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Passage 1
Young adults who spend a lot of time on social media during the day or check it frequently throughout
the week are more likely to suffer sleep disturbances than their peers who use social media less, according to
new research from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
The study indicates that physicians should consider asking young adult patients about social media
5 habits when assessing sleep issues. The research was supported by the National Institute of Health (NIH).
“This is one of the first pieces of evidence that social media use really can impact your sleep,” said
lead author Jessica C. Levenson, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher in Pitt’s Department of Psychiatry. “And it
uniquely examines the association between social media use and sleep among young adults who are,
arguably, the first generation to grow up with social media.”
10 In 2014, Dr. Levenson and her colleagues sampled 1,788 U.S. adults ages 19 through 32, using
questionnaires to determine social media use and an established measurement system to assess sleep
disturbance.
The questionnaires asked about the 11 most popular social media platforms at the time: Facebook,
YouTube, Twitter, Google Plus, Instagram, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, Vine and LinkedIn.
15 On average, the participants used social media a total of 61 minutes per day and visited various social
media accounts 30 times per week. The assessment showed that nearly 30 percent of the participants had high
levels of sleep disturbance.
The participants who reported most frequently checking social media throughout the week had three
times the likelihood of sleep disturbance, compared with those who checked least frequently. Participants who
20 spent the most total time on social media throughout the day had twice the risk of sleep disturbance, compared
to peers who spent less time on social media.

61.What is the topic of the passage? (D) indicator


(A) Sleep disruption in young adults (E) sign
(B) The use of social media by young adults
(C)Social media habits among young adults 63.The chance of getting sleep disruptions for
(D)The impact of sleep disruptions on social subject who spends most of the time on social
media use media during the day is ….
(E) The relation between sleep disruptions and (A) double
social media use (B) triple
(C) quadruple
62.The word evidence in line 6 means…. (D) multiple
(A) fact (E) equal
(B) proof
(C) symptom

Passage 2
In 2012, anxiety UK conducted a survey on social media use and its effects on emotions. The survey
found that 53% of participants said social media sites had changed their behavior.
Those who said their lives had been worsened by using social media also reported feeling less
confident when they compared their achievements against their friends. Furthermore, the survey revealed that
5 two thirds of participants reported difficulty relaxing and sleeping after they used the sites, while 55% said they
felt "worried or uncomfortable" when they were unable to log onto their social media accounts. In a more
recent study, social interaction on social media sites, specifically Facebook, may have a negative impact on
face-to-face encounters for individuals who already have high levels of anxiety.

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Another concern regarding social media use is cyber bullying. As stated earlier in this feature, the
10 majority of social networking users are under the age of 30, and most of these are adolescents. According to
Enough is Enough (EIE) - an organization that aims to make Internet use safer for children and families - 95%
of teenagers who use social media have witnessed forms of cyber bullying on social networking sites. In
addition, 33% have been victims of cyber bullying. But Dr. Rauch believes it is not purely the use of social
media that is getting out of control. It is more on our need to be electronically connected at all times. Dr. Rauch
15 further says, “I would encourage any parent to explore ways to encourage or even mandate ‘off’ time, not just
away from social media sites, but away from the devices. That is probably good advice for all of us.”
Although many studies point to the negative impacts of social media on mental health and well-being,
some researchers say they could have the opposite effect. Social networking sites could be a useful tool in
identifying individuals with mental health issues.
20 Some studies have suggested that social media use may even improve mental health and well-being.
Last year, Medical News Today reported that Facebook activity may be an indicator of a person's
psychological health. It was found that people who shared fewer pictures on the site, communicated less
frequently, had a longer profile and fewer Facebook friends were more likely to experience social anhedonia.
This is the inability to encounter happiness from activities that are normally enjoyable, such as talking to
25 friends. However, another study suggests that using social media may even spread happiness.
Overall, it appears that the exact effects of social media on our mental health and well-being remain to
be seen. But one thing is certain; our use of social networking sites is unlikely to fade anytime soon.

64.Which paragraph best supports ideas of the 67. It is implied in paragraph 2 that ….
undesirable effect of use of social media on (A) more and more people will often use social
youngsters? media
(A) 1 (B) social media users will never care about its
(B) 2 impacts
(C) 3 (C)people will keep communicating using social
(D) 4 media
(E) 5 (D)we need to be always alert to the impacts of
social media
65.In which paragraph(s) does the information in (E) social media will affect users’ mental and
paragraph 4 contradict? social welfare more
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2
(C) 1 and 3
(D) 2 and 3
(E) 1, 2, 3

66.With the last paragraph, the author assumes


that….
(A) the youngsters using social media will suffer
most from mental illness
(B) people will remain ignorant with the impact
of social media use on health
(C)in spite of its use, social media will always
have negative impacts on users
(D)use of social media may impact both
positively and negatively on the users
(E) health problems are more likely to appear as
the impact of social media use

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Passage 3
Tropical rainforests could suffer if large fruit-eating animals such as primates, tapirs and even toucans
were to go extinct, simply because trees can not disperse their seeds without the help of these animals. This
could drastically accelerate the impacts of climate change since tropical forests are natural carbon sinks,
according to researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA).
5 "Large birds and mammals provide almost all the seed dispersal services for large-seeded plants.
Several large vertebrates are threatened by hunting, illegal trade and habitat loss. But the steep decline of the
megafauna in overhunted tropical forest ecosystems can bring about large unforeseen impacts," Professor
Carlos Peres, one of the study researchers from UEA's School of Environmental Sciences, explained in a news
release. "We show that the decline and extinction of large animals will over time induce a decline in large
10 hardwood trees. This in turn negatively affects the capacity of tropical forests to store carbon, and therefore,
their potential to counter climate change."
Comparatively, large trees in highly dense tropical rainforests are more effective at capturing and
storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than smaller trees, researchers say. Large frugivores -- any animal
that is either a herbivore or omnivore, but prefers fruit -- essentially promote the growth of new trees by
15 ingesting seeded fruits and depositing the seeds throughout the forest in their feces.
For their study, researchers analyzed data collected from more than 2,000 tree species in Brazil's
Atlantic Forest, along with nearly 800 animal species. Their findings revealed small frugivores -- birds, bats and
marsupials -- are not specifically targeted by hunters, but can only able to disperse small seeds that grow small
trees. On the other hand, large heavy-wooded trees, which can capture and store greater amounts of carbon,
20 are associated with larger seeds. However, these seeds are only dispersed by large animals that are more
regularly hunted. Hardly do any smaller animals help the dispersal of seeds.
"The big frugivores, such as large primates, the tapir, the toucans, among other large animals, are the
only ones able to effectively disperse plants that have large seeds," Professor Mauro Galetti São Paulo State
University added in the release. "Usually, the trees that have large seeds are also big trees with dense wood that
25 store more carbon."
It follows then that the removal of large animals would trigger a subsequent trees loss, which would
then lead to less carbon being locked away. This could ultimately escalate the impacts of climate change.

68.Which of the following is the restatement of the 69. In presenting the ideas, the author starts by ….
sentence ‘Large birds and mammals provide (A) exemplifying large animals
almost all the seed dispersal services for large- (B) mentioning a potential problem
seeded plants.’ in line 5? (C)analyzing an issue on environment
(A) Large animals supply all the services needed (D)giving statistics of an environmental problem
by large-seeded plants in spreading the (E) refuting previous research the author cites
seeds.
(B) Large birds and mammals require the 70. Paragraph 3 implies that ….
services of large-seeded plants to spread (A) big animals highly depend on big trees to
their seeds. sustain their life
(C)Services for dispersing seeds of big-seeded (B) big trees produce useful substances not
plants can be provided only by birds and produced by smaller trees
mammals. (C)trees consumed by large vertebrates are
(D)All the seed spreading services needed by different from those by smaller ones
plants of big seeds are supplied by larger (D)trees of smaller size are less beneficial to the
animals. sustainability of the forest
(E) All animals, birds and mammals, play an (E) only large trees can give the benefit to other
important role in dispersing seeds of large- member of the ecosystem
seeded plants.

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71.Which of the following obviously shows the (D)Hardly do any smaller animals help the
author’s bias? dispersal of seeds.
(A) Large trees in tropical rainforests are more (E) The extinction of larger animals would lead
effective at capturing carbon dioxide. to an environmental damage.
(B) Large vertebrates are threatened by hunting,
illegal trade and habitat loss.
(C)Tropical rainforests could suffer if large fruit-
eating animals are slaughtered.

Passage 4
We cannot live without water. It is critical for proper body and brain function. It enables our blood to
flow properly and helps us stay energized.
The good news: “Most people can handle mild amount of dehydration,” says Dana S. Simpler, an
internist in private practice. “The body regulates fluid balance through a number of complex pathways,
5 including reduced urine production, increased re-absorption, of water in the intestines and thirst-which
prompts rehydration.”
Simpler is careful to point out the difference being low on fluids and clinical dehydration.
“Dehydration mainly occurs with illnesses such as fever, diarrhea and vomiting where excessive fluids are lost
and not being replaced or in a sport situations/hot weather where excessive perspiration is not being replaced,”
10 she explains.
So how much water do you need? And what about that old standby recommendations to drink eight
8-ounce glasses of water per day? “It is an oversimplification of what the body usually needs,” says Simpler.
“There is really no ‘optimal’ amount of hydration.” The weather, your diet and exercise habits are all a factor
in how much water you need. Some days you will need more fluids, other days less.
15 Those fluids can come from virtually any drink and even some foods. Milk, smoothies, and juice drinks
count. Caffeinated beverages, such as tea, coffee, and energy drinks, count too. Eating water-containing foods,
including tomatoes, cucumbers, watermelon and oranges, is also a great way to up your fluid intake.
All things considered, it makes sense to clue in to symptoms that can signal the need for more fluids.
Here are a couple signs to pay attention to: you are thirsty (it may seem obvious, but a dry mouth and how
20 thirsty you are do correlate to how hydrated you are), you are lightheaded or worn out (if you feel dizzy, you
may be dehydrated), and your urine is extra dark (concentrated urine is a clear indicator that you are
dehydrated. It means your urine has more waste in it).

72.The paragraph following the passage will likely 74.What will happen when you exercise more in a
talk about …. day?
(A) more signs of dizziness (A) You will drink more.
(B) more clues of being thirsty (B) You will urinate more.
(C) more symptoms of lightheaded (C) You will dehydrates quickly.
(D) more symptoms of dehydrated (D) You will need more fluids.
(E) more indicators of having bad urine (E) You will be dehydrated.

73.What is the author’s attitude toward the topic of 75.The passage can be best summarized as….
the passage? (A) water is important to support body and
(A) Optimistic brain function
(B) Concerned (B) people need to drink a lot of water to
(C) Indifferent prevent dehydration
(D) Interested (C)feeling thirsty is one important signal of
(E) Tolerant dehydration
(D)people need to pay attention to the
indication of dehydration
(E) water is critical to human life, so people
need to know the signals of dehydration

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