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PG- Thesis- CSE

By Swaleha Khan
1.1 World Wide Scenario

The forest is one of the most valuable and indispensable natural resource which balances
the ecosystem. Throughout the globe all the countries provides importance to sustainable
management of the forest in their region. The forest fire is one among the natural
disasters that destroy the forest. Monitoring and controlling forest fire is a major task for
forest departments. Forests is also the main ecological balance contributor to the nature.
Shockingly, this natural parity is greatly disturbed by fire disaster that happen
consistently in each forest of each nation. Every year thousands of hectares of forest land
are destroyed by incidences of fire. This will create substantially more Carbon Monoxide
(CO) when contrasted with CO discharged by and large vehicular traffic. The main
causes of forest fire almost every time are natural and man-made of which man-made
causes are dependly on rise. Characteristics causes incorporate fire because of lighting
and lava and manmade causes go from unattended open air fires, cigarettes that are
disposed of carelessly, uncontrolled burning of debris to intentionally setting the forest
on fire, the causes that are for the most part normal. The wrong part of forest fires is that
it must be distinguished once it has spread and secured a significant zone. Once a
fireplace cover a substantial portion of forest it invariably becomes uncontrollable and
disposing of these fires is out of reach. There is a sudden increase in forest fires across
the year of 2016 that is 20,500 hectares fires as compared to the 15,900 hectares of fires
in 2015 according to the tabled data in Lok Sabha. Forest fires as much as117,369
hectares were detailed since 2011.
Wireless sensor network within the application of disaster Management, monitoring of
environment and early detection of forest fires has gained abundant attention in overseas.
University California took the initiative and conducts their Research on WSN for the
event of fireplace Bug system. In Fire Bug System the sensors collect the data from
environment in term of temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure and each sensor
node is attached with GPS system. By using WEB browser, a user can easily
communicate with the data server. University scholars also increased the flexibility of
the network by using mobile agents for finding fire source. The real-time forest
monitoring and management system using thermal IR sensors, wireless communication
technology, navigation system and prediction of fire which enables their design to
differentiate fire within five meters and can effectively predicts the spread direction of
fire was also developed by Canadian Scholar.
A Wireless sensor Network (WSN) consists of the huge number of sensor nodes, which
have been remotely deployed either in the experience or near to it. Random deployment,
self-organizing, cooperative work and data fusion are a couple of feature of sensor nodes.
Since sensor nodes is likely to be smartly, randomly, and densely deployed in a forest,
sensor nodes can depend the precise beginnings associated with flames into the end
users before the flame is spread and happens irrepressible
1.2 Scenario in India

Data collected by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) shows that forest fire incidents in the
country have risen 49.32% in the past three years. These incidents rose to 37,059 in 2018
from 35,888 in 2017 and 24,817 in 2016.

The data related to forest fire disclosed that Mizoram is higly affected state, recording
2,500 fire incidents that are alert followed closely by Maharashtra (1,449), Assam
(1,357), Meghalaya (1,340) and Manipur (1,312). Only 52 flame alerts were recorded in
Uttarakhand. Forest authorities in Mizoram connected the explanation for such incidents
for the Jhum cultivation (a slash-and-burn approach) which can be practised by the rural
area people of Mizoram state. Under this system, the natives obvious a plot of area of
trees and plant life after which it they set it ablaze. The soil, after burning, provides
potash which will be responsible for enriching the nutrient value of the soil.
Nevertheless, this exercise furthermore brings about agricultural fires in the area which
also often wide spread to states that are adjacent.

The ways that are conventional for the prevention of fire are not much successful
according to this it really is much required to aware poople in this matter, more specially
for people who are now living in Forest areas. The occurrences on the forest fireplaces
have increased in the country and amount that is large of burns off from year to year. Our
ministry try implementing a system “Forest Fire Control Methods” through which state
governments are helped with the assistance that is financial the focus. This system
discusses protection of man triggered fires through education. Additionally, it include the
early detection of fireplaces by utilizing well maintained circle of factor information,
well efficient and planned patrolling at floor and the proper communications network.

1.3 Scope of Project in broad sense

Every year Portugal country affected by Forest Fire. By fire that destroy large number of
hectares of Forest area and also endanger the lives of people with their goods and
property. The actual fact that it has build on fighting ways and fire fighters
qualifications, but sometimes these are all are not enough to extinguish the fire as rapidly
as possible because of the delay in the response time. In general, when the detection of
fire is late then it enables a fire to experience deeper proportion by which it is more
challenging to extinguish it. One aspect that may increase the fire fighters performance
are that if the fire extinguishing authorities is to try to identify fire and release a fire
aware as quickly as possible. The quickest detection and aware time early action through
the authorities dramatically improving their own possibilities regarding the fire
extinguish chore.

Based on the provisional data for 2015 and from the previous years, offered by ICNF, the
data suggest that the most burnt area are the Forest region. In fact, there are some remote
location area in which when the aware regarding fire is provided, the fire has reached an
amount that impair its smooth extinction because of the fire fighter groups as well as
other authorities. The main aim of this effort are exactly the development of a system
that is semi-autonomous fire recognition in remote region by keep tracking on location
with the help of fire related indicator. A wireless sensor network will be deployed and
also be consistently monitoring the prospective region. It is possible to recognize, alert
and access information about the condition of a continuing fire inside a simpler, more
quickly and more way that is effective

1.4 Purpose of Study

Being the study subject the design of a wireless sensor network for fire detection, the aim
is to idealize a system,that whenever deployed on a site will monitor certain physical
indicators related to fire conflagration like temperature, humidity, luminosity and certain
gases’ presence such as Carbon Dioxide and Monoxide (CO2 and CO).
Using the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, which enables wireless communication with just
minimal power usage, a WSN shall be designed for the range and transmission of
information from several sensor nodes. The ZigBee traditional, and other with similar or
much better attributes, will be used with this intention. The information should then be
accesed and displayed in a internet user interface or page that will allow to see the area
that is monitored emit fire alerts upon detection by some of the sensor nodes.

The main objectives will be the development that is successful implementation of a WSN
within a test place with around 10 hectares, the configuration of the web interface and
program that will allow for information management and recovery, history tracking,
making statistics, produce or activate alerts and sensors when needed and show in real-
time the state of the WSN and monitored principles.


In this paper the author proposed a novel framework that harnesses the benefits of WSNs
for forest fire monitoring and detection. The proposed framework involved three main
steps sensor deployment scheme, a clustered hierarchy network architecture and intra-
cluster and inter-cluster protocols. The goal is to detect accurately fire as soon as
possible with maintaining a reasonable energy consumption level. A simulation of a
wireless sensor network for forest fire monitoring and detection was carried out using
modified ns-2. Moreover, the paper conclude that seasonal and environmental conditions
are significant factors for designing a WSN-based forest fire monitoring and detection

In this paper the research is based on to manage different QoS application. As we know
that energy efficiency is the main issue for design the Wireless sensor network. Saving
energy sometime introduces additional network delay, which is not good for the case of
critical applications. For such applications the quick response of the system is time
responsive. There are some recent scenario in which any management of Critical
application is not introduced to their work in order to achieve energy efficiency.
However, managing the critical data along with non-critical data is not often good for
energy efficiency. In this paper they introduced a new CH algorithm that relies between
the sensors and sink and residual energy available in sensors to support critical and
delay-sensitive applications while maintain high energy saving. Compared to an existing
approach, the proposed one gives a better network lifespan and achieve better
performances for critical application.

This present a review of Forest fire detection system which is based on wireless sensor
network .In contrast with the traditional technique for fire prevention, wireless sensor
network having greater benefit and there are wide expectation for forest fire monitoring
application. The network are placed at area of interest. In the physical design of WSN the
nodes are of two types, Sensor node and cluster node. In sensor node the sensor collect
the information from the environment. And in cluster node that collects the information
of sensor nodes and then communicate this information to the base station. The sensor
nodes can perform different functions which permit it as a self-configuring network,
providing redundancy and guarantee full geographic coverage with in an interest zone.
The collected information is not only for detection purpose but also for the monitoring of
environment to increase WSN’s usage.

In this paper it shows that the wireless sensor technology has the greatest advantage
for application in forest fire monitoring comparison to the traditional method of fire
prevention. The research on the application of wireless sensor Network in forest fire
detection abroad is still in the laboratory stage & China’s research in this area is even
less to the preliminary exploration of wireless sensor node structure, topology network
security .This paper proposed a simulator & its usage for designing the forest fire early
detection system. Here the WSN simulator is prepared based on proposed sensor and
WSN model. The WSN test system address critical plan issues as: coverage of the area
under observation in connection to initial sensor organization, number of sensors
required for focused arrangement, and coverage change as capacity of time. Test system
is scalable, and can be effectively stretched out to incorporate extra demonstrating

This presented the advantages of using data mining technique which is applied to
WSN for forest fire detection. The work is based on measuring and combining real data
from different sensors (temperature, humidity, light and smoke) and using the naïve base
classifier NB applied to data for fire detection. In this sensor node detect fire by itself,
then it drop the normal value and send only abnormal value to the base station for fire
localization and inform to fire fighter. By using data mining technique it reduces the size
of data, improve the WSN speed and reduces the network traffic to prolong the lifespan
of network to assurance short time of decision and fire detection as early as possible.

This paper proposed a Forest fire detection method using fuzzy logic. The main aim of
the paper is to proposed the detection of faulty sensors nodes and detection of probability
of fire instantly and flawlessly in order to reduce the disastrous damage. In this proposed
method a set of sensor nodes are randomly deployed in a forest. Here the arbitrary
network topology was formed by sensor nodes where all sensor nodes are connected to
each other. It is assumed that every sensor node is connected to at least k neighboring
nodes to maintain a connected wireless sensor network where, k is the connectivity of the
network. A unique id is given to all sensor nodes and all sensor nodes have common
transmission range. Normally all the sensor nodes have capability to sense various
parameter such as temperature, humidity, smoke etc. Here the sensor node which is taken
are temperature and humidity to sense the environment. The data sensed by the sensor
nodes are then transmitted to corresponding cluster heads (CH). CHs are selected
dynamically on the bases of their residual energy. Upon collecting the data the CH
calculates the probability of fire and send the required data to the base station. The base
station transmits the collected data to the user. To validate the proposed algorithm, they
conducted an experiment in an indoor laboratory environment and it gives the correct
result with variation of the data.

In this paper the research is based on the use of mobile agent in WSN. And it helps in
increasing the lifetime of energy. This paper introduces a framework that incorporates
the use of MA in WSN that can help in faster detection of forest fire and monitoring of it
with minimum consumption of energy. The framework consist of 4 parts, with the basic
architecture of WSN, followed by deployment scheme, then intra-cluster data collection,
& lastly inter-cluster data collection. MA based approach of data forwarding in WSN
proves less costly than the traditional client server approach. This proposed framework,
with the use of MA, will help in reserving the energy of the WSN.

Michel Owayjan, George Freiha, Roger Achkar, Elie Abdo, Samy Mallah have
presented a potential solution to the challenges of early detection of forest fire. They
recommends a stand- alone boxes which are to be deployed throughout the forest. Each
boxes contain different type of sensors. The data collected from all the sensors are send
to base station. The data which is collected from sensor nodes are uploaded in database
from the base station computer to an online website which contact the Civil Defense unit
if necessary. This website is only accessible by the specific authorities in order to take
early action in case of any alert. This proposed system used detection algorithm.

This paper proposed a fire detection system based on Zigbee WSN. The main purpose
behind their analysis is to design a system that can monitor humidity and temperature in
a much precise and in more time efficient way. According to their research the system is
capable observance real time parameters and at time intervals no time sends this
measured values to the computer analysis center. There are many advantages for using
Zigbee some are, low rate, less energy consumption, low cost and also used for short
range wireless communication. The major advantages comparison to the other
technologies and protocol is it has reliable and safe data transmission, very flexible
network configuration, cost of the equipment are low and battery life is long. Their
system have more advantages for the harsh and difficult environments.


To design a system which will help to detect the forest fire by gather the data within
minimum amount of time. If we reach to area unit late then some massive hazard can
occur. So, Early detection is the primary way for reducing the damage for fire forest
hazard. If we reach early to area unit then we are able to take some action.

3.1 System Architecture

Fig : 3.1. Architecture for Forest Fire Detection using WSN

As Shown in figure this is the architecture of Forest Fire Detection in which sensors are
deployed in the forest. When the Forest Area caught the fire these sensor node sense the
data in term of temperature, humidity, smoke and other parameter and send them to
respective cluster head , thereafter these cluster head send data to the base station.

3.2 Flow graph

Fig Flow graph
In WSN the nodes have limited energy and when the data transmission take place
between the nodes it consumed huge amount of energy. So, to extend the life time of the
network path planning is very effective. To solve this issue many scholar have proposed
algorithm related to this issue. The most popular way to solve this are Clustering or
hierarchical routing. The most common protocol is LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive
Clustering Hierarchy). The idea in this protocol is to select the cluster head randomly,
and the energy is distributed to each node evenly, by which it reduce the energy
consumption and the survival time of the network will improved. When the comparision
is done between the general planar multi-hop routing protocol and static hierarchical
algorithm, LEACH clustering protocol can extend the network life-time by 15%.

Proposed System: -
i) Clustering based on Location of node
ii) CH selection using Fuzzy Logic Algorithm
iii) Fire occur Degree (FOD) Calculation and Finding Extreme FOD
iv) Reporting Extreme FOD nodes to BS and Other nodes
v) Data aggregation and sending using Ant Colony Optimization method to BS

Step1 : Cluster Formation

CF = {CF1; CF2…., CFn}

CF is set of clusters created in set up phase. Each cluster having number of sensor nodes.

 Calculate residual energy of each and every node within the design the energy
consumption of radio dissipation of sending data and getting data are both shown
as Eelec ; the free space (d2 power loss) and the multi-path fading (d4 power loss)
channel models with amplifying index Efs and are used respectively; the energy
consumption of data fusion was denoted by EDA
The energy spent of a node that transmits l-bits packet over distance d is:
the energy consumption of receiving this message is:

Step 2: Cluster Head selection using T2FLCA

For the selection of CH we use these factors

 residual energy
 number of neighbor nodes
 distance to BS of each node.
First, residual energy represents the remaining power of a node, it is the most important
factor that we should consider, because the early exhaustion of energy for some nodes
maybe cause the disconnection of a WSN, and consequently could not complete a task.
One should select the nodes with more energy to be CHs.
Second, the node density should also be considered, since if we choose a node with
large number of neighbor nodes to be a CH, this node will consume more energy for data
fusion with its cluster and data transmission to BS, and then die fast.
last, the nodes far from BS will also consume more energy for data transmission to
BS, and then die fast.
To reduce the computation complexity, we divide all the three inputs into three levels,
that is,
 residual energy (denoted by Energy): low, medium, high;
 number of neighbor nodes (denoted by neighbour node): sparse, medium, dense;
 distance to BS : near, medium
Fig Fuzzy system control model

After T2MFLS operation, every node alive has its probability si probability to be a
candidate CH. The node with highest probability is determined to be a CH. If a node
become a CH, then the nodes within its competition radius will not be selected as CHs.
With the death of the nodes, the number of nodes alive is changing, and the optimal
cluster number is changing as well. Here, we choose kopt CHs in turn, in which kopt is the
optimal cluster number for each round, it is calculated as follows:

where n is the number of nodes,

and dead is the the number of energy-exhausted nodes
P is the CH probability

Step 3: FOD Calculation

FOD shows the value of which on a forest signify the chances of a fire taking place in a
location that is particular. In Fire occur Degree calculation we set the threshold value of
Fire Occur. If the threshold value of node is greater than 48 then that data is Extreme
FOD. If the threshold value of node is in the range of 30-45 then that is Moderate FOD.
If the value of node is small than 30 then that data is low FOD.
The pseudo-code of the algorithm to calculate FOD are: [2]

FOD calculation
Write (‘give the value of temperature, humidity, rain, wind, season and solar
Read (temperature, ‘T’);
Read (humidity, ‘H’);
Read (rain, ‘R’);
Read (wind, ‘W’);
Read (season, ‘S’);
Read (solar radiation, ‘SR’);
FOD (T, H, RW, S, SR) // calculate the fire occur degree
If FOD >30) then
Write (‘low FOD’);
If (FOD _ 30 and FOD >48) then
Write (‘Moderate FOD’);
If ( FOD > 48) then
Write (‘Extreme FOD’);
end if
end if
end if
end if

Step 4: Multi hop routing using ACO algorithm

Once we found the clusters, the intra cluster data transmission will have started. For this
Chain of CH is formed. Here we use Ant Colony optimization algorithm to form the
chain. In ACO algorithm, a colony of artificial ants is used to construct solutions guided
by the pheromone trails and heuristic information. In ACO approach attempts to find the
optimal routing by iterating the following 2 steps:

i) Solutions are constructed using a node selection model based on a

predetermined heuristic and the pheromone model, a parameterized
probability distribution over the solution space.

ii) The solutions that were constructed in earlier iterations are used to modify the
pheromone values in a way that is deemed to bias the search toward high
quality solutions.

Here, we use ACO because it has good performance on multipath optimization problem.
Calculate transmission probability Pij of CH: [1]

Here, an ant k having data packet in node i chooses to move to node j until the sink node,
where τ is the pheromone, η is the heuristic, Ni is the set of neighbours of node i and β is
a parameter which determines the relative importance of pheromone versus distance

Step 5: Data routing to base station


All the experimental cases are implemented in Java in congestion with NetBeans tools
with system having configuration of intel core i5 8th Gen , Windows 8.1(64 bit) machine
with 8GB of RAM.

 Java : It was designed by James Gosling in May 23,1995. It is a general-purpose

computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented,
and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as
possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere”
(WORA), meaning that compiled java code can run on all platforms that support
java without the need for recompilation.
 NetBeans IDE 8.1: It is an open-source Integrated development environment
(IDE) for developing with Java, PHP, C++ and other programming languages.
NetBeans is also referred to as a platform of modular components used for
developing Java desktop applications. It supports development of all Java
application types(Java SE(including JavaFX), Java ME, web, EJB and mobile
applications) out of the box.
 Jung: It is known as java universal Network/graphical Framework. It is open
source and written in java, this is a general framework for the modelling,
analysis, and visualisation of graphs. It is created by 3 UCI CS phd student Scott
white, Joshua O Madhadain, Danyel Fisher.

Fig 5.1 Home page

This is the Home page of our Forest fire Detection System. As shown in the figure we
have to enter the number of nodes. After that we have to select the random selection
button in that Random selection the CH is select Randomly. Secondly, Fuzzy system in
that the CH selection is done on the basis of Fuzzy system. Last one is comparison , here
the comparison of Random selection and Fuzzy system is done by graph on the basis of
energy consumption and time.

5.1 Random CH Selection:

Fig 5.1.1 selection of Nodes

In this figure it shows the 50 number of node which we select for deployment. Here we
use random deployment, nodes are deployed randomly, hence the distance between each
neighboring node is random value.

Fig 5.1.2 Formation of Clusters

This figure shows the group of clusters, pink colour dot shows the formation of cluster 1,
yellow colour shows the formation of cluster 2, blue colour shows the formation of
cluster 3, and peach colour shows the formation of cluster 4. Brown colour shows the
Base station
Fig 5.1.3 Cluster head Selection

After the formation of clusters, next we have to select the cluster head, As shown in the
figure group of clusters select their cluster head, the blue colour represent the cluster
head {11, 33,42, 43}

Fig 5.1.4 Calculating Fire occur Degree

When we got the cluster head next we have to find out the fire occur degree of each
clusters. The value of which in a forest represent the probability of a fire taking place at a
particular location. After calculating the FOD we got the Low, Moderate and Extreme
FOD nodes.

Fig 5.1.5 Nodes with Extreme FOD

We set the Extreme FOD value is more than 48. The orange colour node represent the
Extreme FOD. So, node 9, 34 and 42 with FOD more than 48 has reported to base

Fig 5.1.6 Nodes with moderate FOD

The Moderate FOD value range is 30-48. The nodes which have FOD value greater than
30 and less than 48 send their data to Base station.

Fig 5.1.7 Sensor node with low FOD send to base station

The low FOD value range is less 30. The nodes which have FOD value less than 30 send
their data to Base station
5.2 Fuzzy Logic :

Fig 5.2.1 Selection of sensor nodes

In this figure it shows the 50 number of node which we select for deployment. Here we
use random deployment, nodes are deployed randomly, hence the distance between each
neighboring node is random value

Fig 5.1.2 Formation of Clusters

This figure shows the group of clusters, pink colour dot shows the formation of cluster 1,
yellow colour shows the formation of cluster 2, blue colour shows the formation of
cluster 3, and peach colour shos the formation of cluster 4. Brown colour shows the Base

Fig 5.2.2 cluster head selection using Fuzzy logic algorithm

After the completion of Clustering, next step is to select Cluster Head. For selection of
Cluster Head we use Fuzzy Logic algorithm. After applying Fuzzy logic algorithm, we
got [26, 21, 36, 49] as a Cluster Head. Here, in figure blue colour represent Cluster Head.

Fig 5.2.3 Data Table

This is the Data Table of Fuzzy logic algorithm, the linguistic variable used in our
system are Node, Energy, Distance to Base Station, Neighbouring node, Probability and

Fig 5.2.4 Calculating FOD

When we got the cluster head next we have to find out the fire occur degree of each
clusters. The value of which in a forest represent the probability of a fire taking place at a
particular location. After calculating the FOD we got the Low, Moderate and Extreme
FOD nodes.

We set the Extreme FOD value is more than 48. The orange colour node represent the
Extreme FOD. So, node 9, 34 and 42 with FOD more than 48 has reported to base
The Moderate FOD value range is 30-48. The nodes which have FOD value greater than
30 and less than 48 send their data to Base station.

The low FOD value range is less 30. The nodes which have FOD value less than 30 send
their data to Base station.

For Data transmission, we used Ant Colony Optimization algorithm. ACO has good
performance on multi-path optimization problem. In that CH send data packet along
chain to the leader, which is a CH that eventually transmit packet to the base station.

6. Result and Conclusion

6.1 Result

Following figure 6.1 shows the time comparison between proposed system and existing
system. The time required for implementing the proposed system is less than the time
required for the existing system.

Figure 6.2 shows the comparison graph between energy consumption ratio of existing
and proposed system. In the proposed system energy consumption ratio is less compared
to the energy consumption ratio in the existing system.

Energy Consumption Formula:

Remaining Energy=Energy Available – Energy Consumed;

6.2 Conclusion

This evaluation initially discovers that WSN technology is actually extremely

encouraging green innovation for the future in identifying proficiently the forest fires in
our country. Besides, and through the experiments consider, we finish up the adequacy
of the proposed methodology as far as energy efficiency and algorithmic complex nature
compare with the existing methodology is better and its reasonableness to the setting of
our country mostly amid summer time. We observed that the performance in term of
energy consumption and time management, proposed system work efficiently and

 Some improvements could be made in terms of possible future developments,

considering the developed system. The primary improvements which could
change this technique right into a completely automated, self-sustained program
having a extended procedure lifetime in deployments in isolated locations and
much more factor focused for very early recognition of forest fire incidents
would need the choice of additional equipment plus some additional programs
features to our device.
 Localisation of node with or without GPS also help for early recognisation
 Concentrating on enhancing the developed web application, the notifications
created are only provided within the web client. To accommodate more extensive
alerting capabilities and achieving the system management or manager all the
time, SMS and Email messaging integration will be applied. This developing may
possibly also let the system to straight alert the accountable authorities (Fire
Corporations, Police, Civil Protection, etc.) upon recognition of a continuous fire