You are on page 1of 5

Answers

Answer Key joeyma.club


Answers Key
Key
Control of Blood Sugar Levels answer
Control of Blood Sugar Levels Pogil
Control of Blood Sugar Levels key

Control of Blood Sugar Levels


What hormones are involved in the homeostasis of blood sugar?

Why?
All living things use glucose as a source of energy. In vertebrates it is critical that the levels of glucose in
the blood are consistent. Small fluctuations are fine, but if the glucose concentration in the blood gets too
high, a coma could result. If the glucose concentration in the blood gets too low, the person could experi-
ence seizures, go into a coma or die. In humans, hormone levels help regulate the glucose concentration in
the blood and keep us in homeostasis.

Model 1 – Hormonal Control of Glucose


Insulin
Relative Concentration in the Blood

Glucagon
Glucose

Glucose baseline

Insulin baseline
Glucagon baseline

Meal Eaten

Time

  1. The relative blood concentrations of which three molecules are recorded in the graph of Model 1?
Insulin, glucagon, glucose

  2. Which molecule from Model 1 is found in the blood at the highest concentrations?
Glucose

  3. Why do cells need glucose?



Cells need glucose for energy for cellular respiration to make ATP

  4. According to the graph in Model 1, what happens to blood glucose levels after a meal has been
eaten?
Blood glucose levels increases

Control of Blood Sugar Levels 1


  5. Refer to Model 1.
a. As blood glucose levels increase above baseline, the level of which hormone also increases?
Insulin
b. As blood glucose levels begin to drop below baseline, the concentration of which hormone
increases?
Glucagon
c. As blood glucose returns to its baseline level, what happens to the levels of insulin and gluca-
gon in the blood?
The levels of insulin and glucagon returns to their baseline levels

Model 2 – Feedback Control of Blood Glucose


Pancreas Liver
ge
Stora

Use
d Other cells

Blood Blood
glucose Cycle A glucose
is too high. drops.

Glucose
Baseline blood Insulin
glucose level. Glycogen
Blood Glucagon
glucose rises. Blood
Cycle B glucose
is too low.

Pancreas
Release
Liver

2 POGIL™ Activities for AP* Biology


  6. According to Model 2, what are three of the organs/tissues of the body that interact to regulate
blood glucose levels?
Liver, pancreas, and other cells such as red blood cells
  7. According to Model 2, where in the body do the insulin and glucagon originate?
Pancreas
  8. Refer to Model 2.
a. What shape in the model represents glucose?
Hexagon
b. Describe how glycogen is related to glucose.

Glycogen is a polymer of glucose monomers

c. Which form of sugar, glucose or glycogen is stored in the liver for future use?
Glycogen

Read This!
Most cells in the body have insulin receptors. When insulin is present, the transfer of glucose into cells
increases. This takes the glucose out of the bloodstream and puts it where it can be used, or in some cases
stores it as glycogen. The glycogen can be converted back into glucose when it is needed. But glycogen
cannot be used by cells directly as an energy source. Excess glucose that remains in the blood gets excreted
out in urine.

  9. Refer to Model 2.
a. In which cycle is glucose removed from the blood by storing it or moving it into cells to use
for fuel?
Cycle A
b. Which hormone, insulin or glucagon, helps glucose move into cells of the body?
Insulin
c. In which cycle is glucose added to the blood from storage areas?
Cycle B
d. Which hormone, insulin or glucagon, helps turn glycogen into glucose?
Glucagon

Control of Blood Sugar Levels 3


10. In grammatically correct sentences, explain the role of insulin in maintaining glucose levels after
a large meal.
After a large meal, blood glucose levels rise causing the pancreas to then
release insulin. This presence of insulin increases the transfer of glucose
into the cell where glucose can be used or stored for energy. As glucose
moves inside the cells, blood glucose levels decreases.

11. In grammatically correct sentences, explain the role of glucagon in maintaining glucose levels
when the organism is hungry.

When the organism is hungry, blood glucose levels decreases below the
baseline which causes the pancreas to release glucagon which then releases
glycogen from the liver and muscles. As glycogen converts into glucose,
blood glucose levels increase.

12. For each of the cycles in Model 2 identify the stimulus and response for the feedback loops and
indicate whether the feedback loop is positive or negative feedback.

Stimulus Response Positive or Negative?

Cycle A High glucose levels Release of insulin Negative

Cycle B Low glucose levels Release of glycogen Negative

13. Predict the levels of glucose, glucagon, and insulin in a person who has:
a. Skipped a meal.
Low glucose, high glucagon, low insulin

b. Just run 5 miles.


Low glucose, high glucagon, low insulin

c. Just ate a large dinner.


High glucose, low glucagon, high insulin

4 POGIL™ Activities for AP* Biology


Extension Questions
14. In the past, diabetes mellitis was diagnosed by tasting the urine of the patient. What evidence for
diabetes were the doctors looking for?
If the urine tasted sweet, it would indicate diabetes because glucose was not
absorbed by the cells.

15. In Type I diabetes, the Beta cells of the pancreas produce little to no insulin. What effect does
this have on an organism’s ability to regulate blood glucose levels?
The movement of glucose into cells remain at their constant levels and increase
at low levels. Blood glucose levels remain high after a meal. The blood glucose
levels decrease when cells use glucose for energy.

16. Type I diabetics must eat frequent small meals. Explain why this is necessary using what you have
learned about blood glucose regulation.

Eating frequent small meals is necessary because in type I diabetes, the
pancreas produce little to no insulin. The movement of glucose into the cell will
remain at their constant level or will not increase. Eating large meals will cause
their blood sugar levels to drastically increase due to insulin resistance, and
excess glucose does not enter the cell and remains the in the bloodstream
where it is then it is excreted in urine.

17. Other symptoms of Type I diabetes are increased thirst and frequent urination. Explain these
symptoms using what you have learned in this activity as well as your knowledge of osmosis and
diffusion.
In diabetes, there is a high concentration of glucose in the blood because the
body can not produce insulin and therefore not absorb glucose, so the blood
will have more solute than the cells. This causes the fluids to move from the
cells to the blood. The increased amount of water in the fluids will need to be
filtered and disposed by the kidneys by urine, so the kidneys will excrete the
excess glucose in the urine taking more fluid in the excretion increasing
urination. As the body is urinating frequently, it is continuously losing fluid
causing dehydration. To compensate for this lack of water, if the water volume
of the body falls below a certain threshold or the osmolyte concentration
becomes too high, the brain signals thirst causing an increase in thirst.
18. Type II diabetes shares many of the same symptoms as Type I diabetes. Using your textbook and/
or a computer, research the cause of this type of diabetes.
Type II diabetes is caused when the pancreas does not produce sufficient
insulin to maintain a normal blood glucose level, or when the receptors are
unable to the insulin that is produced. When the body is insulin resistant,
the glucose remains in the bloodstream until it is excreted by urination and
the movement of glucose into cell can not increase.

Control of Blood Sugar Levels 5