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Thermodynamics/Assignment 1 1

Statistical Mechanics-I
PHY 322
Bijay Kumar Agarwalla
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune
Spring 2019

1: Ideal Gas: Quasi-adiabatic process:


During a quasi-static expansion of an ideal gas in an adiabatic container (no heat is exchanged with
the environment, i.e.,dQ = 0):

• Prove that the pressure (P ) and volume (V ) related by P V γ = constant where γ = Cp /Cv and
is greater than 1.

• Show that the work done in expanding the gas from a state of (Pi , Vi ) to (Pf , Vf ) is,

Pf V f − Pi V i
W = .
γ−1

• Also show that, the work done can alternatively be expressed as

Pf V f h  P  γ−1
i γ
i
W = 1− ,
γ−1 Pf
W = Cv (Tf − Ti ), for constant heat capacities

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2:Ideal elastic substance:


The equation of state of an ideal elastic substance is
L L20 
τ = AT − ,
L0 L2
where τ is the tension, A is a constant, L0 (the value of L at zero tension) is a function of temperature
only. Calculate the work necessary to compress the substance from L = L0 to L = L0 /2 quasi-
statically and isothermally.

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3: Play with partial derivatives:

• Suppose that there exists a functional relationship among three variables x, y, and z and thus,

f (x, y, z) = 0
Thermodynamics/Assignment 1 2

(Comment: In thermodynamics, for example, we can consider f as the internal energy E and
x, y, z as entropy (S),Volume (V ) and Number of particles (N)) Then x(y) can be considered
as a function of y(x) and z. Show that,
 ∂x  1
=  
∂y z ∂y
∂x
z
 ∂x   ∂y   ∂z 
= −1
∂y z ∂z x ∂x y
Using these relations show that the thermal expansion coefficient can be written in two alterna-
tive forms, α ≡ V1 ∂V | ≡ B1 ∂P
∂T P
| , where B is the Bulk modulus. Find out the definition of bulk
∂T V
modulus B.

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4: Carnot cycle:

• For the standard ideal gas Carnot cycle draw an equivalent temperature-entropy and enthalpy-
entropy diagram. Calculate the efficiency in the first case.

• Determine the figure of merit (coefficient of performance) for a Carnot cycle.

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5: Ideal gas:
Consider an ideal gas whose entropy is given by
N E V
S= A + 5kB ln + 2kB ln
2 N N
where A is a constant. Calculate Cp and Cv .

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6: Euler Relation:
Show that if f (x, y, z) is a homogeneous function of degree r, then,

∂f ∂f ∂f
x |y,z + y |x,z + z |x,y = rf
∂x ∂y ∂z
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7: Hard Core Gas: Mehran Kardar problem No:8


A gas obeys the equation of state P (V − Nb) = NkB T and has a heat capacity Cv independent of
temperature (N is fixed).
∂S
• Find the Maxwell relation involving | .
∂V T,N
Thermodynamics/Assignment 1 3

• Calculate dE(T, V ) and show that E is a function of T and N only.

• Show that γ ≡ Cp /Cv = 1 + NkB /Cv .

• Show that the adiabatic change satisfies the equation P (V − Nb)γ = constant.

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8:Equation of state:
The state equation of a new matter is P = AT 3 /V where P, V, T are the pressure, temperature,
volume and A is a constant. The internal energy of the matter is
V 
U = BT n ln + f (T )
V0
Here B, n, V0 are all constants and f (T ) only depends on temperature. Find B and n.

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9:Model thermodynamic system


aS 3
Consider a model thermodynamic system for which E(S, V, N) = VN
, where a is a constant.
Derive the equation of state by eliminating S. What about Cv and Cp ?

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10: Conceptual questions:

• What is a quasi-static process?

• What is the definition for a state function? What is exact differential? Consider a system which
is characterized by the state variables x and y. Determine whether the following functions are
state functions or not?

1)df = x2 dx + y 2 dy
2)dg = y 2dx + x2 dy
3)dh = 3x2 y 2 dx + (2x3 y + y 4 )dy

• What is the extensivity property in thermodynamics (for short range interaction)?

• Why we need ∂ 2 S/∂E 2 ≤ 0? What kind of function satisfy such property? What is the
equivalent stability criteria for internal energy E?

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11:Fundamental Relations:
Some fundamental relations for various thermodynamic systems are given. Find out which are not
physically permissible? (focus on E only)
Thermodynamics/Assignment 1 4

• S = a(NV E)1/3

• S = a(NE/V )2/3

• S = aV 3 /(NE)

• S = a(NE)1/2 exp(−b E V /N)

Here a, b are positive constants.

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12: TS diagram
Show that the isochoric curve plotted on a TS diagram have a greater slope than an isobaric curve
at the same temperature.

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13: Efficiency: (The diagram for the cycle will be given in the class)
Here is a PV diagram for an ideal gas cycle. All processes are quasi-static and Cp is constant.
Show that the thermal efficiency of this engine is
p1 (γ−1)/γ
η =1−
p2