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TOEFL GRAMMAR REVIEW

Contents
I. SUBJECT AND VERB.............................................................................................. 4

Section 1.01.........................................................................Missing Subject or Verb


4

Section 1.02.................................................................Subject and Verb Agreement


4

Section 1.03....................................................................Verbs ( VINF, VING, VPII, Vtransitive)


6

(a) Verb suffixes............................................................................................... 6

(b) Verb infinitive.............................................................................................. 6

(c) VING.............................................................................................................. 6

(d) V + Verb base............................................................................................. 7

(e) VPII............................................................................................................... 7

(f) VTRANSITIVE.......................................................................................................... 8

(g) Linking Verbs.............................................................................................. 8

(h) V + that/ wh-qs + Clause...........................................................................9

II. NOUN................................................................................................................... 9

Section 2.01...................................................................Countable and uncountable


9

(a) Countable : Nouns that can be counted......................................................9

(b) Uncountable noun : Noun that canNOT be counted (abstract, liquid, gas…)
9

Section 2.02......................................................................................... Noun Suffixes


10

III. PRONOUN........................................................................................................ 10

IV. ADJECTIVE....................................................................................................... 10

Section 4.01.................................................................................. Adjective Suffixes


10
1
Section 4.02................................................................................. Irregular adjective
11

Section 4.03.................................................................................................. Position


11

V. ADVERB.............................................................................................................. 11

Section 5.01....................................................................................... Special Adverb


11

Section 5.02.................................................................................................. Position


11

VI. FANBOYS (For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).........................................................12

Section 6.01..........................................................................Coordinate Connectors


12

Section 6.02................................................................................... Parallel Structure


12

VII. ADVERB CONNECTOR...................................................................................... 13

Section 7.01 Adverb time and cause connector..............................................................13

Section 7.02.........................................................................Other adverb connector


14

Section 7.03..........................................................................Noun clause connector


14

VIII. RELATIVE AND REDUCED CLAUSE...................................................................15

Section 8.01...................................................................................... Relative clause


15

Section 8.02...................................................................................... Reduced clause


16

(a) Reduced adjective clauses........................................................................16

(b) Reduced adverb clauses...........................................................................16

IX. INVERSION...................................................................................................... 17

Section 9.01................................................................................................ Question


17

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Section 9.02.................................................................................... Place Expression
17

Section 9.03................................................................................................ Negative


18

Section 9.04...........................................................................Conditional Sentences


18

Section 9.05.......................................................................................... Comparisons


18

X. COMPARISION..................................................................................................... 18

Section 10.01 Parallel Structure............................................................................. 18

Section 10.02 Comparative and Superlative..........................................................19

Section 10.03 The irregular –er, -er structure........................................................19

Section 10.04 Irregular Words in Comparison........................................................20

(a) Far, much, many, little, few.......................................................................20

(b) That of/ those of....................................................................................... 20

XI. SPECIAL USAGE............................................................................................... 20

Section 11.01 So + adj + that + clause.................................................................20

Section 11.02 Such + N + that + clause...............................................................20

Section 11.03 Too + adj (+ for Sb) + to + V..........................................................20

Section 11.04 A number of / the number of...........................................................20

Section 11.05 None/some/most/each/ much/ many/ all/ any of the + N or every? 20

Section 11.06 Few, a few , little, or a little?...........................................................20

Section 11.07 Between or among?........................................................................20

Section 11.08 Beside or besides, in addition to?....................................................20

Section 11.09 Instead of or rather than?................................................................20

Section 11.10 From A to B or between A and B?....................................................20

Section 11.11 It or there?....................................................................................... 20

Section 11.12 Lack or lack of.................................................................................21


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Section 11.13 Use.................................................................................................. 21

(a) Use + O + to + V or Be + used + to + V ?............................................21

(b) Use + for + Ving....................................................................................... 21

(c) Use + in + N............................................................................................. 21

(d) Be + used + to + VING = get used + to + VING or Used to + V ?................21

Section 11.14 Enough............................................................................................ 21

Section 11.15 Because or because of?...................................................................21

Section 11.16 Although, In spite of, or despite?.....................................................21

Section 11.17 Rise or raise? Lay or lie?..................................................................21

Section 11.18 During or while?..............................................................................21

Section 11.19 Make................................................................................................ 21

(a) Make + adj + N......................................................................................... 21

(b) Make + N + adj......................................................................................... 21

(c) Make + N + N........................................................................................... 21

(d) Make + N + V.......................................................................................... 21

Section 11.20 Most/ mostly/ almost.......................................................................21

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I. SUBJECT AND VERB
Section I.1 Missing Subject or Verb
Every sentence in English should have a subject and a verb. The most common
types of problems that you will encounter in the Structure Section of the TOEFL Test
have something to do with subjects and verbs: Perhaps the sentence is missing
either the subject or the verb or both, or perhaps the sentence has an extra subject
or verb.
Note : If there is a preposition (in, on, at, of, by, through, throughout…) in
front of a noun, that noun will NEVER be the subject of the sentence. It
becomes an object of preposition in stead.
E.g.1 ------------- was backed up for miles on the free way.
(A) Yesterday
(B) In the morning
(C) Traffic
(D) Cars

E.g.2 -------------in the United States began in the eighteenth century, when individuals, merchants, and
colonial governments loaned money to one another.
(A) Banking
(B) When banking
(C) It was banking
(D) Banking was

E.g. 3 -----------both safety and reliability have always been primary goals of the railway mechanical
engineer.
(A) Railroad history
(B) Railroad history includes
(C) Throughout railroad history
(D) In railroad history there are

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Section I.2 Subject and Verb Agreement
If the subject of the sentence is singular, then the verb must be singular; if the
subject is plural, then the verb must be plural, and vice versa.
E.g. 1 The poor condition of prisoners are what concerned Dorothea Dix, an
American
A B C
social worker and director of a school in Boston.
D
E.g.2 Platelets are tiny blood cells that help transport hormones and other
chemicals throughout the
A B
body, and it play a key role in clotting blood.
C D

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Section I.3 Verbs ( VINF, VING, VPII, Vtransitive)
(a) Verb suffixes
-ize realize, fertilize, maximize
-en shorten, sharpen, toughen
-er recover, discover,
-ify justify, beautify, identify
-ate incorporate, aggregate, differentiate, anticipate, rotate, domesticate

(b) Verb infinitive


- In reduced clause (the first, the second, the last, the only… +
to + V)
E.g.1 Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the Moon.
- In irregular passive
Be thought/selected/ chosen/ assigned/ said/ believed/estimated ….. to
+V
E.g. 2 Wild eagles that survive to adulthood are believed......from 20 to 30 years.
(A) live
(B) to live
(C) they live
(D) their living

E.g. 3 The astronauts chosen for fly the first United States spacecraft were selected from military
A B C D
test pilots.

- After some certain verbs


 afford  help + N + VINF
 agree  hesitate
 aim  hope
 appear  learn
 arrange  long
 attempt  manage
 be determined  mean
 beg  need
 care  neglect.
 choose  plan
 claim  prepare
 dare  pretend
 decide  proceed
 demand  promise
 deserve refuse
 expect
 extend + N + VINF E.g.2 The simplest polymers are created when D
C
 fail pressure or heat causes small molecules alter
 happen slightly and link together in a long chain.

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(c) VING
- In reduced clause
E.g.1 The man talking to my father is my teacher.

E.g. 2 363 miles between the cities of Albany and Buffalo in New York State, the Eric Canal helped link
the Atlantic Ocean with the Great Lakes.
(A) The extension of
(B) The extension
(C)Extending
(D)Extends
- After some certain verbs
 abhor  endure  postpone
 acknowledge  enjoy  practice
 admit  escape  prevent
 advise  evade  put off
 allow  explain  recall
 anticipate  fancy  recollect
 appreciate  fear  recommend
 avoid  feel like  report
 be worth  feign  resent
 can’t help  finish  resist
 celebrate  forgive  resume
 confess  give up (stop)  risk
 consider  keep (continue)  shirk
 defend  keep on  shun
 delay  mention  suggest
 detest  mind (object to)  support
 discontinue  miss  tolerate
 discuss  necessitate  understand
 dislike  omit  urge
 dispute  permit  warrant
 dread  picture

(d) V + Verb base


- Help, make, let … She helped him choose some clothes
- Modal verbs : can., could, may, must, have to, will ….
E.g.1 Reptiles are found on land and in water, but they cannot alive in frigid climates because they
A B C
need the Sun's warmth to give them energy.
D
(e) VPII
- After be, have, had, have been…
- In adjective form ( reduced clause)
E.g.1 The book given to me was interesting.

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E.g.2 ----------- to the united states House of Representatives in 1791, Nathaniel Macon remained in
office until 1815.
(A) Election
(B) Why he was elected
(C) Elected
(D) Who was elected

(f) VTRANSITIVE
http://www.eslwriting.org/wp-content/esl-transitive-verbs.pdf
Transitive verbs are commonly in either one of the following three forms.
- V+ O
E.g.1 I received an email from my mom.
E.g.2 Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in shapes, colors, and
materials ....... to handle and to sort them.
(A) that almost compel one
(B) one compels
(C) that compel almost
(D) one is almost compelled
- Be + VPII (Passive)
E.g.1 The house was sold yesterday.
- VPII (Reduced clause)
E.g.3 The book given to me was interesting.
E.g.4 In the early nineteenth century, the Cherokee nation of American Indians was
adopted
A
B
a written constitution based on that of the United States.
C D

(g) Linking Verbs

Be (is/am/are…) Appear (to + V/N) Become (to + V)


Seem (to + V/N) Grow (to + V)
Look
Come (to + V)
Prove
Remain (to + V)
Smell
Sound
Taste
Turn
Stay (to + V)
Get (to + V)
Appear
Feel

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(h) V + that/ wh-qs + Clause
1) Some verbs can be followed by a clause beginning with a wh-word (how, what, when, where,
which, who, or why). Other verbs like this include arrange, calculate, check, choose, debate,
determine, discover, discuss, establish, find out, forget, guess, imagine, know, learn, notice,
plan, realize, remember, say, see, talk about, think (about), understand, wonder, estimate ,
believe, indicate, show, conclude ….

E.g.1 That might explain why he’s looking unhappy.


E.g.2 Let’s consider how we can solve the problem.
E.g.3 I couldn’t decide which train I ought to catch.
NOTE:
These verbs can also be followed by a wh-word (except ‘why’) + to-infinitive.
E.g.4 I don’t know what to do.

II. NOUN
Section II.1 Countable and uncountable
(a) Countable : Nouns that can be counted
Dog, cat, house …..
Note:
- a countable noun must has a modifier (a/an/the/this/his, that…) before it or it must be in its
plural form (knives, cats, bacteria, theses …)
E.g.1 Today ,fifty years after its construction ,the Alaska Highway
conveys 40,000
A B C
vehicles in normal year.
D

- Words or phrases that usually go with countable nouns : a, an, another, the, the other, no, few, a
few, some, any, plenty, many, other, a number of, the number of, several, other, one, two,
three …
E.g. 2 ………. freshwater species of fish build nests of sticks, stones, or scooped-out sand..
(A) As the many
(B) Of the many
(C) Many
(D) Many of them are

(b) Uncountable noun : Noun that canNOT be counted (abstract, liquid,


gas…)
Air, hair, happiness, information, news ….

Note:

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- A non-counted noun canNOT follow some certain modifiers (a, an, those,
these … ), but then again it may have a special modifier (the, this, his,
that…) before it.

- Words or phrases that usually go with non-counted nouns: no, the other,
little, a little, some, any, plenty, much, amount of, a great deal of …

Section II.2 Noun Suffixes


Things -ment experiment, requirement,
-tion information, action, cultivation, agreement
irrigation,
-sion provision, television, illusion
-ence independence, intelligence,
consequence
-ance acceptance, maintenance,
balance
-ity creativity, activity, creativity
-hood childhood, brotherhood,
neighborhood
-dom wisdom, freedom, kingdom
-th health, myth, teeth, tooth
-ery recovery, discovery
-ship scholarship, friendship,
scholarship People
-tude multitude, attitude -er explorer, teacher, waiter
-ism capitalism, favoritism, animism -or sailor, doctor, visitor
-cracy democracy, accuracy -ist psychologist, novelist, dentist
-logy biology, psychology, -ent student, parent, grandparent
methodology -ee employee, interviewee,
-ness happiness, sharpness, -ic comic, classic
toughness, roughness -ian technician, musician, physician
-ant attendant, participant

III. PRONOUN
Subject Complement Possessive Possessive Reflexive Pronouns
Pronouns Pronouns Adjective Pronoun
I Me My Mine Myself
You You Your Yours Yourself or
yourselves
We Us Our Ours Ourselves
They Them Their Theirs Themselves
She Her Her Hers Herself
He Him His His Himself
It It its its Itself

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IV. ADJECTIVE

Section IV.1 Adjective Suffixes


-ate moderate, aggregate , accurate -y sunny, rainy, funny
-ous dangerous, various, generous -ic economic, catastrophic, electric
-al normal, physical, integral -ical logical, musical, illogical
-ial remedial, commercial, -ory sensory, explanatory,
consequential -less hopeless, thoughtless, priceless
-able comfortable, eatable, -ive competitive, attractive, destructive
unbelievable, credible -ly friendly, lovely, daily, weekly,
-ible sensible, visible, invisible -ful colorful, thoughtful, meaningful
-ish sluggish, selfish, modish
-ant resistant, important, blatant

Section IV.2 Irregular adjective


Monthly Southerly Best Friendly
Weekly Westerly Well Lovely
Daily Northerly Better Ugly
Yearly Easterly Worse
Hourly Worst

Section IV.3 Position


 Before a noun.
E.g.1 She is a such beautiful girl !
 Before another adjective.
E.g.2 A beautiful new house.
 After an adverb.
E.g.3 She is very sick
 After linking verbs
E.g.1 She went crazy after the death of her son.

V. ADVERB
Section V.1 Special Adverb
Basically Furthermore Approximately
Generally Moreover Nearly
Essentially In addition to Near
Particularly Besides

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Section V.2 Position
 Around a verb
E.g.1 He speaks English well. E.g.2 He constantly shouts at her.
 Before an adjective
E.g.2 Technology has an absolutely crucial role in modern medicine.
 Before another adverb
E.g.3 He runs really fast.
 Before a noun
E.g.4 We hope to expand our business, particularly in Europe.

E.g.5 A scientific theory is an idea or set of an ideas that is intended to explain


something about life or the world, especially an idea that has not yet been proved
to be true.

VI. FANBOYS (For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)


Section VI.1 Coordinate Connectors
When you have two clauses in an English sentence, you must connect the two
clauses correctly. One way to connect two clauses is to use “FANBOYS” between the
clauses.

S1 + V1 , FANBOYS S2 + V2
E.g.1 A power failure occurred, ------ the lamps went out.
(A) then
(B) so
(C) later
(D) next

E.g.2 The Sun, the Moon, and Earth have magnetic fields, and......evidence that the
stellar that extend through vast regions galaxies have fields of space.
(A) which is
(B) is
(C) because
(D) There is

Section VI.2 Parallel Structure


In good English an attempt should be made to make the language as even and
balanced as possible. You can achieve parallel structure by making the forms of the
words as similar as possible. The following is an example of a sentence not parallel.
I like to dance and singing.
It should be I like to dance and to sing or I like dancing and singing.
(same structure) (same structure)
N/NP N/NP
V , V
FANBOY
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Adj Adj
Adv S Adv
NOTE : The paired conjunctions both …and, either … or, neither … nor, and
not only … but also also require parallel structures.
E.g. 1 Primitive humans probably did not deliberately cook food until long after they had
A B
learned to use fire for light and warm.
C D

E.g. 2. When precipitation occurs, some of it evaporates, some runs off the surface it strikes, and
A B C
some sinking into the ground.
D

VII. ADVERB CONNECTOR


Section VII.1 Adverb time and cause connector

ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTOR

TIME CAUSE

After As
As Because
As long as Inasmuch as
As soon as Now that
Before Since
By the time
Once
Since
Until
When(ever) just as
While

S1 + V1 + adverb connector S2+ V2


I went inside because it was raining.
Or

adverb connector S1+ V1 , + S2 + V2


Because it was raining , I went inside.

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Section VII.2 Other adverb connector

OTHER ADVERB CONNECTOR

CONDITION CONTRAST MANNER PLACE

If Although As Wher(ever)
In case Even though
Provided Though In that
Providing While
Unless Whereas
Whether
S1 + V1 + adverb connector S2+ V2
Bob went to school even though he felt sick.
Or
adverb connector S1+ V1 , + S2 + V2
Even though Bob felt sick , he went to school.

Section VII.3 Noun clause connector

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What, when, where, why, how whatever, whenever, however
whether, if that

S1 + V1 + noun connector ( S2_) + V2


I know what you did.

I know what happened

noun connector S1+ V1 + V2


What you did was wrong.

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VIII. RELATIVE AND REDUCED CLAUSE
Section VIII.1 Relative clause
- It was + N/ in + year that/who + S + V
E.g.1 It was novelist and poet ….... in 1968 founded Jackson State University's Institute for the Study
of the History, Life, and Culture of Black People.
(A) Margaret Walker did
(B) Margaret Walker
(C) Margaret Walker who
(D) Margaret Walker and

Adjective Pronoun Usage Note Example


Who Person - subject Who + Verb That is the boy who got
very high TOEFL scores.
Whom People – object - Whom + She is the woman to
Clause whom I wrote the other
- There might day.
be a
preposition
in front of
whom
Which - Things – - Which + V or - This is the book
subject, clause which I bought last
object year.
- He keeps telling
the same story
which makes me
bored.
Whose - Possessive- - Whose + He is the boy whose
people, clause parents were both dead
things in the accident.
of which - Possessive – - This is the table one leg
things of which was broken.

That - People, thing - Never put a This is the book which/


– subject, comma “,” that I like.
object or
preposition
before “that”
except for
the phrase
“in (the
sense )that”
Where = in which/ - Place - - Where + S + - This is the school
at which/ from
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which/ on which adverb V where/ at which I
used to learn.

When - Time - When + S + That was the moment


V when we met each other.

E.g.2 A master is an electronic apparatus that _________ radio and light waves.
(A) generated and was amplified
(B) generating and amplifying
(C) generates and amplifies
(D) to generate and amplify

Section VIII.2 Reduced clause


(a) Reduced adjective clauses

(i) Passive
Omit the be-verb and adjective pronoun.
E.g.1 The student that is chosen as winner will get a prize.

(ii) Active
Omit the be-verb and adjective pronoun, and then change the verb to V ING
E.g.1 People who arrived => arriving late were not allowed in until the interval.

E.g.2 The brain of an average adult is one of the largest organs of the body, ........about three pounds.
(A) weighs
(B) is weighed
(C) weighing
(D) to weigh it

(iii) To + V
The first, the second, the last, the only, the most…. + to + V

E.g. 1 Neil Armstrong was the first man who walked => to walk on the Moon.

E.g.2 Connecticut was the fifth of the original thirteen states …..... the Constitution of the United
States.
(A) ratified
(B) ratify
(C) to ratify
(D) have ratified

(b) Reduced adverb clauses


NOTE:
- If you want to reduce a complex sentence, the clauses of that sentence MUST have the
same subject.
- BOLD : Active
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- UNDERLINED : Passive

Though
Although

After
Before
Since
While
When
Where
Wherever
If As
Unless Once
Whether Until
When(ever)

 To reduce an adverb clause, omit the subject and the be-verb from the adverb clause.
 If there is no be-verb, then omit the subject and change the verb to the –ing form.
E.g.
1. Although he is rather unwell, the speaker will take part in the seminar.
2. When you are ready, you can begin your speech.
3. Although he feels => feeling rather sick, the speaker will take part in the seminar.
4. Once it is submitted, your thesis will be reviewed.
E.g.5 When study different cultures and societies, anthropologists often focus on marriage as a
contractual
A B C
agreement between different parties.
D

E.g.6 . .......widely used in the chemical industry, sodium carbonate is principally consumed by
the glass industry.
(a)Despite
(b)Whether
(c)Though
(d)Except for

IX. INVERSION
Section IX.1 Question
If the question words introduce a question, the subject and the verb that followed
are inverted

E.g. 1 What is your name?


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E.g. 2 Where is she now?
But if these words join together two clauses, the subject and the verb that follow are
NOT inverted
E.g. 1 She asked me what my name was.
E.g. 2 I don’t know where she is now.

Section IX.2 Place Expression


Here, there, nowhere, in the closet, around the corner…
E.g.1 Here are the keys that I thought I lost.
E.g.2 In tile philosophical school of pragmatism, -----certainty and there are no absolutes.
(A) there is no
(B) is there not
(C) neither
(D) no

E.g. 3 Nowhere have I seen such beautiful weather.


E.g.4 Around the corner is his house.

Section IX.3 Negative


Not once

Never Barely On no account


At no time Not (until) For no reasons
Hardly (ever) Scarcely No longer
Only once Seldom Under no circumstances
Neither At no time
Nor In no way ……………….

E.g.1 Not once did I miss a question.


E.g.2 Hardly did I understand him.
E.g.3 I don’t want to go, and neither does Tom.

E.g.4 Not until the 1850's ...... a few public-spirited citizens and state legislatures seek to rescue historic
buildings in the United States from destruction or alteration.
(A) both
(B) came
(C) did
(D) when

Section IX.4 Conditional Sentences

Section IX.5 Comparisons


E.g.1 My sister spends more hours in the office than does John.

E.g. 2 Genetically, the chimpanzee is more similar to humans _______.


A. are than any other animal
B. than is any other animal
C. any other animal is
D. and any other animal is

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X. COMPARISION
Section X.1 Parallel Structure

E.g.1 Their car is as big as a small house.

More … than
-er …. Than
(Same structure) Less … than (Same structure)
As …. As
The same … as
Similar … to

E.g.2 The planet Neptune is about 30 times ...... from the Sun as Earth is.
(A) far
(B) as far
(C) more far
(D) far that

Section X.2 Comparative and Superlative


Form

Comparative More (long adjective)

THAN

(short adjective) +er

Superlative Most (long adjective)

THE maybe
in, of, that

(Short adjective) + est

E.g.1 The femur, or thighbone, is …. in the human body.


(A) the bone is longest
(B) the longest bone that
(C) the longest bone
(D) that of which the longest bone
E.g.2 Basalt, which composes most of the ocean floor, is a dark-grey rock rich in iron and magnesium
A B C D
than most surface rocks.

Section X.3 The irregular –er, -er structure


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The –er, -er structure

THE (same structure) , THE


-ER -ER
(same structure)
MORE MORE
This type of structure may or may not include a verb.

Section X.4 Irregular Words in Comparison


(a) Far, much, many, little, few
E.g.1 His watch is far more expensive than mine.
E.g.2 A watermelon is much sweeter than a lemon.
E.g. 3 He earns as much money as his brother.

(b) That of/ those of


E.g. 1 The chemical composition of sandstone is the same as ….....
(A) that of sand
(B that sand is
(C) sand is that
(D) what of sand

XI. SPECIAL USAGE


Section XI.1 So + adj + that + clause

Section XI.2 Such + N + that + clause

Section XI.3 Too + adj (+ for Sb) + to + V

Section XI.4 A number of / the number of

Section XI.5 None/some/most/each/ much/ many/ all/ any of


the + N or every?

Section XI.6 Few, a few , little, or a little?

Section XI.7 Between or among?

Section XI.8 Beside or besides, in addition to?

Section XI.9 Instead of or rather than?

Section XI.10 From A to B or between A and B?

Section XI.11 It or there?

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Section XI.12 Lack or lack of

Section XI.13 Use


(a) Use + O + to + V or Be + used + to + V ?

(b) Use + for + Ving

(c) Use + in + N

(d) Be + used + to + VING = get used + to + VING or Used to + V ?

Section XI.14 Enough

Section XI.15 Because or because of?

Section XI.16 Although, In spite of, or despite?

Section XI.17 Rise or raise? Lay or lie?

Section XI.18 During or while?

Section XI.19 Make


(a) Make + adj + N

(b) Make + N + adj

(c) Make + N + N

(d) Make + N + V

Section XI.20 Most/ mostly/ almost


Resources: The internet
“Advanced Grammar in Use”, Martin Hewings,
“Cliffs TOEFL”, Michalw A. Pyle, M.A. and Mary Ellen Munoz Page,
M.A.
“Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test”, Deborah Phillips
“TOEFL Exam Tests”
Made by : Đào Ngọc Phi, Philip 01636573778

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