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950G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure

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Product: WHEEL LOADER


Model: 950G II WHEEL LOADER AXR
Configuration: 950G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED
BY 3126B Engine

Systems Operation - Fundamentals


950G Series II Wheel Loader
Media Number -SEGV3010-00 Publication Date -01/07/2004 Date Updated -30/07/2004

i02072718

Accumulator
SMCS - 5077

Accumulator

Illustration 1 g01061328

The gas charged accumulator is the accumulator type most commonly used in implement hydraulic systems

file:///D|/...G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure.htm[21/05/2010 01:52:30 ‫]ﻡ‬
950G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure

on mobile equipment. There are two different types of gas charged accumulators shown in illustration 1, the
bladder type (shown on the left), and the piston type (shown on the right). Both types separate the gas
from the oil in order to keep the gas contained.

When the oil pressure is higher than the gas pressure, the volume of gas will become smaller, and allow
more oil into the accumulator. The volume of gas continues to decrease until the gas is compressed enough
to equalize the gas pressure and the oil pressure.

When the gas pressure is higher than the oil pressure, the volume of gas will expand. This expansion will
push oil out of the accumulator into the hydraulic system, until the gas and the oil pressure are once again
equal.

Bladder type accumulators used on mobile equipment vary in size from 0.5 L (0.13 US gal) to 57 L (15 US
gal). Piston type accumulators used on mobile equipment vary in size from 1.06 L (0.28 US gal) to 43 L (11
US gal).

Uses of Accumulators

Illustration 2 g01061342

The combined ability to store both pressure and a volume of oil allows many uses of accumulators in
hydraulic systems. The following items are uses of accumulators:

1. Permits usage of smaller pumps - The storage of a volume of oil under pressure provides makeup oil
for the steering or pilot system when demand exceeds pump flow.

file:///D|/...G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure.htm[21/05/2010 01:52:30 ‫]ﻡ‬
950G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure

2. Provides emergency steering and braking - The volume of oil under pressure can provide enough
input to the steering and/or brake systems to control the machine, for a short period of time, in the
event of pump or engine failure.

3. Maintains constant pressure - The expansion and contraction ability of the gas to change volume with
minimal changes in pressure is used in pilot systems to hold the controls steady even with variations
in supply to the system.

4. Absorbs shock loads - Accumulators are used on mobile equipment to improve roadability. This
improved roadability is accomplished by absorbing the rush of oil in the system on rough terrain that
would otherwise create pressure spikes and machine bounce. Examples of this usage are scraper
cushion-hitch systems and wheel loader ride control systems.

Accumulator Failures

Illustration 3 g01061344

Most accumulator failures would be caused by one of the following:

1. Improper installation - Wrong size or wrong design accumulator being used.

2. Over/under charge - The gas precharge must be at least 20% or greater of the maximum operating
pressure of the hydraulic system.

3. Piston seal failure - Either too smooth or too rough a finish on the accumulator cylinder wall will cause
premature piston seal failure. Contamination can also cause piston seal failures by sticking in the seal

file:///D|/...G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure.htm[21/05/2010 01:52:30 ‫]ﻡ‬
950G II Wheel Loader AXR00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY 3126B Engine(SEBP3494 - 41) - Product Structure

and scoring the cylinder wall.

4. Charging valve failure - Gas will exhaust to the atmosphere allowing 100% fill of the accumulator with
oil.

5. Material cracking/fatigue - Temperature below the bladder or seal lower design limit, normally -20° F
to -40°F will cause the bladder or seal to become brittle and crack. Gas precharge below 20% of
system maximum operating pressure will cause fatigue failures from excess flexing of the bladder.
(See illustration 3).

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