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Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalysis

Summary Outline B.The Ego


The ego, or secondary process, is governed by the reality
I.Overview of Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory principle and is responsible for reconciling the unrealistic
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis has endured because it (1) demands of the id and the superego.
postulated the primacy of sex and aggression—two
universally popular themes, (2) attracted a group of followers C.The Superego
who were dedicated to spreading psychoanalytic doctrine, The superego, which serves the idealistic principle, has two
and (3) advanced the notion of unconscious motives, which subsystems—the conscience and the ego-
permit varying explanations for the same observations. ideal. The conscience results from punishment for improper
behavior whereas the ego-ideal stems from rewards for
II.Biography of Sigmund Freud socially acceptable behavior.
Born in the Czech Republic in 1856, Sigmund Freud spent
most of his life in Vienna. Early in his professional career, V. Dynamics of Personality
Freud believed that hysteria was a result of being seduced Dynamics of personality refers to those forces that motivate
during childhood by a sexually mature person, often a parent people.
or other relative. In 1897, however, Freud abandoned
his seduction theory and replaced it with his notion of A. Instincts
the Oedipus complex, a concept that remained the center of Freud grouped all human drives or urges under two primary
his psychoanalytic theory. Near the end of his life and to instincts—sex (Eros or the life instinct) and aggression (the
escape Nazi rule, Freud moved to London where he died in death or destructive instinct). The aim of the sexual instinct is
1939. pleasure, which can be gained through the erogenous zones,
especially the mouth, anus, and genitals. The object of the
III.Levels of Mental Life sexual instinct is any person or thing that brings sexual
Freud saw mental functioning as operating on three levels— pleasure. All infants possess primary narcissism, or self-
unconscious, preconscious, and conscious. centeredness, but the secondary narcissism of adolescence
and adulthood is not universal. Both sadism (receiving sexual
A.Unconscious pleasure from inflicting pain on another)
The unconscious includes drives and instincts that are and masochism (receiving sexual pleasure from painful
beyond awareness but that motivate most human experiences) satisfy both sexual and aggressive drives. The
behaviors. Freud believed that unconscious drives can destructive instinct aims to return a person to an inorganic
become conscious only in disguised or distorted form, such as state, but it is ordinarily directed against other people and is
dream images, slips of the tongue, or neurotic called aggression.
symptoms. Unconscious processes originate from two
sources: (1) repression, or the blocking out of anxiety-filled B.Anxiety
experiences and (2) phylogenetic endowment, or inherited Only the ego feels anxiety, but the id, superego, and outside
experiences that lie beyond an individual's personal world can each be a source of anxiety. Neurotic
experience. anxiety stems from the ego's relation with the id; moral
anxiety is similar to guilt and results from the ego's relation
B.Preconscious with the superego; and realistic anxiety, which is similar to
The preconscious contains images that are not in awareness fear, is produced by the ego's relation with the real world.
but that can become conscious either quite easily or with
some level of difficulty. VI.Defense Mechanisms
Defense mechanisms operate to protect the ego against the
C.Conscious pain of anxiety.
Consciousness plays a relatively minor role in Freudian
theory. Conscious ideas stem from either the perception of A.Repression
external stimuli (our perceptual conscious system) or from Repression involves forcing unwanted, anxiety-loaded
the unconscious and preconscious after they have evaded experiences into the unconscious. It is the most basic of all
censorship. defense mechanisms because it is an active process in each of
the others.
IV.Provinces of the Mind
Freud conceptualized three regions of the mind—the id, the B.Reaction Formation
ego, and the superego. A reaction formation is marked by the repression of one
impulse and the ostentatious expression of its exact opposite.
A. The Id
The id, which is completely unconscious, serves the pleasure
principle and contains our basic instincts. It operates through
the primary process.

Theories of Personality: Sigmund Freud


C.Displacement puberty—in which the sexual instinct is partially
Displacement takes place when people redirect their suppressed.
unwanted urges onto other objects or people in order to
disguise the original impulse. C.Genital Period
The genital period begins with puberty when adolescents
D.Fixation experience a reawakening of the genital aim of Eros. The
Fixations develop when psychic energy is blocked at one term "genital period" should not be confused with "phallic
stage of development, making psychological change period."
difficult. Some adults may remain fixated on the anal stage
of psychosexual development. D.Maturity
Freud hinted at a stage of psychological maturity in which
E.Regression the ego would be in control of the id and superego and in
Regressions occur whenever a person reverts to earlier, more which consciousness would play a more important role in
infantile modes of behavior. Some adults may return to the behavior.
oral stage as a means of reducing anxiety.
VIII.Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory.
F.Projection Freud erected his theory on the dreams, free associations,
Projection is seeing in others those unacceptable feelings or slips of the tongue, and neurotic symptoms of his patients
behaviors that actually reside in one's own unconscious. during therapy. But he also gathered information from
When carried to extreme, projection can become paranoia, history, literature, and works of art.
which is characterized by delusions of persecution.
A.Freud's Early Therapeutic Technique
G.Introjection During the 1890s, Freud used an aggressive therapeutic
Introjections take place when people incorporate positive technique in which he strongly suggested to patients that
qualities of another person into their own ego to reduce they had been sexually seduced as children. He later
feelings of inferiority. dropped this technique and abandoned his belief that most
patients had been seduced during childhood.
H.Sublimation
Sublimations involve the elevation of the sexual instinct's aim B.Freud's Later Therapeutic Technique
to a higher level, which permits people to make contributions Beginning in the late 1890s, Freud adopted a much more
to society and culture. passive type of psychotherapy, one that relied heavily on
free association, dream interpretation, and
VII.Stages of Development transference. The goal of Freud's later psychotherapy was
Freud saw psychosexual development as proceeding from to uncover repressed memories, and the therapist uses
birth to maturity through four overlapping stages. dream analysis and free association to do so. With free
association patients are required to say whatever comes to
A.Infantile Period mind, no matter how irrelevant or distasteful. Successful
The infantile stage encompasses the first 4 to 5 years of life therapy rests on the patient's transference of childhood
and is divided into three subphases: oral, anal, and phallic. sexual or aggressive feelings onto the therapist and away
During the oral phase, an infant is primarily motivated to from symptom formation. Patients' resistance to change is
receive pleasure through the mouth. During the 2nd year of seen as progress because it indicates that therapy has
life, a child goes through an anal phase. If parents are too advanced beyond superficial conversation.
punitive during the anal phase, the child may adopt an anal
triad, consisting of orderliness, stinginess, and C.Dream Analysis
obstinacy. During the phallic phase, boys and girls begin to In interpreting dreams, Freud differentiated the manifest
have differing psychosexual development. At this time, boys content (conscious description) from the latent
and girls experience the Oedipus complex in which they have content (the unconscious meaning). Nearly all dreams are
sexual feelings for one parent and hostile feelings for the wish-fulfillments, although the wish is usually unconscious
other. The male castration complex, which takes the form and can be known only through dream interpretation. To
of castration anxiety, breaks up the male Oedipus complex interpret dreams Freud used both dream symbols and the
and results in a well-formed male superego. For girls, dreamer's associations to the dream content.
however, the castration complex takes the form of penis
envy, precedes the female Oedipus complex, leads to a D.Freudian Slips
gradual and incomplete shattering of the female Oedipus Freud believed that parapraxes—now called Freudian
complex and results it a weaker and more flexible female slips—are not chance accidents but reveal a person's true
superego. but unconscious intentions.

B.Latency Period IX.Related Research


Freud believed that psychosexual development goes Although Freudian theory has generated much related
through a latency stage—from about age 5 years until research, it rates low on falsifiability because most

Theories of Personality: Sigmund Freud


research findings can be explained by other theories. In
recent years, however, many researchers have investigated Multiple Choice
hypotheses inspired by psychoanalytic theory. This
research includes such topics as (1) unconscious mental ______1.The twin cornerstones of psychoanalytic
processing, (2) pleasure and the id: inhibition and the ego, motivation are
(3) the defense mechanisms, and (4) dreams. a.sex and security. b.safety and security.
c.hunger and sex. d.sex and aggression.
A.Unconscious Mental Processing
In recent years, neuroscience has been ______2.Freud began his self-analysis shortly after
investigating the brain during a variety of cognitive and a.he broke off his relationship with Fliess.
emotional task, and much of this work relates to Freud's b.he broke off his relationship with Jung.
notion of unconscious motivation. For example, one pair of c.his mother died.
reviewers (Bargh & Chartrand, 1990) concluded that 95% of d.his father died.
human behaviors are unconsciously determined, and that
Freud's metaphor of the iceberg was probably accurate. In ______ 3.As a youth and young man, Freud was strongly
addition Mark Solms (2000, 2004; Solms & Turnbull, 2002) motivated to
argued that many Freudian concepts are consistent with a.win fame by making a great discovery.
modern neuroscience research. These include unconscious b.overtake his older brother Julius.
motivation, repression, and the pleasure principle. c.practice medicine on the poor people of Vienna.
d.become a rabbi and move to New York.
B.Pleasure and the Id /Inhibition and the Ego
Some research (Solms, 2001; Solms & Turnbull, 2002) has ______4.What analogy did Freud use to illustrate the
established that the pleasure-seeking drives have their relationship between the ego and the id?
neurological origins in two brain structures, namely the a.rider and horse b.groom and bride
brain stem and the limbic system. c.chicken and egg d.hammer and anvil

C.Repression, Inhibition, and Defense Mechanisms ______5.The id serves the __________ principle.
Solms (2004) reported cases from the neuropsychological a.pleasure b.reality
literature demonstrating repression of information when c.moralistic d.idealistic
damage occurs to the right-hemisphere and if this damaged
region becomes artificially stimulated the repression goes _____6.Which regions of the mind have no direct contact
away; that is, awareness returns. with the external world?
a.id and superego b.id and ego
D.Research on Dreams c.id only d.ego and superego
Research by Wegner and colleagues (Wegner, Wenzlaff, &
Kozak, 2004) tested Freud's hypothesis that wishes ______7.Which of these is a manifestation of both sex and
repressed during the day will find their way into dreams aggression?
during the night. Results showed that people dreamed a.anxiety b.narcissism
more about their repressed targets than their non- c.sadism d.love
repressed ones; that is, they were more likely to dream
about people they spend some time thinking about, a ______8.A masochist receives sexual pleasure from
finding quite consistent with Freud's hypothesis. a.inflicting pain on others.
b.joining a credit union.
X.Critique of Freud c.receiving pain inflicted by others.
Freud regarded himself as a scientist, but many critics d.watching other people undress.
consider his methods to be outdated, unscientific, and
permeated with gender bias. On the six criteria of a useful ______ 9.Freud called the mouth, anus, and genitals
theory, psychoanalysis we rate its ability to generate a.Oedipal strivings.
research as high, its openness to falsification as very low, b.erogenous zones.
and its ability to organize data as average. We also rate c.the aim of the sexual instinct.
psychoanalysis as average on its ability to guide action and d.the aim of the aggressive instinct.
to be parsimonious. Because it lacks operational
definitions, we rate it low on internal consistency. _____10.The guilt a person experiences after violating
personal standards of conduct is called ________ anxiety.
XI.Concept of Humanity a.realistic b.neurotic
Freud's concept of humanity was deterministic and c.manifest d.moral
pessimistic. He emphasized causality over teleology,
unconscious determinants over conscious processes, and _____11.According to Freud, anxiety is felt by the
biology over culture, but he took a middle position on the a.id. b.ego.
dimension of uniqueness versus similarity of people. c.superego. d.conscience.

Theories of Personality: Sigmund Freud


_____12.Defense mechanisms protect the ego against _____ 23.For girls, the castration complex
a.feelings of shame. b.guilt. a.takes the form of penis envy.
c.anxiety. d.public disgrace. b.shatters the Oedipus complex.
c.comes after the Oedipus complex.
_____13.In Freudian theory, anxiety d.all of these.
a.reduces repression. b.triggers repression. e. none of these.
c.increases repression. d.is caused by repression.
_____ 24.For boys,
_____14.After a drive or image has been repressed, it a.the Oedipus complex comes before the castration
a.may remain unchanged in the unconscious. complex.
b.could force its way into consciousness in an unchanged b.the castration complex takes the form of castration
form. anxiety.
c.could be expressed in a disguised or distorted form. c.the Oedipus complex is solved when they identify with
d.any of the above. their father—at around age 5 or 6.
d.none of these.
_____15.With this defense mechanism, a repressed desire e.all of these are correct.
finds an opposite and exaggerated expression.
a.fixation b.reaction formation _____25.Freud believed that, with few exceptions, the
c.sublimation d.projection unconscious meaning of dreams is an expression of
a.early childhood traumas.
_____16.A completely weaned child goes back to the bottle b.wish-fulfillments.
after a younger sister is born. This return to a more infantile c.experiences of the day before.
pattern of behavior expresses a d.feelings of inferiority.
a.reaction formation. b.fixation.
c.regression. d.projection. _____26.Psychoanalytic therapy is most likely to include this
technique.
_____17.Chad has great admiration for his history a.homework assignments
teacher. He attempts to imitate this teacher's lifestyle and b.free association
mannerisms. This is an example of c.interpretation of early recollections
a.displacement. b.sublimation. d.an active, aggressive therapist
c.projection. d.introjection.
_____27.During the past dozen or so years, psychoanalysis
_____18.This defense mechanism, unlike the others, usually has received most research support from
results in some benefit to society. a.operant conditioning. b.sociology.
a.projection b.fixation c.religion. d.neuroscience.
c.sublimation d.regression

_____19.To Freud, the most crucial stage of development is


a.infancy. b.latency.
c.genital. d.maturity.
Answer Key
_____20.The anal triad consists of all these characteristics
EXCEPT 1.d 11.b 21.c
a.miserliness. b.aggressiveness. 2.d 12.c 22.b
c.stubbornness. d.compulsive neatness. 3.a 13.b 23.a
4.a 14.d 24.e
_____21.Freud believed that differences between boys and 5.a 15.b 25.b
girls in psychosexual development are due to 6.a 16.c 26.b
a.parental expectations. 7.c 17.d 27.c
b.cultural experiences. 8.c 18.c
c.anatomy. 9.b 19.a
d.hormones. 10.d. 20.b

_____22.For boys, the castration complex


a.takes the form of penis envy.
b.shatters the Oedipus complex.
c.comes before the Oedipus complex.
d.all of these are correct.
e.none of these is correct.

Theories of Personality: Sigmund Freud