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L-6 History

The Three Orders

Federalism - federalism refers to a kind of agricultural production which is based on relationship


between landlords and peasants. The peasants performed labour services of the

landlords, who in exchange provided military protection. It has affected all aspects of life.

The three orders of society where broadly - the clergy, the nobility and the peasantry.

The Clergy (FIRST ORDER)

1. The Catholic Church was a powerful institution, had its own laws and lands given by rulers and
could take taxes

2. That head was the Pope. He lived in Rome. The Christians were guided by bishops and clerics.

3. Most villages had their own church, where people assembled every Sunday to pray together.

4. serfs,women,physically challenged could not Become priest. Priest could not marry.

5. The church collected one tenth of the total produce as tax called Tithe.

6. Some important ceremonies were conducted by the church like act of kneeling while praying
,head bowed etc.

Monks

1. Actually Deeply religious People Who lived in isolation: they lived in abbeys or monastries, far
away from Human habitation.

2. Monks took vows to remain in the abbeys for the rest of their lives and spend their time in prayer,
study and manual labour life farming.

3. It was open to women also. They were called as nuns. there were separate abbeys for them. they
could not marry.

4. From small communities of 10 or 20 , monastries grew to several hundred with large buildings and
estates with schools, colleges and hospitals

5. Some groups of monks – Called Friars chose not to live in monastery but to move from place to
place preaching to people & living on charity
The Church And Society
1. Christmas and Easter became imp. Dates from the 4th C. Christ birth 25Dec was celebrated . Easter
marked the crucifixion of Christ and rising from the dead.
2. These days were meant for prayer ______ overworked peasants welcomed holidays because they
were not expected to work then.
3. Each village was under the supervision of one priest.

The Second Order- Nobility

1. The nobility had a central role in social processes because they controlled land this was
through vassalage
2 . The big landowners/ nobles were vassals of king and peasants were vassals of
landowners.
3.They made a mutual promise – the lord would protect the vassal and vassal would remain
loyal to him
4. A ceremony was organised to exchange vows in front of bible. The vassal received a
written charter or clod of earth as a ___ of the land that was given by his master
5. The nobles enjoyed an absolute control and privileged status over his land. He could raise
troops called ‘ Feudal levies’ He had his own justice court & mint his money
6. He was the lord of all the people on his land . He was the owner of Pastures, private
fields, homes, fields of peasants, Church etc
7.Lord house was called as Manor. His private lands were cultivated by peasants. They also
work in army as foot soldiers .

The Manorial Estate


1.A lord had his own manor house. He controlled villages . almost everything needed for
daily life was found on the estate like grains, weapons , wodden work.
2. Women spun and wove fabric, children worked in lord’s wine presses
3. The estate had extensive woodlands and forests where the lord hunted. They contained
pastures where his cattle and his houses grazed. There was a church and a castle for
defence.
4. Castles were used as a residence for a knight’s family. They were centre of political
administration and military powers under the feudal system
5. The manor could not be completely self- sufficient because salt and metalwork had to be
obtained from outside sources.

The Knights
1. The knights were trained soldiers