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Amodia, Jim Lester S.

October 4, 2018
BSME – LP 3 ME326

AIR POLLUTION

Air Pollution – Occurs when gasses, dust particles, fumes ( or smokes ) or odor are introduced
into the atmosphere in a way that makes it harmful to humans, animals, and plant.
The occurrence of air pollution results when air contains gasses, dust, smoke from fires or
fumes in harmful amounts.
Greenhouse Effect – The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's
atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without the atmosphere
Greenhouse gasses - A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is
capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere. By
increasing the heat in the atmosphere, greenhouse gases are responsible for the greenhouse effect,
which ultimately leads to global warming.
Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels (coal,
natural gas, and oil), solid waste, trees and wood products, and also as a result of certain chemical
reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement). Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere (or
"sequestered") when it is absorbed by plants as part of the biological carbon cycle.
• Methane (CH4): Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas,
and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the
decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills.
• Nitrous oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as
well as during combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste.
• Ozone - is a gas composed of three atoms of oxygen (O3). Ozone occurs both in the Earth's
upper atmosphere and at ground level.Whether in its pure form or mixed with other chemicals,
ozone can be harmful to health. When inhaled, ozone can damage the lungs. Relatively low
amounts of ozone can cause chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and, throat irritation.
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are nontoxic, nonflammable chemicals containing atoms of carbon,
chlorine, and fluorine. They are used in the manufacture of aerosol sprays, blowing agents for
foams and packing materials, as solvents, and as refrigerants.
• Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than
air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals (both invertebrae and vertebrate, including humans) when
encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal
animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions.
In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of
ground-level ozone.
• Sulfure Dioxide - is the chemical with the formula SO
2. It is a toxic gas with a burnt match smell. It is released naturally by volcanic activity and is
produced as a by-product of the burning of fossil fuels contaminated with sulfur compounds and
copper extraction.
Methods in reducing Air Pollution
-Reduce the trips that you take in your vehicle
-Reduce or eliminate wood stove or fireplace
-Avoid burning leaves or trash , most specially tires
Burning of tires - Tire fires are events that involve the combustion of large quantities of
tires typically in locations where they are stored, dumped, or processed. They exist in
two forms: as fast-burning events, leading to almost immediate loss of control, and as
slow-burning pyrolysis which can continue for over a decade. They are noted for being
difficult to extinguish. Such fires produce much smoke, which carries toxic chemicals
from the breakdown of synthetic rubber compounds while burning.
Tire fires are normally the result of arson or improper manipulation with open fire. Tires
are not prone to self-ignition as a tire must be heated to at least 400 °C (750 °F) for a
period of several minutes prior to ignition.
Extinguishing tire fires is difficult. The fire releases a dark, thick smoke that contains
cyanide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and products of butadiene and styrene.
Burning tires are heated, and, as they have a low thermal conductivity, they are difficult
to cool down. Moreover, they frequently burn inside even if they are extinguished from
outside, and easily reignite when hot. One possible remedy is to cover the fire with sand,
reducing the supply of oxygen and the exhaust of smoke. After extinguishing and
cooling down (which may last several days), toxic chemicals can be neutralized.

Farts – Can cause air pollution but not to the extent of being harmful to any living organism
Composition of fart
-Nitrogen: 20-90%
-Hydrogen: 0-50%(flammable)
-Carbon dioxide: 10-30%
-Oxygen: 0-10%
-Methane: 0-10%(flammable)

Cigarette Smoking - The air pollution emitted by cigarettes is 10 times greater than diesel car
exhaust, suggests a controlled experiment, reported in Tobacco Control. Environmental tobacco smoke
produces fine particulate matter, which is the most dangerous element of air pollution for health. Levels
indoors can far exceed those outdoors, because new engine models and lead free fuels have cut the
levels of particulate matter emissions from car exhausts

Atmosphere - An atmosphere (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα
(sphaira), meaning 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material
body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the
gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low.

Composition of earth's atmosphere


Niitrogen – 78%
Oxygen - 21%
Argon - 0.9%
Carbon dioxide and other gasses – 0.1%
Structures of the earth's atmosphere
Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km (440 to 6,200 miles)
• Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km (50 to 440 miles)[11]
• Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km (31 to 50 miles)
• Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km (7 to 31 miles)
• Troposphere: 0 to 12 km (0 to 7 miles)[12]

Amodia, Jim Lester S. October 4, 2018


BSME – LP 3 ME326
CRITERIA POLLUTANTS

Air pollutants can come from both man-made and natural sources. Criteria (or principal) air
pollutants, is used to describe the most serious pollutants based on the pollutant's characteristics and
their potential health and welfare effects. 6 criteria pollutants have been identified and are regulated by
the US-Environment Protection Agency (EPA) and most countries in the world. These 6 pollutants
identified are known to contribute to most of the air pollution that takes place. These pollutants'
characteristics, sources and effects are as follows:

Particulate matter (PM10 & PM2.5) – it comes from Combustion, factories, automobile,
construction industries, agricultural activities, wood burning. It Exist as tiny solid or liquid particles
composed of one or several chemicals Includes smoke, dust, aerosols, metallic oxides, pollen. And the
risks in using this chemical is(are) Increases risk of chronic respiratory disease
Aerosols – can be both solid or liquid. Most are produced by natural processes such as erupting
volcanoes, and some are from human industrial and agricultural activities. An aerosol is a suspension of
fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or anthropogenic.
Examples of natural Aerosols are fog, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of
anthopogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) – it originates from Combustion of sulfur-containing fuels (oil/coal)
Volcanoes, oceans the characteristic that this chemical has are Colourless, suffocating and pungent odor
Oxidises in air to sulfuric acid under moist conditions or to sulfate in dry conditions and when exposed,
the affected may feel Irritation of lung tissues, damage health and materials
Major components of haze
Nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, Nox) – it comes from Automobiles, power plants. The
characteristics of this gas is having a Reddish-brown gas with sharp odour, and the effect of this gas in
the atmosphere is Formation of tropospheric ozone Reduce visibility, increase risk of acute and chronic
respiratory disease
Carbon monoxide (CO) – comes from Incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass,
automobiles. Carbon monoxide is naturally Odourless, colourless gas and the effect of being exposed to
this gas is Reduces amount of oxygen in the bloodstream, high concentrations lead to headaches,
dizziness, unconsciousness and death
Ozone (O3) – it naturally forms from Interaction of UV light with NOx and organic compounds
commonly a Major component of photochemical smog and also when exposed to this gas it may cause
eye irritation, aggravation of respiratory diseases, damage to plants and animals. Ozone is either a good
or bad gas depending where it is found.
Lead (Pb) – comes from Leaded gasoline combustion, combustion of solid waste/coal/oils,
emissions from iron and steel production, lead smelters, tobacco smoke it can harm or add to the air
pollution due to being an air paritculate and the effects of being exposed are : affect blood, kidneys,
nervous, immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only
carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and
propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon. The most common
representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12 or Freon-12). Many CFCs have been widely used as
refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. Because CFCs contribute to ozone
depletion in the upper atmosphere, the manufacture of such compounds has been phased out under the
Montreal Protocol, and they are being replaced with other products such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
CFCs is harmful to the ozone layer because when ultraviolet light waves (UV) strike CFC*
(CFCl3) molecules in the upper atmosphere, a carbon-chlorine bond breaks, producing a chlorine (Cl)
atom. The chlorine atom then reacts with an ozone (O3) molecule breaking it apart and so destroying
the ozone.

PARTICULATE MATTER
PM10 is particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter, PM2.5 is particulate matter 2.5
micrometers or less in diameter. PM2.5 is generally described as fine particles. By way of comparison,
a human hair is about 100 micrometres, so roughly 40 fine particles could be placed on its width.
PM10 and PM2.5 are not used for any application.

Particles of any substances that are less than 10 or 2.5 micrometres diameter. Particles in this size range
make up a large proportion of dust that can be drawn deep into the lungs. Larger particles tend to be
trapped in the nose, mouth or throat.

Recent epidemiological research suggests that there is no threshold at which health effects do not occur.
The health effects include:
• toxic effects by absorption of the toxic material into the blood (e.g. lead, cadmium, zinc)
• allergic or hypersensitivity effects (e.g. some woods, flour grains, chemicals)
• bacterial and fungal infections (from live organisms)
• fibrosis (e.g. asbestos, quartz)
• cancer (e.g. asbestos, chromates)
• irritation of mucous membranes (e.g. acid and alkalis)
• increased respiratory symptoms, aggravation of asthma and premature death. The risks are
highest for sensitive groups such as the elderly and children

All people are continuously exposed to some extent except in special filtered environments. Exposure
may be higher in urban and industrial areas due to an increase in the number of sources, however high
levels may also occur in natural environments.

Industry sources
PM10 and PM2.5 are produced from a wide range of industrial processes through bulk material
handling, combustion and minerals processing. The industries using these processes include brickworks,
refineries, cement works, iron and steel making, quarrying, and fossil fuel power plants.
Diffuse sources, and industry sources included in diffuse emissions data
Particulates are released from a wide range of diffuse sources. Examples include lawn mowing, wood
stoves, fires, and wind generated dust, though this tends to be coarser.

Natural sources
Natural sources of PM10 and PM2.5 include bushfires, dust storms, pollens and sea spray.
Transport sources
Vehicles will generate particulates either from direct emissions from the burning of fuels (especially
diesel powered vehicles) or from wear of tyres or vehicle-generated air turbulence on roadways.
Particles may also be generated from the action of wind on the dusty material that the vehicle may be
carrying.

SULFUR DIOXIDE
Sulfur dioxide is used as a fruit preserving agent and as a food preservative or additive.In the
fermentation stage of wine making. For bleaching textile fibres.In the manufacture of paper.As a
disinfectant in breweries and food factories.As a fumigant for grains, grapes and citrus fruits.

Exposure to concentrations of 10 to 50 parts per million for 5 to 15 minutes causes irritation of the eyes,
nose and throat, choking and coughing.
Exposure of the eyes to liquid sulfur dioxide, (from, for example an industrial accident) can cause
severe burns, resulting in the loss of vision. On the skin it produces burns. Other health effects include
headache, general discomfort and anxiety. Those with impaired heart or lung function and asthmatics
are at increased risk. Repeated or prolonged exposure to moderate concentrations may cause
inflammation of the respiratory tract, wheezing and lung damage. It has also proved to be harmful to
the reproductive systems of experimental animals and caused developmental changes in their newborn.
Entering the body
Sulfur dioxide will enter the body if we breathe in contaminated air. Upon entry, nose, throat and lungs
may be affected. Sulfur dioxide can also enter our bodies when we eat or drink food or beverages (wine)
which contain sulfur dioxide as a preservative. Sulfur dioxide can enter the body through skin contact.
Industry sources
Fossil fuel combustion sites particularly coal burning power plants; industrial processes such as wood
pulping, paper manufacture, petroleum and metal refining and metal smelting, particularly from sulfide
containing ores, e.g. lead, silver and zinc ores all emit sulfur dioxide to air.

Diffuse sources, and industry sources included in diffuse emissions data


Small textile bleaching and food preserving facilities and wineries, fumigation activities all emit sulfur
dioxide to air.

Natural sources
Geothermal activity, including hot springs and volcanic activity; sulfur dioxide is produced from the
natural decay of vegetation on land, in wetlands and in oceans all emit sulfur dioxide to air.

CARBON MONOXIDE

Carbon monoxide is used as a chemical intermediate in some chemical processes (production of


formaldehyde and methanol).
Levels normally present in the atmosphere are unlikely to cause ill effects.
Inhalation of low levels of carbon monoxide (200 parts per million for 2-3 hours) can cause headache,
dizziness, light-headedness and fatigue. Exposure to higher concentrations (400 parts per million) of
carbon monoxide can cause sleepiness, hallucinations, convulsions, collapse, loss of consciousness and
death. It can also cause personality and memory changes, mental confusion and loss of vision.
Extremely high exposures to carbon monoxide can cause the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin and
decrease the body’s ability to carry oxygen. This can cause a bright red colour to the skin and
mucous membranes causing trouble breathing, collapse, convulsions, coma and death.
Long term (chronic) health effects can occur from exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide. These
effects may produce heart disease and damage to the nervous system. Exposure of pregnant women to
carbon monoxide may result in low birth weights and other defects in the offspring.

Entering the body


Carbon monoxide can enter the body by inhaling contaminated air. When in the body, carbon monoxide
is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream from the lungs.

Exposure
Most exposure occurs in the home. People can be exposed to carbon monoxide by smoking, using
malfunctioning equipment (gas water heaters, fuel fired heaters, fireplaces and wood stoves, gas stoves,
gas dryers), charcoal grills and using poorly vented automobiles. Workers in the industries that use or
produce carbon monoxide are also at risk of exposure.
Industry sources
Industrial plants exhaust carbon monoxide to air from the combustion of natural gas, coal or coke.
Examples of industrial plants that produce carbon monoxide include: metals (iron, steel, non-ferrous)
manufacturing, electricity supply, mining (metal ore, coal), food manufacturing, oil and gas extraction,
chemical manufacturing, cement lime, plaster and concrete manufacturing and petroleum refining.

Diffuse sources, and industry sources included in diffuse emissions data


Vehicles (including cars, trucks, aeroplanes, commercial shipping or boating, recreational boating,
construction equipment, lawnmowers), fuel burning (for heating in the home, barbeques, bushfires) and
cigarettes are thought to be some of the highest sources of diffuse emissions of carbon monoxide.

Natural sources
Carbon monoxide is emitted from volcanoes, marsh gases, natural gases in coal mines, forest fires, and
can be produced from lightning. Some marine algae or kelp will produce carbon monoxide, as do some
seed germinating processes.

LEAD
Lead is used in the production of batteries, ammunition, metal products (solder, pipes, fishing weights,
electronics and alloys with other metals) and devices to shield X-rays. Tetraethyl lead is used to make
other lead compounds (tetra-alkyl lead) and was used in leaded fuels. Lead compounds are used in the
manufacturing of electronic parts, plastics, rubbers and metals. Lead is used in pigments, dyes, paints
and coatings. Lead compounds are used in the manufacture of matches, ammunition, fireworks,
explosives, pottery glazes, ceramics, brake shoes, flame retardants for plastics and as catalysts for
industrial production and epoxy curing agents.

Description
Lead can affect almost every organ and system in the body. Lead toxicity mostly affects the nervous
system. Exposure to lead may also cause paralysis in fingers, wrists or ankles. Lead exposure can also
cause small increases in blood pressure and may cause anaemia, malnutrition, abdominal pain and colic.
High levels of lead can severely damage the brain and kidneys in adults and may cause death.
In pregnant women, exposure to high levels of lead may cause miscarriage. In men, exposure may
affect sperm production. Lead can affect a child’s mental and physical growth. Unborn children can
be exposed through their mothers. Harmful effects include premature birth, smaller babies, decreased
mental ability in the infant, learning difficulties and reduced growth in young children. Some effects
may persist beyond childhood.

Entering the body


Lead can enter the body by inhalation or ingestion.

Exposure
Exposure to lead can occur by breathing air or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in some
older buildings may contain lead solder. Lead based paints deteriorate leaving lead in the dust that can
be inhaled. Children can be exposed by eating lead-based paint chips, chewing on objects painted with
lead-based paint, or swallowing house dust or soil that contains lead.
You may be exposed to lead as a result of your work where lead

Industry sources
Mining and metal manufacturing are the largest sources of lead emissions in Australia. Water supply,
sewerage and draining surfaces, oil and gas extraction and electricity supply can also emit lead. Lead is
also emitted as a result of coal mining, cement, lime, plaster and concrete product manufacture,
ceramic product manufacturing, transport equipment manufacturing, iron and steel manufacturing,
petroleum and coal product manufacturing. Other manufacturing industries where lead may be used
include: beverages and malt, paper and paper products, glass and glass products, fabricated and
structural metal products, motor vehicles and parts, wood products, ceramic products, food and
beverage products, textile, yarn and woven fabrics.

Diffuse sources, and industry sources included in diffuse emissions data


Paved roads, windblown dust, burning fuels or wildfires, solid and liquid fuel combustion, lawn
mowing and barbeques (from burning fuel) are all capable of causing emissions of lead.

Natural sources
Lead and compounds occurs naturally in the earth's crust in rocks and soil.