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Human Computer Interaction

Seventh Semester B.E.(CSE)
Course Objectives

Course Objectives :
1. This course introduces students the concept of
Human-Computer Interaction. It is also aimed
to skill Interaction design methodologies.
2. This course also introduces how to apply the
Human-Computer Interaction concepts to the
current interaction designs.
Course Outcomes
• Co1: Upon successful completion of the course, students
will be able to Understand fundamental concepts in HCI;
Carry out a range of different types of user study and
usability study.
• Co2: Produce different types of low-fidelity and mid-
fidelity prototypes;
• Co3: Explain the entire design lifecycle, and implement a
complete user-centered design process including user
studies, prototyping, and evaluation;
• Co4: Critically assess different and approaches in HCI; and
be able to provide such methods in applied settings;
• Co5: Describe implementation, and justify approach to, user
centered design processes for a range of real-world
Books :

1] Human –Computer Interaction Basics & Practice By

Smith-Atakan, CENGAGE Learning.
2] Human –Computer Interaction By Dan R.Olsen,
CENGAGE Learning.
3] Interaction Design beyond human-computer
interaction Authors: Preece, Rogers, and Sharp
NPTL & Video lectures
• Introduction
Introduction, A badly designed interactive system,
who designs interactive systems, Engineering, What
is useful or usable. Making interactive systems feel
natural for users introduction , Natural computing,
Natural computing and user-cent red system design,
Six principles of natural computing, Core concepts,
Interactive design, Strengths and weaknesses of
interactive systems.
Lecture 1
Introduction - What is HCI?
• How Human interacts with Computer:
- Not primarily the study of Human
- Not primarily the study of Computer
- The study of bridge between them, which includes
• Observation of interactions between people & computers,
e.g., Find examination papers via our library Web
• Analysis of the involved interactions, e.g., Are all the steps
involved are necessary?
• Human consequences after interacting with computers,
• e.g., Can the user perform his task? Does he enjoy working
with the computer?
What is HCI?
• The term HCI was adopted in mid-1980s:
• Association for Computing Machinery (ACM): “discipline
concerned with the design, evaluation & implementation of
interactive computer systems for human use & with the study
of major phenomena surrounding them” (1992)
• Dix: “HCI is study of people, computer technology and the
ways these influence each other. We study HCI to determine
how we can make this computer technology more usable by
people” (1998)
• Carroll: “HCI is the study and practice of usability. It is about
understanding and creating software and other technology that
people will want to use, will be able to use, and will find
effective when used.” (2002)
What is HCI?
• Human: Individual user, a group of users working together, a
sequence of users in an organization.
• Computer: Desktop computer, large-scale computer system,
Pocket PC, embedded system (e.g., photocopier, microwave
oven), software (e.g., search engine, word processor).
• User interface: Parts of the computer that the user contacts
• Interaction: Usually involve a dialog with feedback & control
throughout performing a task (e.g., user invokes “print”
command and then interface replies with a dialog box).
Why HCI?
• In the past, computers were expensive & used by
technical people only.
• Now, computers are cheap and used by non-technical
people (different backgrounds, needs, knowledge,
• ⇒ Computer and software manufacturers have
noticed the importance of making computers “user-
friendly”: easy to use, save people time, etc.
How to achieve “user-friendliness” in computer

• HCI focuses upon how best to design interactive

• It is study of how users interact with computer
• Interactive System refers to any technological
system which requires interaction with users.
• Website, Calculator ,Word Processor, Spread Sheet is
an interactive system.
HCI Scope Use and Context

Social Organization and Work Human-Machine Fit and Adaptation

Application Areas
Human Computer
Dialogue Computer
Human Techniques Graphics
Dialogue Dialogue
Language, Genre Architecture
Communication Input and
and Interaction Ergonomics Output Devices

Example Systems
Evaluation and Case Studies Implementation
Techniques Techniques and Tools
Development Process
HCI Scope
• Use & Context: Find application areas for computers
• Human: Study psychological & physiological
e.g., study how a user learns to use a new product,
study human typing speed
• Computer: Hardware & software offered
– e.g., input & output devices, speed , interaction
styles, computer graphics
• Development: Design, implementation & evaluation
Lecture 2
HCI Goals
• At physical level, HCI concerns the selection of the most appropriate input
devices and output devices for a particular interface or task
• Determine the best style of interaction, such as direct manipulation,
natural language (speech, written input), WIMP (windows, icons, menus,
pointers), etc.
• Develop or improve
– Safety
– Utility
– Effectiveness
– Efficiency
– Usability
– Appeal
of systems that include computers
HCI Goals
• Safety: protecting the user from dangerous conditions and
undesirable situations
• Users
– Nuclear energy plant or bomb-disposal – operators should interact with
computer-based systems remotely
– Medical equipment in intensive care unit (ICU)
• Data
– Prevent user from making serious errors by reducing risk of wrong
keys/buttons being mistakenly activated
– Provide user with means of recovering errors
– Ensure privacy (protect personal information such as habits and
address) & security (protect sensitive information such as passwords,
VISA card numbers)
Safety and security
• Safety measures are created to protect people and
property from injury or loss by circumstance,
accident, or negligence.
• Security measures are created to protect people and
property from injury or loss by deliberate actions
taken by people.
HCI Goals
• Utility: extent of providing the right kind of functionality so that
users can do what they need or want to do
• High utility
– Scientific calculator provides many mathematical operations,
built-in formulae, and is programmable
• Low utility
– Software drawing tool does not allow free-hand drawing but
supports polygon shape drawing
• Effectiveness: concern a user’s ability to accomplish a desired goal
or to carry out work
– Find a master thesis in our library Web
• Any difference between utility and effectiveness?
HCI Goals
• Consider the scenario: a shopping Web provides all the
information, instruction and server-side support required to
perform an on-line purchase. However, the users cannot figure
out how to find the items they want to buy.
• Efficiency: a measure of how quickly users can accomplish
their goals or finish their work using the system
– Find a book “human computer interaction” in our library Web
– How about a master thesis whose author’s last name is “Cheng”?
– How about the newest book in the subject of “human computer
HCI Goals
Usability: ease of learning and ease of use
– Can I use the basic functions of a new digital camera
without reading the manual?
– Does the software facilitate us to learn new functions
Appeal: how well the user likes the system
– First impression
– Long-term satisfaction
HCI Goals
Use Microsoft WORD as an example:
HCI Benefits
• Gaining market share
– People intend to buy/use products with higher usability
– e.g., Google’s search engine has the largest market share
because it is easy to use with higher efficiency
• Improving productivity
– Employees in a company perform their jobs in a faster

– e.g., Intranet can increase employees’ efficiency

HCI Benefits
• Lowering support costs
– If the product is not usable, calls to customer support can
be enormous
– e.g., If a washing machine is difficult to use even after
reading the instruction manual, many users will call the
customer service and the cost per call can be over $100
• Reducing development cost
– Avoid implementing features users don’t want and creating
features that are annoying or inefficient
– e.g., If there are too many unnecessary confirmation dialog
boxes in using a word processor, it is likely this product
needs to be redeveloped
Lecture 3
A Badly designed interactive system,
who designs interactive systems
Good & Poor Design Examples
HCI arises in our daily life, e.g.
Elevator controls and labels on the bottom row all look the
same, so it is easy to push a label by mistake instead of a
control button (

People do not make same mistake for the labels and buttons on
the top row. Why not?
Any suggestions to improve the interface?
Good & Poor Design Examples
• Nokia 6800: Users can write messages with the cover
closed, or open the cover to reveal a full keyboard for
easy messaging (
• Is it a good design? Why?
Good & Poor Design Examples
This is an interface of a dialog box

Is it a good design?
Activities in HCI Design
• Identify needs and establish requirements
• Develop alternative designs
• Build interactive prototypes that can be communicated and
• Evaluate what is being built throughout the process
Activities in HCI Design

• Most things that we use have been “engineered”.

• This means that designers have been through a fairly

systematic process in order to arrive at product that
meets its requirement.
• Discuss the design and development process of
Software Engineering
What is useful or usable ?
What is useful or usable ?

• For something to be useful means that the user can

actually achieve the task they want to.
• For something to be usable it must allow the users to
achieve the task they want to easily and enjoyably.
• Useful means that the system supports user
• Usable means that it supports these objectives in
easy-to-use ways.
• Accessible means that it can be used by the full range
of intended users.
Lecture 4
Natural computing

The study of how people process and store

information, manipulate symbols, ascribe
personal values to events, attribute cultural and
emotive judgments.

Figure 1.1: The lever beneath this mini-

van seat does not work as expected.
Instead of allowing
the seat to slide backward or forward,
pulling the lever detaches the seat from
the floor to make room for cargo!
Car Seat

• A seat in a mini-van (people carrier), see

Figure 1.1.
• What do you think happens when you pull
the lever under the seat?
• Most normal-thinking people would expect
the seat to slide backward or forward.
• Not in this mini-van. Pulling the lever
detaches the seat from the floor to make room
for cargo!
The Psychology of Everyday Things

Perceived and Real Affordances

Affordances are the range of possible (physical)
actions by a user on an artifact:

• Perceived Affordances are the actions a user

perceives to be possible.

• Real Affordances are the actions which are

actually possible.
Real World Affordances

For physical objects, there can be both real and

perceived affordances.

• Appearance indicates how to use something:

– A chair affords (suggests) sitting.
– Knobs are for turning.
– Slots are for inserting things.
– A button affords pushing.
 When perceived affordances are taken advantage of, the user
knows what to do just by looking.
Fig :Ambiguous door designs. A knob affords turning, but do you push or
pull? A horizontal bar affords pushing, but which side do you push on?
Fig: Good use of affordances in door designs. A vertical handle affords
grasping and pulling. A flat panel affords pushing and the broadness
indicates which side to push.
Natural computing

 Information processing is just one of the capabilities

of the human brain. The main idea of natural
computing is that information processing is a
natural process for us.

 The user perspective

 The designer's perspective
Lecture 5
Key features of user-centred
system design

 A central focus on the people who will use the

systems, on their preferences and requirements
 Building simple models of the users, the tasks and
the technological systems
 An iterative process
 Prototyping and the evaluation of alternatives by
The user or users

What do you think of when you read the phrase 'the

user'? Do you think of:
 Someone like yourself?
 A stereotype 'user'?
 A group of 'typical users'?
 You picture individuals, each with different skills
and preferences, different priorities and objectives?
UCSD Process

Task Analysis
Observation of existing
Problem Statement

Usability guidelines &

Requirements Gathering
heuristics Requirement stmt:
functional & non-

Design & Storyboard Storyboard

Technical & legal

Prototype implementation

Transcript & evaluation

Evaluation report

Final implementation
Is UCSD sufficient?

UCSD may not be enough

People may need the facility to:
 Customise a system
 Add assistive technology for extreme circumstances or
 Have adaptable systems that respond to the ways in which they
are used or to a user's known profile
Six principles of natural computing

 Natural computing
 What can users do?
 Modelling users
 Understanding the domain
 Understanding human learning
 Meaning as a basis for practical action
Understanding users

 We need to understand better the people who use

the systems we design and build.
Lecture 6
Core concepts

These are common to both natural computing and

user-centred system design
 User model
 Universal access
 Design for all
 Inclusive design
 Task models
 Technological platform
Universal access

Universal access is the objective of making systems that

are accessible anytime, anywhere and to anyone of the
intended user population.
Design for all

It is similar to 'universal access', but also promotes the

notion of careful design and design standards, so that users
with special needs are not excluded from the use of a
Inclusive design

The aim of inclusive design is to create mechanisms by

which designers can calculate the numbers of users who
are excluded by specific design features.
Task models

You must identify the key features of the task to be

achieved – and recognise those aspects that must or can be
Technological platform

In the earlier days of system design

 technology placed severe restrictions on the
functionality of proposed systems
These days
 technological options are less restrictive and, we can
expect our expectations to be fulfilled by the
Strengths and weaknesses of
interactive systems

 Modern interactive systems can be powerful because they

draw on powerful technology
 Interactive systems may provide useful functions
 Interactive systems differ in the extent that they are usable
 Accessibility varies between good and poorly designed

Natural computing provides a basis to begin to understand

people and systems, and how people might use technology
to good effect