Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE PCOMM014

Page 1 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

ANALYSIS AND PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS COURSE

COMMISSIONING AND MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAY EQUIPMENT

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE PCOMM014
Page 2 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

COMMISSIONING AND MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAY EQUIPMENT

INDEX TO THIS SUPPLEMENT

SECTION PAGE
SITE TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT 1 4-8
Basic approach of commissioning 1.1 4
Mechanical inspection and ohmmeter checks 1.2 5
Insulation checks 1.3 6
General notes on measuring instruments 1.4 6
DC. Auxiliary Supplies 1.5 6
Test Equipment 1.6 6
Reference results for future maintenance 1.7 7
Faulty Relays 1.8 7
Commissioning flow-chart summary 1.9 8

A GUIDE TO RELAY MAINTENANCE 2 9-10


Frequency of maintenance periods 2.1 9
Visual inspections 2.2 9
Calibration tests 2.3 10
Trip testing 2.4 10
Recommended Maintenance tests 2.5 10

CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS 3 10


Cleaning solvents 3.1 10
Contact lubricants and other lubricants 3.2 11
Contact cleaning burnishes 3.3 11
Contact pressures and settings 3.4 11
Dust removal 3.5 11
Relay recalibration 3.6 11
Relays involving static (electronic) components 3.7 11

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 3 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

Modern static relays - Midos range, etc. 3.8 12

FIGURE 1 - COMMISSIONING TEST OPTIONS - 13

INDEX TO PROTECTIVE RELAY APPLICATION GUIDE REFERENCE

SECTION PAGE
INITIAL TESTS 23.13 397
INSULATION TESTS 23.14 397
CURRENT TRANSFORMER: 23.15 397/398
Polarity 23.15.1 397
Ratio 23.15.2 397
Magnetisation Curve 23.15.3 397/398
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER : 23.16 398/399
Polarity 23.16.1 398
Ratio 23.16.2 398
Phasing 23.16.3 398/399
SECONDARY INJECTION : 23.17 399/407
Equipment: Test Block & Plug 23.17.1 399/400
Relays: 0/C & E/F 23.17.2 400/403
Differential 23.17.3 403
Pilot Wire 23.17.4 403/404
Negative Phase 23.17.5 404
Sequence
Directional 23.17.6 404/405
Distance 23.17.7 405/407
DC. Operated 23.17.8 407
PRIMARY INJECTION: 23.18 407/419
General 23.18 407
Relays: O/C & E/F 23.18.1 407/408
Directional 23.18.2 408/411
Generator Diff. 23.18.3 411
Transformer Diff. 23.18.4 412/414
Restricted E/F 23.18.5 414
Pilot Wire 23.18.6 414/416
Busbar 23.18.7 416/418
Negative Phase 23.18.8 419
Sequence

TRIPPING ~ ALARM ANNUNCIATION 23.19 419

PERIODIC MAINTENANCE 23.20 419/420

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 4 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

1 SITE TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Reference is made to Section 23 of the "PROTECTIVE RELAYS APPLICATION


GUIDE" which adequately covers the basic requirements of most main types of
protection. Publications giving detailed commissioning tests on specific
relays/schemes are normally available on request.
The following summarises the basic approach required for commissioning and
supplements the information given in "PRAG".

1.1 BASIC APPROACH

The purpose of commissioning can be defined as:

"TO ASSURE OURSELVES, AND THE INTERESTED AUTHORITIES, THAT


THE OVERALL PROTECTIVE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS CORRECTLY".
Every basic function should be checked and nothing should be left to chance. If
doubt exists as to the correct functioning of a device, it is not good enough to
assume that it is probably satisfactory IT MAY NOT BE.
When a new installation is planned an estimated period is made available for
commissioning tests. Inevitably, the planned dates for each stage run late and the
commissioning engineer is expected to make up lost time. Undue pressure to
speed-up can be made if the protection fails to operate owing to, say, a wiring fault
that could have been found with a simple commissioning test.
Before commissioning tests are commenced one should be familiar with the overall
protective layout. The procedure to be adopted for commissioning should be
planned so that work is not unnecessarily duplicated. It is essential that tests
should not be omitted because of ill-defined responsibilities between two or more
commissioning engineers.
A number of options exist between the minimum number of electrical tests that are
necessary to satisfactorily prove the protective system, and that recommended by
our company. These are summarised in Fig 1 (page 13) attached with some of the
advantages and disadvantages with each method.
Site safety aspects cannot be too strongly emphasised. Close liaison between all
commissioning, plant and switch gear engineers is essential to ensure that circuits
are not made "live" by primary or secondary injection, closing of isolators, etc.,
without adequate concern for the safety of others. Preferably, a safety liaison
engineer should be appointed and made responsible for the safe co-ordination of
all work.
Basically, commissioning relative to protective switch gear includes the following:

1.1.1 Checks on wiring diagrams used by the erector:

Particular attention should be paid to over-lapping C.T. positions. A simplified "key"


diagram, showing basic C.T./V.T./and relay type/positions is advisable.

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 5 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

1.1.2 General Inspection of Equipment

Check for general damage, tightness of connections, correctness of wiring and wire
numbers, according to the relevant schematic diagrams and wiring diagrams.
(See Section 2 for applicable checks on relays).

1.1.3 Insulation resistance tests between all independent circuits and all circuits
to earth.

"See Section 3 for further details).

1.1.4 Tests of Main Current Transformers.

C.T. ratio, polarity and magnetism - curve checks are normally recommended.
Tests are detailed in Section 23 of "PRAG".

1.1.5 Tests of Protection Voltage Transformers.

Ratio, polarity and phasing checks are detailed in Section 23.

1.1.6 Secondary Injection Tests on Relays.

These are designed to prove the basic operation of each relay/relay scheme
independently.

1.1.7 Primary Injection Tests/On Load Tests.

These are designed to prove the scheme stability for external faults and the
effective current setting for internal faults. The directional properties of relays,
where relevant are normally proven with the system on load.

1.1.8 Checks on Tripping and Alarm circuits.

1.2 MECHANICAL INSPECTION OF RELAYS AND SIMPLE OHMMETER CHECKS

Before removing covers from relays, ensure the area is relatively free from dust - it
can easily jam bearings etc., and destroy contact reliability.
Typical checks that can be carried out prior to serious electrical testing include :
1.2.1 A basic mechanical inspection to ensure freedom from general damage in transit.

1.2.2 A check to ensure the right relay is fitted in the right case - Serial Numbers and
Model Number.

1.2.3 A general check on tightness of links, screws, etc.

1.2.4 That the correct external resistor is fitted in the right place (where relevant).

1.2.5 The C.T. shorting switches are fitted across all C.T. circuits, and function correctly
when the relay is withdrawn.

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 6 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

1.2.6 That the trip isolating switch works (lower L.H. "red" cradle latch on measuring
relays fitted to the conventional draw-out case only).

1.2.7 That unit contacts wire to the right terminals. Simple ohmmeter checks to the
relevant relay wiring diagram takes little time and may well prove worthwhile.

1.2.8 That contact pressures and follow thoughts are approximately correct. Pressures
can be carefully assessed on accessible units with a probe (screwdriver) and
compared with similar contacts on other such units.

1.3 INSULATION CHECKS

Pressure testing, for example, 2KV rms. for 1 min, has been carried out on each
individual relay on manufacture. Normally insulation checks on site are limited to
DC. insulation resistance checks only. Where pressure tests are required, possibly
by switchgear manufacturers, either static relays should be temporarily removed, or
extreme care should be taken to ensure that the voltage is not suddenly applied.
Solid connections should be made and the voltage slowly increased to the required
(2kV) level - held for a nominal time, then reduced to zero.
In practice, site checks are preferably carried out with a 500V (or 1000V) DC.
insulation tester. Where static circuitry is employed, as is often the case, a
"brushless" type of insulation tester should be used, since worn brushes on the
older forms of testers can promote spikes in excess of 5kV.
Although the resistance of circuits to earth is often only checked, ideally each
electrically separate circuit should also be checked to all other circuits. The
following approach is suggested :
Connect the accessible terminals of each independent circuit together.
Connect all circuit groups so formed together and solidly link to earth.
Isolate each circuit group in turn, removing station circuit earth links as necessary,
and test between this group and all the remaining groups still linked to earth.
Having checked the insulation of all circuits, ensure that all station earthing links
are replaced.
Insulation levels vary:- over 100 Mohms may he obtained on a small installation,
but on a few Mohms where wiring is extensive. humidity is a major influencing
factor and should be considered when the results are to be used as a reference for
future insulation checks to detect deterioration.
Care should be taken that all associated circuitry is kept clear of unauthorised
personnel during the insulation tests. It should also be remembered that cubicle
capacitance may maintain a reasonable charge even after the test has finished - a
few seconds should be left before attempting to disconnect leads.

1.4 GENERAL NOTES ON MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Generally on site checks are not intended to be precise regarding accuracy -


unavailability of suitable test equipment is often a limiting factor.
Instruments:- Note that errors are expressed as a % of Full Scale Deflection - a
2% instrument can have a 20% error if used at 1/10th of its scale. Instrument
deflection should be kept as near full-scale as possible.

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 7 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

1.5 DC. AUXILIARY SUPPLIES

Generally relays are designed to tolerate a maximum ripple content of 12% (peak
to peak ripple as a % of the mean DC. component). Damage to the static circuitry
of some relays may result if a unsmoothed supply is used. Relays should definitely
NOT be energised directly off battery charges without the batteries being
connected.

1.6 TEST EQUIPMENT

Test equipment should give sinusoidal outputs and ideally should be a true replica
of system pre-fault and fault conditions, especially when testing the "Distance"
relays. If so, the test set can be used on any such relay with confidence,
irrespective of relay manufacturer. If it does not represent the systems, results
may be incorrect and confusing. The instructions of the relay manufacturer
recommending its use should be followed specifically.

1.7 REFERENCE RESULTS FOR FUTURE MAINTENANCE


Commissioning test results are often used as a reference for future maintenance
checks. It should be noted, however, that consistency between such sets of results
depend largely on the class of instruments that is used each time, the suitability of
the test equipment/supplies and precise test conditions. To avoid having to change
relay settings during maintenance, commissioning results should preferably include
those taken with the relay at it's final setting - this also gives the assurance that the
relay operates correctly "as left".

1.8 FAULTY RELAYS

Experience has shown that suspicions of faulty relays are often unfounded. It is
easy to make a simple mistake on testing and one should first suspect the test
equipment, it's wiring, the instruments involved and the method of test, especially
if the latter differs from that recommended. A simple substitution of the "faulty"
relay with a known "good" relay of the same type is often conclusive. Note that
precautions against ESD (Electro Static Discharge) must be taken when handling
the internal circuitry of any relay involving electronic circuitry (see Section 3.7).

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 8 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

1. 9 COMMISSIONING FLOW-CHART SUMMARY

Commissioning of Protective Relays

To assure ourselves and the interested authorities, that


the overall protective system functions correctly.

Study of wiring diagrams and protection requirements.


Careful delegation of responsibilties to reduce
duplication of effort and ensure all the following aspects
are covered.

Insulation Tests

Secondary Injection Primary injection


(Relays tests)
D.C flick tests on CTs
Ensure clean dust free area C.T. Mag. Curves
Mechanical inspection C.T. Ratio & polarity
Outgoing contact wiring
Primary sensitivity
External resistors Stability tests
C.T. shorting switches
Trip isolating switch Test results
Contact follow thro. & pressures

Electrical tests on each basic


protection function to prove
Line / Trans / Gen Energisation
satisfactory opeation
V.T. ratio and phasing
Prove operation of trip and
alarm circuits -

Test results On load tests

Stability tests

Directional properties

AT THE END OF EACH STAGE ASK YOURSELF :

"IS THERE ANYTHING THAT MAY BE WRONG, WIRING OR OTHERWISE,


THAT I HAVE NOT CHECKED THAT MAY PREVENT CORRECT OPERATION?"
- IF SO, CHECK IT OUT!

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 9 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

2 A GUIDE TO RELAY MAINTENANCE

2.1 FREQUENCY OF MAINTENANCE PERIODS

Any relay manufacturer, would be unwise to lay down specific recommended


intervals between maintenance outages. Such recommendations in the past have
put an unacceptable onus on the customer, who have sometimes been unable to
comply with even an infrequent maintenance requirement.
Generally, the need, and recommended frequency of regular maintenance is
dictated by:
a) The site condition
b) The availability of maintenance staff, and resources.
c) The availability of plant outage times
d) The risks involved if the protection should fail
e) The type of relay construction - electromagnetic or static.
f) The proven reliability of devices under identical site conditions.
g) The availability of built-in self-check features or semi-automatic test
facilities, and the difficulties of alternative tests.
h) The interval of time an unexpected catastrophic failure, component or
otherwise, may go undetected, and leave the system unprotected.
"The site condition" requires further explanation. The following will increase the
need for frequent maintenance:
1) A dusty or dirty environment
2) Corrosive chemical atmospheres
3) Frequent or continuous vibration
4) High humidity
5) High or "cycling" temperatures
6) Consistently high levels of energising/auxiliary quantities
Generally, electro-mechanical relays are more susceptible to 1, 2 and 3 above,
than static relays.
Typically, we may well recommend the average relay, under ideal site conditions,
to be subjected to a maintenance test every 12-18 months. As individual site
experience and confidence grows, the interval may well be increased, but the risk
of a failure going undetected for a long period also increases. No equipment can
be 100% reliable, and an acceptable compromise has to be reached.

2.2 VISUAL INSPECTIONS

A close visual inspection should be carried out at:


(i) The commissioning test stage.
(ii) At each maintenance test.
(iii) After any serious system fault.

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 10 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

2.3 CALIBRATION TESTS

These should be carried out at every maintenance outage, or more regularly if


automatic or semi automatic test facilities exist.

2.4 TRIP TESTING

The integrity of the complete trip circuit, including circuit breaker should be
checked on at least every maintenance outage, but generally as regularly as
practical, or though advisable by the appropriate authorities. The use of trip-circuit
supervision relays reduces the risk of failure being undetected.

2.5 RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE TESTS

Generally recommended maintenance tests are little more than a repeat of the
"secondary injection tests" recommended in the appropriate relay commissioning
instruction. These instructions are generally readily available for all but the
simplest of relays. Maintenance should include the following:

1) A careful recording of all in-service relay settings.


2) A visual inspection to check for obvious signs of damage, looseness of
components, etc.
3) Secondary injection tests, carried out at an appropriate test facility
inter-face, to check each main protection function for correct operation, the
results being referred back to previous results.
4) A check on the integrity of each outgoing contact. Provided a low voltage
source ohm-meter indicates less than a few ohms, contact cleaning
should not be necessary.
5) A careful check that the relay is returned to service with all the correct
in-service settings.
6) A check at the common-interface test facility to check that the expected
CT/VT quantities are present when the system is returned on-load.

3 CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS.

If the maintenance tests prove incorrect, remedial action may be warranted.


Reference should be made to the appropriate "Servicing/Maintenance" instruction,
where applicable. Generally the course of action will depend on the type of relay
involved, "electro-mechanical" or "static" (electronic construction). The following
notes are for general guidance only.

3.1 CLEANING SOLVENTS

Many solvents are commercially available, but extreme care should be exercised.
Damage to some of the many materials used in the relay construction may result.
Although appearing to solve the immediate problem, long-term chemical reactions
may be promoted and these may easily lead to complete catastrophic failures.
Many solvents MAY BE suitable, but unless LIFE tests, or ACCELERATED LIFE
tests have been carried out on the particular range of relay components, no
guarantees can be given. One solvent has been used on relays for many years at

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 11 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

GECAM. It goes under the chemical name "TRICHLORTRIFLUOROETHANE",


commonly know under the trade names of; "ARKLONE" (ICI), "FREON" (Dupont
Industries), "FLUORISOL" and "SUPERSOLVE". Final "rinsing" should always be
carried out with a CLEAN solution, using a LINT- free cloth or chamois to restrict
the deposit of foreign materials. The solvent may be safely used on thermoplastics,
contacts, electronic components, and all known relay materials.

3.2 CONTACT LUBRICANTS AND OTHER LUBRICANTS

These are not recommended. Any form of lubricating film will promote the build-up
of dirt and dust that eventually may lead to the complete failure of the contact or
bearing. Relay surfaces should be left dry. Dry lubricants are occasionally used
on some electro-mechanical relays.

3.3 CONTACT CLEANING BURNISHERS

The contact burnisher found in the tool-kit available from the company is
recommended. Many contact burnishers commercially available are very abrasive
and leave relatively deep groves in the contact surface (when viewed under a
microscope). the grooves trap dust, and an unreliable contact results. Although
their use may be warranted on a badly pitted "industrial use" type of contact, the
contact should be finally "polished" using the recommended burnishers.

3.4 CONTACT PRESSURES AND SETTINGS

These should be considered critical for correct reliable contact operation. All
adjusted contact settings should remain in the "tolerance bands" laid down for the
particular type of unit. (See servicing data for the particular relay).
3.5 DUST REMOVAL
Compressed air can be used with extreme care. It should be clean and dry (test
on sheet of clean white paper). Ensure that it never gets directed towards delicate
springs or mechanisms. A clean "DUCKS FEATHER" is very useful for wiping or
"flicking" dust off relay surfaces, especially from inverse-time disc relays.

3.6 RELAY CALIBRATION

One should first question the reason why the re calibration is necessary. If
successive maintenance tests have shown a progressive trend, it may be that a
component is at the end of its useful life and is gradually failing. The cause may
however be dust or dirt on bearing surfaces that should be removed before re
calibration is undertaken. The suitability and accuracy of the test equipment must
also be queried.

3.7 RELAYS INVOLVING STATIC (ELECTRONIC) COMPONENTS

Reasonable care should be exercised when handling static components or


circuitry. Although such relays normally prove highly reliable because of the
design and production techniques employed on manufacture, "ELECTRO-STATIC
DISCHARGE" (ESD) can occur and promote premature failure. In exceptional
circumstances (e.g. walking across a nylon carpet in a dry air environment), the
human body can get statically charged to voltages approaching 35,000 volts. In
more realistic relay environments, 5,000 volts may well be considered a more
practicable maximum. If an internal relay component is touched, the static
electricity discharges through the component circuitry and can promote a gradual

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 12 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

deterioration of that component. Ideally, therefore the engineer should be at earth


potential whenever HANDLING THE INTERNAL CIRCUITRY of such relays.
Special wrist straps are commercially available that discharge the static to earth,
normally via a 1 Mohm resistor.

3.8 MODERN STATIC RELAYS - MIDOS RANGE, ETC.

Modern static relays require virtually no maintenance. An electrical operational


check is often only possible. Even output relays are of miniature sealed
construction that require only an operational check.
Most well designed static relays are very reliable unless maltreated, but
occasionally the odd inevitable component failure may occur. The increasing use
of microprocessor techniques make the fault finding on site down to component
level almost impossible. such fault finding may promote further component failure
and cannot be recommended. Fault finding instructions are therefore generally
limited to the isolation of a faulty printed-circuit board only. On removal, the
suspect board should be immediately protected by placing it in a special
conducting (ESD proof) plastic bag, before returning it for repair. It is
recommended that in each main protection area authority, a spare relay of each
type is kept in order to minimise plant outage times. Additionally, depending on
relay types and quantities, a replacement pcb of each type may be advisable. It
should be remembered that, on any pcb replacement, protection against ESD
should be taken.

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited


COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE
Page 13 of 13
Issue B
September 1998

To assure ourselves and the interested authorities, that the overall protective
system functions correctly.

Consider each of the following test options :-

Primary Injection Tests Secondary Injection Tests

C.T. Ratio
C.T. Polarity C.T. Mag. Curve C.T's still connected to the
(+ C.T. Mag. Curve) relay

True Primary Sensitivity Tests True primary sensitivity easily


(incl. mag. losses of C.T's in idle .equated by multiplying by C.T.
shunt) ratio
Min. of time consumed if results
correct If results not as expected, both
isolated relay tests and C.T.
If results not as expected, sec. mag. curve tests are still
Injection & C.T. checks still .
necessary
necessary
. Ref. for maintenance obtained,
Unable to check :- but relays should be tested with
Adequate timing curve, directional . system off load
power and impedance relays
. Primary tests on C.T. ratio &
Not suitable for maintenance polarity still required on
checks. .commissioning

Secondary Injection Tests On-load test

Relay isolated by test facility

Proof of correct characteristic as an Will include :-


.isolated unit
Checks that the expected C.T. & V.T
Ref. for future maintenance tests. quantities are present at the test
such tests can be carried out with facility interface
.
the system on load (back-up
protection being relied on) Scheme stability tests for external
load / faults
Full primary injection and on-load Proof of correct directional
.tests carried out on initial characteristics.
commissioning only

Recommended preference :- Sec. injection (relay isolated)


+ Primary injection tests (incl. c.t. ratio,
phasing & mag. curve)
+ On-Load tests (as necessary)
Fig 1. Commissioning test options.

Copyright © of ALSTOM GRID UK Limited