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Extrusion

ver. 1

Overview

• Equipment

• Characteristics

• Mechanical Analysis

– direct extrusion

– indirect extrusion

• Redundant work

• Defects

Geometry (90 o die)

p D 1 D 2
p
D
1
D
2

dead zone 45 o angle

Equipment

Equipment Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 4

Extrusion

Extrusion Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 5

Equipment

Equipment Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 6

Extrusions

Extrusions Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 7
Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 8
Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 8

Characteristics

• Similar to closed die forging

• Forging

– slug (bulk) is forging

– flash (extrusion) is waste

• Extrusion

– extrusion (flash) is part

– billet (bulk) is waste

Types

Types • Direct • Indirect • Tubular • Hydrostatic • Cold Impact Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes
Types • Direct • Indirect • Tubular • Hydrostatic • Cold Impact Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes
Types • Direct • Indirect • Tubular • Hydrostatic • Cold Impact Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes

• Direct

• Indirect

• Tubular

• Hydrostatic

• Cold Impact

Types

Types 1 – direct 2 – indirect 3 – heading (forging also) Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes
Types 1 – direct 2 – indirect 3 – heading (forging also) Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes
Types 1 – direct 2 – indirect 3 – heading (forging also) Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes
Types 1 – direct 2 – indirect 3 – heading (forging also) Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes
Types 1 – direct 2 – indirect 3 – heading (forging also) Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes

1 – direct

2 – indirect

3 – heading (forging also)

Flow types

• “Laminar”

• “Turbulent”

– redundant work

– can bring outside of billet into center

– leaving the skin keeps outside scale out of final extrusion

– leaving the skin keeps outside scale out of final extrusion Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by
– leaving the skin keeps outside scale out of final extrusion Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by

Steel extrusion

• T processing = 2100 to 2400 o F (1150 – 1315 o C)

• T melting = 2500 - 2800 o F (1370 – 1540 o C)

• Die 400 o F (205 o C)

• Obviously “Hot”

– above recyrstallization point

• Lubricants

– glass (viscous lube ) 0.001” thick

– MoS 2

– graphite

Mechanical Analysis

x p external friction D 1 dead zone 45 o angle internal friction D 2
x
p
external
friction
D
1
dead zone
45 o angle
internal
friction
D
2

Assumptions

• Metal deforms uniformly

– D 1 to D 2

• No redundant work

• Can’t use slab analysis

– die angles too great

– friction too high

slab analysis – die angles too great – friction too high • Dead zone sets up
slab analysis – die angles too great – friction too high • Dead zone sets up
slab analysis – die angles too great – friction too high • Dead zone sets up

• Dead zone sets up at 45 degrees

Upper bound analysis

• Work input by external forces = plastic work expended

W &

pressure

=

W &

internal friction

&

+ W

plastic work to compress

&

+ W

external friction

p τ friction
p
τ
friction

Rate of work = Power

• Work rate = Power

• Work rate = Area • stress • velocity

Pressure work input

• Power = A • p • v

– ram moves at velocity, v ram

&

W

p

=

π D

2

1

4

p v

ram

Internal “frictional” work input

• Work determined by integrating rate of frictional work dissipation at each cross section from D 2 to D 1

τ friction = τ flow

v i is in x-direction

&

W f

=

τ

flow

π

D

1

D

2

v DdL

i

dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx

dx

dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx

D + dD

45 o

π D 1 ∫ D 2 v DdL i      dx D
π D 1 ∫ D 2 v DdL i      dx D

D

dL=dD/2

Internal “frictional” work input

• Volumetric flow rate

Q = A v

1 ram

= A v

i

i

– where D, A i , v i are instantaneous

v =

i

D

D

1

2

v

ram

Internal “frictional” work input

&

W =

f

2 π v τ D D 1 dD ram flow 1 ∫ 2 D D
2
π
v
τ
D
D 1 dD
ram flow
1
2
D
D
2
2 v τ D D & π ram flow 1 1 ⋅ ln W f
2
v
τ
D
D
& π
ram flow
1
1
⋅ ln
W f =
2
D
2

Plastic work to compress input

• Power = u p x Area x velocity

Energy / volume = u =

p

ε=

D

1

2 ln D

2

• hence

d

σ ε

= Y = 2

f

ε

&

W

pw

=

4

τ

flow

ln

D    D   ⋅ v

2

1

 

π

1

D

2

4

 

ram

τ

flow

ε

Total work input (without external friction)

2 2 π D π D  D  1 1 τ 1 ⋅ p
2
2
π
D
π
D
D 
1
1
τ
1
p ⋅ v
=
v
 4
ln
ram
ram
flow
4
4
D
2
2
π
D
4
τ
D
1
flow
1
+
v
⋅ ln
ram
4
2
D
2

• reducing

D

1

p

3.414 ln

=

2

τ

flow

D

2

Extrusion ratio (r e )

• Reduction in area (RA) is large

– it is not sensitive for classification

• Use r e instead

r e

D  

2

1

= 

1

D

2

1 RA

=

Extrusion pressure (without

external friction)

D

D

1

p

1.707 ln

1

3.414 ln

2

τ

flow

D

2

D

2

=

=

p

2

τ

flow

=

1.707

ln r

e

2

Billet - wall friction

• Assume limiting case:

friction stress = shear flow stress

τ f = τ flow

τ flow τ flow
τ
flow
τ
flow

Additional pressure due to billet - wall friction

p

2

π D

1

4

=

τ

p

2

τ

flow

=

2

x

D

1

flow

π

D x

1

τ flow

τ flow

= 2 x D 1 flow ⋅ π ⋅ D x 1 ⋅ τ flow τ

x

= 2 x D 1 flow ⋅ π ⋅ D x 1 ⋅ τ flow τ

Direct extrusion pressure

p

x

2

τ

flow

p

x

2

τ

flow

p

x

2

τ

flow

=

p

2

τ

flow

+

p

2

τ

flow

=

p

2

τ

flow

3.414 ln

= ⋅

D

D

1

2

1.707

= ⋅

ln r

e

+

+

2 x

D

1

2 x

D

1

+

2

x

D

1

Strain hardening (cold – below recrystallization point)

• Not plane strain (Tresca)

2

τ

flow

=

σ

flow

K

n

=

ε

= Y

n + 1

average flow stress:

due to shape of element

K n = ε = Y n + 1 average flow stress: due to shape of

Example – 1-1

• You are forward, cold extruding Al-1100 (K = 140 MPa, n = 0.25), 10-cm diameter billet to a diameter of 5-cm at 1 m/min. The billet is initially 25 cm long

• The ram is made of a high-strength steel with a yield stress of 1.5 GPa.

• Determine the extrusion force and power.

• Determine the safety factor for indenting the ram.

Example – 1-2

• The equations we use are:

D

1

2

p

x

x

3.414 ln

=

+

2

τ

flow

D

2

D

1

2

τ

flow

K

n

1 2 p x x 3.414 ⋅ ln = + 2 τ flow D 2 D

= n + 1

ε

= Y

ε

=

D

2 ln

1

D

2

u

p

=

because

d

σε

=

K d

n

ε ε

=

K

ε

n +1

Example – 1-3

• We need to determine the dead-zone length to subtract from the initial billet length.

• so X = 0.25 – 0.025 = 22.5 cm

45°

2.5 cm 5 cm 2.5 cm 2.5 cm
2.5
cm
5 cm
2.5
cm
2.5 cm

Example – 1-4

ε

Substituting values

D

10

5

 =

1

2ln

D

2

= 2ln

= 1.39

2

τ flow

K

n

=

ε

= Y

n

+ 1

=

140

×

(

1.39

)

0.25

0.25

+

1

= 121.6 MPa

p x

=

2

τ

flow

P

extrusion , max

×

=

3.414 ln

2 x

D

D

1

+

D

2

1

121.6

×

3.414 ln

10

2

22.5

×

+

5

10

= 834 MPa

Example – 1-5

F

extrusion

=

P

extrusion

×

Area

=

834

×

10

6

×

π

4

(

0.1

)

2

=

6.6 MN

Power = F × speed = 6.6 MN ×1m / min× min/ 60sec = 110 kW

• Safety factor against indenting the ram

– to determine the “press-fit” failure, we would need the dimensions of the extrusion die and its material

n =

σ

y

σ extrusion , max

1.5 GPa

=

0.834 GPa

= 1.8

Redundant work

= d m /L

• d m = (D 1 + D 2 ) / 2

• p = Q r σ flow

p D 1 D 2
p
D
1
D
2

L (contact length)

Redundant work factor (Backofen)

(frictionless)

Redundant work factor (Backofen) (frictionless) Q r = Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr.

Q r =

Defects

• Surface materials drawn into center – pipe, tail pipe • Surface materials extruded –
• Surface materials drawn
into center
– pipe, tail pipe
• Surface materials
extruded
– eliminate by leaving
skin

Chevron Cracking

Chevron Cracking Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 38

Chevron cracking defect

• Hydrostatic tension

Chevron cracking defect • Hydrostatic tension – outer layer in compression – inner layer in tension,

– outer layer in compression

– inner layer in tension, if entire part is not plastic

• eliminate by using a fluid

– hydrostatic compression

– reduces friction

by using a fluid – hydrostatic compression – reduces friction Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr.

Defects

• Surface speed cracking

– high friction

– temperature

– speed

Summary

• Equipment

• Characteristics

• Mechanical Analysis

– direct extrusion

• Redundant work

• Defects