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Emergent radical

The case of school occupation
by students in Bogotá
Miguel F Moreno F
June 11th, 2017
Research Proposal Defence
Universidad de los Andes
The Problem
Crisis of
Complexity Corruption

Low citizen
The Problem: Low youth participation
Latin America Colombia

Interested in politics 24% 20%

Satisfied with democracy 42% 28%

Trusted political parties 20% 14%

Involved in social org. 53% 27%

Corporación Latinobarómetro
Alternative Traditional ways
ways of political of political
participation participation

What happens in a SOS
Common assumptions about (Bedoya et al, 2008):
students involved in SOS - Students take over the
(Bedoya et al, 2008): School school
- They were manipulated occupation by - They occupy the school
- They don’t understand the during hours, days or weeks.
students (SOS)
reasons behind the - They denounce an injustice
occupation or try to get improvements
- They just want to avoid for the school
classes - They negotiate with the
Secretariat of Education
A 100 SOS in Bogotá
between 2012-2015

SOS is a manifestation of
democracy according to
SOS is an emergent/complex Rancièr's sporadic democracy
event because it involves: theory because:
School - There is a collective protest
- Agents interaction
occupation by about an injustice (equality?)
- Emergence of global
students (SOS) - Students behave as if they
equals to grown-ups, taking
- Descentralized control over the school
- They dettach from their
student identity and become

System’s Emergence Agency
Agents Rancierian
Complexity sporadic

Social system More equality soc

Emergent Radical Democracy Groups and

Individuals Intelectual
subjectification 7
Significance of the study
Emergent Radical Democracy
Complexity Sporadic democracy

It hasn't been studied It is useful for understanding democracy

enough in Colombia beyond institutions and participation
beyond voting
It is not included in democracy models
It is not clear how and It allows to conceive underage teens as
what students can learn citizens

It fills an empty space in the democracy models currently available, including complexity as a main
characteristic. And it enables me to understand SOS as radical emergent democracy –and potentially as a
learning process or at least as a learning opportunity.

Soc. Mov from Racierian perspective Democracy & compl
-May (2010 -Bobbio
-Fjeld et al. (2016), Marnique & Quintana -Hardt & Negri
(2016) : the political subject is a joint 1. Terms: simple, complicated, complex, -Zolo
resulting from detached or agonistic action wicked systems
with respect to a given social assembly 2. Discursive Compl. & Compl Sciences

Social Movements Political Sciences

1. Occupancies a) Democracy
models: C. Education & compl
2. School
Liberalism, -Philosphy of education
Communitarism, - Bastrup-Birk (2014)
a. Aguilera (2006) Delibeartive Democ.
b. Bedoya et al b) Ranciéres` radical
(2008) democracy

Political participation
Competencies Political-citizenship education:
a. Identity Deliberative approach

framework b. emergence

Ranciere’s radical democracy
• Democracy is not a institutional arrangement or a way of living. It is closely
related to agency.

• Police order vs. political moments (sporadic democracy)

• Subjetification
• Intelectual subjectification is an individual movement of detachment from the
assigned social identity
• Political subjectification means giving birth to the "equality of anyone with anyone"
(Rancière, 2006 p38) in a specific situation

• Equality: it has to be confirmed in a specific situation, as an answer to:

What if we treated each other as equals?

What I want to do?
Before Now

Comparative case study: 2 cases Comparative case study: 2 cases

Systematization of a pedagogical intervention

Retrospectively As SOS are happening Retrospectively As SOS are happening

I gain feasibility.

I lose the educational twist: using an emergent event

as an opportunity for democratic education

Research Questions

How do the actors in two How emergent radical

educative communities democracy theory can
understand and learn from
the school occupation by
be developed through
students? the study of school


Qualitative study

•School How do the actors in

two educative

Comparative occupations communities

understand and learn
Case Study from the school
occupation by students?

Comparative Case Study (CCS)

• It operates on three axes (Bartlett & Vavrus, 2017) :

• Vertical: micro, meso, macro spacial levels
• Horizontal: comparison between different locations
• Transversal: historical dimension

SOS in Latin

Sampling and Case Selection

• Sampling
• Information-oriented selection (Flyvbjerg, 2006, p 230): small samples.
• Case selection (Plaut, 2014)

Least likely case

Significantly different cases

Most likely case

• Comparability of the cases

• Public schools located in Bogotá
• The event must be named as “toma” (occupation) by students
• The students’ age average will be 15 years , studying tenth or eleventh grade
CCS data collection strategies
• Secretariat of education (V)
• Semi-structured interviews
• Documentary analysis
• 2 Educative commuties: students, parents, teachers and
administrators (H and T)
• Observations
• Focus groups
• Semi-structured interviews (10 out of 30)
• Secondary students movements (V and H)
• Semi-structured interviews
• Observations

Data analysis
• Qualitative data analysis
• Iterative
• Constant comparison
• Simultaneous data collection and analysis

• Content analysis
• Units of meaning; coding: emic and etic codes
• Identify units not covered by codification
• Build categories and themes from codes
• Discussion with the theoretical framework