who suggested a comprehensive classiﬁcation of short cracks viz: micro-structurally,

mechanically, physically and chemically short cracks. However, the NASA ﬁndings [26] that DKth can be a function of the

test geometry, which implies that similitude is not valid in Region I, and Miller’s conclusion [52] that:

‘‘perhaps more progress would be made if LEFM characterisation parameters were ignored, and only the basic da/dN ver-

sus a type data be analysed.’’

raises the questions of: how to determine which da/dN versus DK relationship to use; and how to determine the true fa-

tigue threshold DKth; or whether alternative non-similitude based approaches should be adopted.

These questions take on added importance for short cracks since we now know [30,34,42,52–57] that for short cracks K

dominance is lost and hence the similitude hypothesis, which underpins all Paris based approaches, is highly questionable

for short cracks.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the relationship between long crack growth and AK (where KIC is the critical stress intensity factor) for constant amplitude

loading.

1714 R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722

‘‘Actually, it should be recognized that the K-concept for such small cracks in a crystalline material becomes questionable.

The plastic zone is a slip band and its size is not small compared to the crack length of the microcrack.’’

The Paris growth law and its subsequent variants are founded on the belief that the crack tip stress ﬁeld is uniquely char-

acterised by the stress intensity factor. This belief arose as a result of the early papers by Grifﬁths [58] and Irwin [59]. How-

ever, in 1966 Sih [60] revealed that the Westergard solution [61] for a centre crack in a large panel contained an error. In [60]

it was shown that a constant term, commonly referred to as the T stress, was missing in the series of expansion for the local

stress ﬁeld in the vicinity of the crack tip. Eftis [62] then used Sih’s corrected solution to reveal that both Grifﬁths’ and Irwin’s

analyses were in error. Eftis, Jones and Liebowitz [63] subsequently stated that:

‘‘The notion that only the leading term of the series expansion for stress, containing as it does the stress intensity factor

and the square root singular term, can adequately describe the state of stress about the ends of the crack is erroneous in

general.’’

Eftis et al. [63] also suggested that to evaluate crack growth and failure required the crack tip stress ﬁeld to be evaluated

at a length scale ro in front of the crack. The concept of a characteristic length scale is moderately widely used in the assess-

ment of fatigue crack growth and fracture mechanics [63–67]. For long cracks growing in Mode I under uniaxial loading the

ratio r0/a tends to be quite small and, as a result, the error in using DK and Kmax to characterise the crack tip stress ﬁeld is also

(generally) quite small. However, for short cracks with length scales of the order of 10 lm the ratio r0/a will not be small.

(Refs. [66,67] give values for r0 that ranged from 0.1 to 3.3 mm.) In this context it should be noted that [57] subsequently

conﬁrmed the conclusions reached in [63] i.e. that for short cracks the crack tip stress and strain ﬁelds were a function of

p

both K and the T stress, which is proportional to K/ a and is deﬁned as the non-singular component of the near tip stress

acting parallel to the crack (see [63]). As a result [57] concluded that K dominance is lost for small (short) cracks. Conse-

quently the similitude hypothesis is also invalid for small (short) cracks.

With this in mind it is shown that the crack growth data given in [11,26] reveals that, in Region I, not only is similitude

invalid for Mil Annealed Ti–6AL–4V titanium, but that the crack closure hypothesis is also at odds with the weak R ratio

dependency seen in Mil Annealed Ti–6Al–4V crack growth rate data. (At this point it should be noted that Forth, James, John-

ston and Newman [54] have explained that crack closure approaches are inappropriate for modelling crack growth in mate-

rials that have a weak R ratio dependency. Furthermore, a recent NASA-Sikorsky investigation [68] into cracking in the ST

direction in 7050-T7451 plate revealed that the da/dN versus DK relationship was essentially R ratio independent in both

Regions I and II.)

The conclusion that similitude cannot be assumed in Region I or for the growth of short cracks signiﬁcantly degrades the

conﬁdence that can be placed in the ability of standard FASTRAN and AFGROW and other similitude based computer pro-

grams, to address potential F/A-18 ﬂeet lifting issues or the growth of small ﬂaws in rail steels and highlights the need to

better understand and quantify the (Region I) growth of short cracks.

Whilst it has previously been shown [8] that under constant amplitude loading the growth of short (sub mm) cracks in a

350 MPa grade locomotive steel conformed to the Generalised Frost–Dugdale crack growth law the question of whether the

short crack effect was due to attempting to force a relationship between da/dN and DK has not been adequately addressed. To

this end [19,69] presented crack growth data for a series of 7050-T7451 hourglass specimens for R = 0.1 and 0.7. Details of

the tests and the loading are given in Table 1, for more details see [69]. The resultant ‘‘short crack’’ da/dN versus DK data is

presented in Fig. 2 along with data obtained in a joint NASA-Sikorsky [68] study into cracking in 7050-T7451 that was gen-

erated from long cracks. This work used compact tension (CT) specimens tested under ASTM constant R load reducing tests,

p

with R ratio’s of 0.1 and 0.7, constant Kmax (=15 MPa m) tests, and a constant amplitude load test with R = 0.1. Fig. 2 also

includes data obtained by researchers at the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) [70,71] using CT and mid-

dle crack tension (MT) specimens respectively, and the details of the specimens used and the associated R ratio’s associated

with these two test programs are given in Table 1.

From Fig. 2 we see that for da/dN < 108 m/cycle (approximately) the R = 0.1 short crack growth rates obtained in the

short crack test program given in [19] are signiﬁcantly greater than those reported in [68], i.e. there is an apparent short

crack effect when da/dN is presented as a function of DK.

Armed with this experimental data set we were then able to investigate the apparent short crack effect. To this end Fig. 3

presents a plot of da/dN against a(1c/2)(K pmax DK ð1pÞ =ry Þc =ð1 K max =K c Þ, with c = 3 and p = 0.2 and ry = 460 MPa, and

p

Kc = 35 MPa m for the growth of cracks from the small surface discontinuities present in the short crack tests [19,69].

The values c and p were chosen to best collapse the data whilst the value of Kc used in this study for this particular plate

material was the value reported by Barter [72] for thick section 7050-T7451 plate. For the through the thickness cracks

p

tested by Sharp et al. [70] and Finney [71] a value of Kc = 47 MPa m was used. This value was taken from Sharp et al. [70].

R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722 1715

Table 1

Test descriptors, from [69].

Ref. Initial discontinuity Geometry and thickness Kc (MPa Vm) Test method

depth/length

Forth and Urban [68] 19.1 mm CT, 12.7 mm thick Kmax, R = 0.7 and load reduction (R = 0.1) tests as per

ASTM E647

Sharp et al. [70] 28 mm CT, 12.5 mm thick 47 Fixed load tests with R = 0.1, 0.5, 0.8

Finney [71] 6.6 mm MT, 9.95 mm thick 47 Fixed load test with R = 0.2

Short crack tests [69,70] 0.0076 mm (Test 2) 11 mm thick 35 Repeated blocks were applied

0.021 mm (Test 3) hourglass specimen

Tests 2 block: 5000 cycles at R = 0.1 & 1500 cycles at

R = 0.7 loads. Peak stress = 250 MPa

Test 3 block: 5000 cycles at R = 0.1 & 3000 cycles at

R = 0.7 loads. Peak stress = 225 MPa

For more details see [19]

Fig. 2. Comparison of the various da/dN versus DK test data, from [73].

Here we see that beneath a growth rate da/dN of approximately 106 m/cycle the R = 0.1 and 0.7 short crack data now

appear to (essentially) fall on the same straight line with a slope of approximately 5.1 104, see Fig. 3. We also see that

when presented in this fashion the relationship obtained for the short crack data, the data obtained by Sharp et al. [70],

for R = 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8, using ASTM CT specimens, and the data given by Finney [71], which was obtained for R = 0.2 using

a MT specimen, are very similar, i.e. in this case the ‘‘short crack’’ effect vanishes and both the short and long crack data fol-

lows Eq. (1) with the noted constants.

It thus follows that, in this region, short and long crack growth in 7050-T7451 associated with [19,69–71] conforms to the

Generalised Frost–Dugdale law, given above. Furthermore, this relationship holds over more than 3 orders of magnitude

7 1010 < da/dN < 1.0 106 m/cycle, see Fig. 3. Thus for 7050-T7451 aluminium it would appear that the so called

short crack effect arises as a consequence of attempting to force a relationship between da/dN and the range of the stress

intensity factor (DK).

This counter example to the similitude hypothesis disproves the similitude hypothesis for the Region I growth of both

long and short cracks. (It should be stressed this does not mean that similitude will never apply, only that it can’t be arbi-

trarily assumed to be valid.) In cases when similitude does not hold the experimental data [18,26] suggests that Kmax tests

may well give lower more conservative values for DKth than the ASTM recommended load reducing tests.

Let next examine the growth of short fatigue cracks in a head hardened rail steel, noting that, as mentioned above, it has

previously been shown [8] that under constant amplitude loading the growth of short (sub mm) cracks in a 350 MPa grade

locomotive steel conformed to the Generalised Frost–Dugdale crack growth law. The rail steel used in this study, which was

1716 R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722

provided by Rail Corp, was taken from the ﬁeld in NSW. The rail was cut to create a number of 320 mm long by 39 mm wide

and 7.5 mm thick single edge notch tension (SENT) specimens with a 0.5 mm radius semi-circular edge notch on one side,

see Fig. 4. Specimen numbers 1–3 were subjected to a peak remote stress of 475 MPa with R = 0.15 and the resultant failure

surface associated with Specimen number 1 is shown in Fig. 5. Specimens 4–6 were subjected to peak remote stress of

550 MPa with R = 0.5. In each case the failure surfaces were similar, see Figs. 5 and 6.

The crack length history in the various specimens was then predicted by integrating Eq. (1) with da/dN0 set to 0.0 with the

value of the stress intensity factor, for this through the thickness crack, as given in [46]. Jones, Chen and Pitt [13] and Jones,

Peng and Pitt [8] have revealed that many rail steels have a value of c = 3. Consequently in this study it was assumed that

c = 3. As a result in Eq. (1) there were only three unknown parameters, i.e. C, p and Kc. Their value was chosen so as to ﬁt the

p

experimental data associated with Specimen 1. This yielded a value of p = 0.85, C = 1.5 1014 and Kc = 120 MPa m. The

resultant predictions for the entire crack length histories associated with each of these tests are shown in Fig. 7 where, for

each of the R ratio’s, we see good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Having determined and validated the crack growth law for this particular head hardened steel we then predicted crack

growth in Specimens 2 and 3. In these cases crack growth was three dimensional. For Specimen number 2 the ﬁnal crack

shape, i.e. just prior to failure, was a quarter elliptical edge ﬂaw with an aspect ratio of approximately 2.8–1 and an initial

aspect ratio of approximately 1.5:1, see Fig. 8, that emanated from the 0.5 mm edge notch. The test on Specimen 3 was

stopped after approximately 98,000 cycles and the crack broken open. This revealed a small quarter elliptical ﬂaw (at the

notch) with an aspect ratio of 1.5, see Fig. 9. Eq. (1) was used to predict the crack growth histories for both specimens,

see Fig. 10. (In this analysis we used the expressions for K, for a quarter elliptical edge crack emanating from a notch, given

in [46].) In both cases the predicted crack length histories are in good agreement with experimental measurements, see

Fig. 10.

As a result of this study it would appear that the growth of small sub mm cracks in this head hardened rail steel follows

the Generalised Frost–Dugdale law, i.e. Eq. (1), and that for this particular steel the growth of small sub mm cracks can be

represented by:

3

da=dN ¼ 1:5 1014 ðaÞ1=2 ðDK 0:15 K 0:85

max Þ =ð1 K max =K c Þ ð3Þ

R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722 1717

10

Crack Length (mm)

Spec 1 Side B

Spec 1 Side A

Predic Spec 1

Spec 4 Side A

Predict Spec 4

0.1

Spec 4 Side B

Spec 5 Side A

Spec 5 Side B

Spec 6 Side A

Spec 6 Side B

Predicted Spec 6

0.01

0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000

Cycles (Total)

Fig. 7. Measured and predicted crack length history for Specimens 1, 4, 5 and 6.

1718 R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722

10.000

Crack Length (mm)

1.000

0.100

Specimen 2

Predicted Spec 2

Specimen 3

Predicted Spec 3

0.010

0 100,000 200,000 300,000

Cycles (Total)

Fig. 10. Measured and predicted crack length histories for Specimens 2 and 3.

5. Conclusion

This report has attempted to review, enunciate progress and deﬁne problem areas associated with the use of the Gener-

alised Frost–Dugdale model for predicting (short) crack growth in F/A-18 Hornet metallic structural materials and rail steels.

R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722 1719

It has also attempted to brieﬂy address related problem areas associated with characterising crack growth in Region I. As a

result of this study it has been shown that the science base underpinning similitude based crack growth models, in Region I,

can be at odds with material behaviour. Consequently, given that linear elastic fracture mechanics studies have shown that

for short cracks K dominance is lost, alternative crack growth formulations should be further investigated. Furthermore, the

experimental data suggest that for 7050-T7451 the short crack effect arises as a consequence of attempting to relate da/dN to

DK.

Appendix A

Jones et al. [5] have shown that if the crack tip is not sharp, i.e. it has a ﬁnite notch radius, then the Generalised Frost–

Dugdale law can be derived from ﬁrst principles. In this section we will show that it also follows if the crack tip is sharp. To

this end let us consider the approach used by Glinka [73] to derive the Paris fatigue crack growth law. Glinka assumed that

the local stress/strain ﬁelds at the crack tip conformed to the HRR solution [74,75]. He also assumed that the material in front

of the crack followed a Ramberg–Osgood law, viz :

0

e=ey ¼ ðr=ry Þ þ aðr=ry Þn ðA:1Þ

where ey and ry are the yield strain and the yield stress respectively, and a and n0 are material constants. Glinka [73] also

assumed that:

1. Crack growth may be regarded as the increment of successive crack re-initiation over a critical distance q (see Fig. A1).

2. The number of cycles, N, for material failure can be calculated from Manson–Cofﬁn’s strain/life relation.

3. The fatigue crack growth rate can thus be calculated as the ratio of q/N.

With these assumptions the increment in the strain per cycle, De, in the direction normal to the crack at a distance q in

front of the crack tip was given as:

! 1 ! n0

ðn0 þ1Þ ðn0 þ1Þ

EDJ E DJ

De ¼ C 1 þ C2 ðA:2Þ

r2y pq r2y pq

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ} |ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

Elastic Term Plastic Term

where J is the J integral. The increment in the stress was then expressed as:

! 1

ðn0 þ1Þ

E DJ

Dr ¼ C 3 ðA:3Þ

r2y pq

where C1, C2, and C3 are functions of strain hardening exponent n0 and the parameter a, see [73].

Near the crack tip, the elastic terms can be neglected, so that [73] approximated De as

! n0

ðn0 þ1Þ

EDJ

De ¼ C 2 ðA:4Þ

r2y pq

From the Cofﬁn–Manson relationship, we see that

De rf

0

¼ ð2N Þb þ e0f ð2N Þc ðA:5Þ

2 E

where b, c, r0f , and r0f are material constants related to the fatigue performance of the material. Neglecting the elastic terms

we see that

1720 R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722

De

¼ e0f ð2N Þc ðA:6Þ

2

So that rewriting Eq. (A.6) in terms of N [73] obtained the relationship

!1c

1 De

N ¼ ðA:7Þ

2 2e0f

0 n0 11c

ðn0 þ1Þ

C 2 r2 pq EDJ

!1c ! n0

n0

1B

B y

C

C 1 C2 1 cðn0 þ1Þ

EDJ cðn0 þ1Þ

N ¼ B C ¼ ðA:8Þ

2@ 2e0f A 2 2e0f r2y p q

n0

EDJ cðn0 þ1Þ

N ¼ C4 ðA:9Þ

q

where

!1c ! n0

cðn0 þ1Þ

1 C2 1

C4 ¼ ðA:10Þ

2 2e0f r2y p

The average increment in the crack length per cycle da/dN can be now calculated as per [73], viz:

da q

¼ ðA:11Þ

dN N

If we consider the case when R = 0, we ﬁnd that DJ = DK2 so that substituting Eq. (A.9) into Eq. (A.11) and collecting terms

[73] obtained the following equation for the crack growth rate, viz:

n0

da q q cðn0 þ1Þ 0

ð1þcðnn0 þ1ÞÞ 2n0

¼ n0

¼ C5q ¼ C5q ðDKÞcðn0 þ1Þ ðA:12Þ

dN DK 2 cðn0 þ1Þ DK 2

C4 q

If we deﬁne

2n0

m¼ ðA:13Þ

cðn0 þ 1Þ

we see that da/dN can be expressed as

da

¼ C 5 qð1 2 Þ ðDKÞm

m

ðA:14Þ

dN

where

!1c

1 C2 n0

C5 ¼ ¼2 ðr2y pÞcðn0 þ1Þ ðA:15Þ

C4 2e0f

If we assume that cracks do not grow if DK is lower than a threshold value DK th , we see that from Eqs. (A.3) and (A.4)

! n0

ðn0 þ1Þ

DK 2th

Deth ¼ C 2 ðA:16Þ

r2y pq

and

! 1

ðn0 þ1Þ

DK 2th

Drth ¼ C 3 ðA:17Þ

r2y pq

From Eq. (A.17) we ﬁnd that

ðn0 þ1Þ !

C3 DK 2th

q ¼ ¼ C 7 DK 2th ðA:18Þ

Drth r2y p

R. Jones et al. / Engineering Failure Analysis 18 (2011) 1711–1722 1721

where

ðn0 þ1Þ !

C3 1

C7 ¼ ðA:19Þ

Drth r2y p

However Tanaka [76] has shown that threshold stress intensity range (DKth) is a function of the crack length, viz:

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

DK th ¼ k ða=ða þ ao Þ ðA:20Þ

where ao is an intrinsic crack length, and k is a function of the R ratio, for more details see Section 2.3.1 of the NASGRO user’s

manual [77]. For physically small cracks such that a << ao, this yields

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

DK th ¼ k ða=ao Þ ðA:21Þ

so that Eq. (A.18) becomes

q ¼ C 7 k2 ða=ao Þ ðA:22Þ

Substituting Eq. (A.22) into Eq. (A.14) we obtain:

da ð1m2 Þ

ðDKÞm ¼ C 8 að1 2 Þ ðDKÞm

m

¼ C 5 C 7 k2 ða=ao Þ ðA:23Þ

dN

where

!ð1m2 Þ !1c " ðn0 þ1Þ ! #ð1m2 Þ

C 7 k2 C2 n0

C3 k2 1

2 cðn0 þ1Þ

C8 ¼ C5 ¼2 rp

y ðA:24Þ

ao 2e0f Drth r2y p ao

It is clear that Eq. (A.23) conforms to the Generalised Frost–Dugdale law. We thus see that for physically small cracks, the

Generalised Frost–Dugdale law can be derived either by assuming that the crack is blunt, as in [7], or if it is sharp and

the stress ﬁeld is described by the HRR solution.

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