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6th Grade Science

Astronomy Unit Information


Milestones Domain/Weight: Astronomy 20%

Purpose/Goal(s): Students are expected to have knowledge of the progression of scientific


explanations (geocentric and heliocentric models) for the formation of the solar system. Students
should also be able to explain how the Big Bang theory describes the formation of the universe.
Students will identify the solar system’s place in the Milky Way Galaxy. Students should understand
that objects in the solar system move in a regular and predictable manner. Those motions explain
such familiar phenomena as days, years, phases of the Moon, eclipses, and the solar system’s
place in the Milky Way Galaxy. Students will understand how gravity governs the motion of planets,
comets, and asteroids in the solar system. Students will also be able to compare and contrast the
features (i.e., physical characteristics, atmospheric conditions, distance from the Sun, and the
ability to support life) of the eight planets in the solar system.

Content Map: Astronomy Content Map

Content Descriptors: Astronomy Content Descriptors

Content from Frameworks: Astronomy Content from the Frameworks

Prerequisites: Elementary Standards for Astronomy

Unit Length: Approximately 27 days

Astronomy Unit Test 1 Study Guide | Astronomy Unit Test 1 Study Guide KEY

Astronomy Unit Test 2 Study Guide | Astronomy Unit Test 2 Study Guide KEY

Click on the links below for resources by Essential Question:

EQ 1: How have theories of the formation and structure of the universe changed?

EQ 2: How is our solar system positioned in the Milky Way Galaxy and the universe?

EQ 3: How does Earth compare to other planets in the solar system?

EQ 4: What is the difference between a comet, meteor, and asteroid?

EQ 5: Why do objects seem to move across the sky?

EQ 6: How does the position of the sun, Earth, and moon affect each other?

EQ 7: What causes tides?

EQ 8: What are the reasons for the seasons?


TCSS 6th Science Astronomy Unit
Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The  S6E1a Sample
Essential*
Priority Standard: first resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire Assessment Items
Geocentric
S6E1a. Relate the Nature of lesson including activating, teaching and summarizing
Heliocentric
Science to the progression of strategies. The activities listed below the ppt are used during
Solar System
basic historical scientific the lesson and are identified for use where they are most likely
Scientific Theory
models (geocentric, appropriate in the ppt. The resources can be used as an entire
Big Bang Theory
heliocentric) as they describe lesson or pulled out for use separately.
our solar system, and the Big  Theories of the Universe ppt [“I Do” “We Do” and “You Do”]
Supplemental**
Bang as it describes the See “Notes” on ppt slides for suggested instructional
Ptolemy
formation of the universe. approaches where applicable or view the Theories of the
Galileo
Universe ppt “Notes” document
Copernicus
Support Standard:  Theory Challenge Activity [“We Do”] – students will work in
S6CS8c. As prevailing groups to do a jigsaw. The activity consists of 10 reading
theories are challenged by passages on scientific theories which have been proven
new information, scientific false
*Essential Vocabulary listed
knowledge may change and  Theories of the Universe Notes [“You Do”]
in the GPS Standards
grow.  Theory Activator in ppt prior to Big Bang Teaching: Balloon
Bang [“I Do”] – Have students stand up and form a large
**Supplemental Vocabulary
Essential Question: circle. Without saying a word, go to the center of the circle
listed in the state
1. How have theories of the and blow up a balloon filled with colored confetti. Hold the
frameworks and/or other
formation and structure of the balloon high enough for all students to see clearly. Pop the
state document
universe changed? balloon, still not saying a word. Ask the students “What
happened? What event in the history of the universe could
this represent?”
 The Big Bang Demonstration [“I Do”] – demonstration
o Another analogy that the students might be able to
understand is the spinning ice skater. Ask students
how many of them have seen an ice skater do a
spin. Have students describe it. Show a video clip of
an ice skater spinning such as:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQLtcEAG9v0
You might have noticed that when the twirling ice
skater pulls in her arms, she spins faster. The same
thing occurs when a cloud of gas, ice, and dust in a
nebula contracts. As mass moves toward the center
of the cloud, the cloud rotates faster.
 Expanding the Universe on a Balloon Demonstration
[“I Do”] teacher demonstration
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TCSS 6th Science Astronomy Unit
Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
 Models of the Solar System: Great Debate Activity –
teacher facilitated, student performed role play
 Differentiation: Models of the Solar System Hands-on
Sheet [“You Do”] – Can be used for remediation. Students
cut out the four known planets at the time (including the
sun) and place them on a solar system model to
demonstrate geocentric or heliocentric. The teacher can
ask students to model them over and over when instructed
or have the students model them and glue them to the
paper.
 Three Theories of the Solar System Worksheet [“You Do”]
 Videos [select one or two of the videos where applicable]
o Space Place: How did the solar system form?
o How the Universe Works: Big Bang [only watch first
10-12 minutes]
o Brain Pop: Big Bang Theory [see the academic
coach about subscription]
o Galileo: Sun-centered System Video Clip
 Animations
o http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc
/content/visualizations/es0401/es0401page01.cfm?
chapter_no=visualization [linked in ppt]
 Textbook Pages 740-745
 Anchor Activities [“You Do”] – used for students if they
finish an assignment early. This can be used to enrich
taught material or to preview future material
o Choice Board - Students can use this to choose an
assignment that interests them | Cootie Catcher
Directions [keep the sheet of directions available for
students in the classroom]

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format.  S6E1b Position of the
Essential*
Standard(s): The first resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the Solar System Sample
Universe
S6E1b. Describe the entire lesson including activating, teaching and summarizing Assessment Items
Galaxy
position of the solar system strategies. The activities listed below the ppt are used during
Milky Way
in the Milky Way galaxy the lesson and are identified for use where they are most
Solar System
and the universe. likely appropriate in the ppt. The resources can be used as
an entire lesson or pulled out for use separately.
Supplemental**
Essential Question:  Position in Solar System ppt
Outer rim (arm)
2. How is our solar system [“I Do”, “We Do” and “You Do”] See “Notes” on ppt slides
positioned in the Milky Way for suggested instructional approaches where applicable
Galaxy and the universe? or view the Position in the Solar System ppt Notes
*Essential Vocabulary listed
document
in the GPS Standards
 Position in Solar System Notes [“You Do”] – Students
should complete the Notes while going through the ppt
**Supplemental Vocabulary
 Distributed Summarizing: Solar System Location Map
listed in the state frameworks
[“You Do”] – Students should work individually to
and/or other state document
complete the short task unless the teacher determines a
classroom discussion is needed.
 Summarizing Strategy/differentiation: Universe Match-up
[“You Do”] - The students should work individually to
match up the objects in the universe and place them in
order from largest to smallest.
 Animations/Simulations/Videos
o The Scale of the Universe 2 [linked in ppt]
o Digital Universe or watch the video directly from
YouTube The Known Universe [linked in ppt]
o Classzone: Examine the Milky Way Galaxy at
Different Scales [linked in ppt]
o http://smithsonianeducation.org/idealabs/univers
e/index.html - Needs to be Accelerated or class
demonstration. Also may be used after essential
question #3 to cover multiple concepts
 Textbook Pages 710-713

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The first  S6E1c. Planets in
Essential*
Priority Standard(s): resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire lesson the Solar System
Planet
S6E1e. Explain that including activating, teaching and summarizing strategies. The Sample Assessment
Gravity
gravity is the force that activities listed below the ppt are used during the lesson and are Items
Solar System
governs the motion in the identified for use where they are most likely appropriate in the ppt. The
Relative size
solar system. resources can be used as an entire lesson or pulled out for use
Relative distance
separately.
Atmospheric Features
S6E1c. Compare and  Activating Strategy: Comparing Planets Chart and possibly the
contrast the planets in Planet Identification sheet to determine what students already
Supplemental**
terms of: know about the planets [“You Do” or “We Do”]
Orbit
 Size relative to the  Planets PPT [“I Do”, “We Do”, “You Do”] See “Notes” on ppt slides
Ellipses
earth for suggested instructional approaches where applicable or view
Dwarf planet
 Surface and Planetary motion
the Planets ppt Notes
atmospheric features  The Solar System: Planet Notes sheet [“You Do”] – Students use
Inertia
 Relative distance Gravitational attraction
the Planet Notes Sheet to record important information about the
from the sun solar system
(pull)
Ability to support life  Planets Comparison Chart [“You Do”] – Students use the Planets
Comparison Chart to record important information about the
*Essential Vocabulary
Essential Question: planets
listed in the GPS
3. How does Earth  Relative Size Demonstration [“I Do” or “We Do”] – Either as a
Standards
compare to other planets teacher demonstration or small group activity, the Sun and the
in the solar system? planets are compared to objects such as a peppercorn, coffee
**Supplemental
bean, acorn, etc. Characteristics of science standards: S6CS3,
Vocabulary listed in the
state frameworks
S6CS4,
.  The Size and Distance of the Planets Activity [“You Do” or “We
and/or other state
Do”] - Students will investigate the concepts of relative size and
document
distance by creating a basic model of our solar system. Students
can work in small groups or as a class to do the activity. However,
if students work in small groups, you will need to be in a large
room to accommodate all groups Characteristics of science
standards: S6CS3 , S6CS4 , S6CS5b
 Solar System Scale lab [Characteristics of science standards:
S6CS3 , S6CS4 , S6CS5b]
 Activities to reinforce the characteristics of the planets:
o Planet Mystery [“You Do” or “We Do”] – Students can work
individually or in small groups to complete the review
o Plant Clue [“You Do” or “We Do”] – Students should work in
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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
pairs to complete the review
o Practice worksheet/homework [“You Do”]
o A simple project - http://www.kbteachers.com/astronomy-
activities/free-planet-research-project.html
 Summarizing Strategy: Comparing Planets [“You Do”] (use as
formative assessment for tiered groups in Tiered planet activity
below) - The summarizing strategy should be completed by each
student individually. The teacher should evaluate each student’s
summarizer to determine his/her level of mastery. In this
summarizer, students must provide characteristics of the Earth and
at least four other planets of their choosing.
 After the Summarizing Strategy, use the Tiered Planet Activity to
support and extend learning. Use for Tiered activity cut and paste
planets - http://www.bestcoloringpagesforkids.com/wp-
content/uploads/2013/07/Solar-System-Coloring-Pages-For-
Kids.jpg
 Anchor Activities
o Extreme Planet Makeover- for advanced students or as
reinforcement. Reinforces the effect of planet and realtion
to distance from the sun
 Additional Resources
o Human Life on Venus Constructed Response
o http://www.solarviews.com/eng/homepage.htm
o Astro-Venture: Design a Planet from NASA
o http://www.windows2universe.org/our_solar_system/solar_
system_1.html
o Simulation demonstrating gravity’s influence
o Why is there life on Earth practice worksheet
o http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_system.htm- can click
on planet to get more information
o http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/switch-a-roo/en/ - can be used
with students for enrichment. Includes additional
information for students who have mastered the standard.
o Build a Solar System from Exploratorium – For Accelerated
or Sponge Activity in computer lab. Interactive
 Videos
o Suggested videos retrieved from United Streaming:
 “Space Exploration: Our Solar System,”

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
 “The Solar System: Above and Beyond,”
 “A Spin Around The Solar System: How the Solar
System Works.”
 Instructional strategies- When differentiating or using small groups,
these websites can be used with a smart board, smart projector, or
promethean board. Students can come to the board one at a time
as the teacher monitors while working with small groups. These
websites can be used as reinforcement and practice. Or can be
used in computer labs as practice.
o http://www.softschools.com/science/space/solar_system_ki
ds_games/

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The first  S6E1f. Comets,
Essential*
Standard(s): resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire lesson Asteroids, Meteors
Comet
S6E1f. Describe the including activating, teaching and summarizing strategies. The Sample Assessment
Meteor
characteristics of comets, activities listed below the ppt are used during the lesson and are Items
Asteroid
asteroids, and meteors. identified for use where they are most likely appropriate in the ppt.
The resources can be used as an entire lesson or pulled out for use
Supplemental**
Essential Question: separately.
Asteroid Belt
4. What is the difference  Comet, Meteor, Asteroid ppt [“I Do”, “We Do”, “You Do”] - See
Meteoroids
between a comet, “Notes” on ppt slides for suggested instructional approaches
elliptical orbits
meteor, where applicable or view the Comet, Meteor, Asteroid ppt Notes
and asteroid?  Comet, Meteor, Asteroid Anticipation Guide [“You Do”] –
*Essential Vocabulary
Activating and Summarizing. The students should individually
listed in the GPS
read each statement and mark whether it describes a comet,
Standards
meteor, or asteroid. Remind students that it is an activating
strategy; therefore, students are not expected to know the
**Supplemental
information yet. You are activating any prior knowledge they have
Vocabulary listed in the
about comets, meteors, and asteroids. The teacher may want to
state frameworks and/or
allow students to compare their responses; however, stress to the
other state document
students that they should not change their answer based on
another student’s response.
 Objects in Space Graphic Organizer | Comet, Meteor, Asteroid
Notes Sheet [“You Do”] – Students should use the sheet to record
important information about comets, meteors, and asteroids
 Comet, Meteor, Asteroid Images [“You Do”] – give students the
images at the beginning and have them tape or glue the image
underneath the correct object name OR after going through the
characteristics of each object, have students cut out the pictures
and then match them to the correct object. Once the teacher
checks the student’s matches (and the student should be able to
explain how to distinguish them), the student can then tape or
glue the image underneath the correct object name.
 Comet, Meteor, Asteroid Worksheet [“You Do”] – Use as a
bellringer, ticket out the door, or quick formative assessment
 Comet, Meteor, Asteroid Tiered Activity [“You Do”] – formative
assessment to determine grouping included
 Textbook pages 690-709
 Possible Activities [optional activities if needed]
o Scale Size Comet, Meteoroid, Asteroid

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
[“You Do” or “We Do”] – students cut out paper strips to
represent the scaled size of a comet, meteor, and asteroid
o Asteroids, Meteoroids, Comets Path Worksheet [“You Do”]
students identify whether statements describe a comet,
meteor, or asteroid
o Let’s Cook Up a Comet! [“I Do”] – best as a demonstration
o Meteor Burnout Demonstration [“I Do”] – demonstration
o Triple Venn Diagram Organizer | Triple Comparison
Organizer [“You Do”] – two graphic organizer options for
students to use when comparing a comet, meteor, and
asteroid.
o Smithsonian Tween Tribune: Messages in a meteorites
bring news from outer space article
 Instructional strategies- When differentiating or using small
groups, these websites can be used with a smart board, smart
projector, or promethean board. Students can come to the board
one at a time as the teacher monitors while working with small
groups. These websites can be used as reinforcement and
practice in the computer lab or using chrome books.
o http://discoverykids.com/games/asteroid-comet-or-meteor-
quiz/

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The  S6E1d. Motion of
Essential*
Standard(s): first resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire Objects in Sky Sample
Relative position
S6E1d. Explain the motion lesson including activating, teaching and summarizing Assessment Items
of objects in the day/night strategies. The activities listed below the ppt are used during
Supplemental**
sky in terms of relative the lesson and are identified for use where they are most
position. likely appropriate in the ppt. The resources can be used as an
entire lesson or pulled out for use separately.
*Essential Vocabulary listed
Essential Question:  Movement of Objects Across the Sky ppt
in the GPS Standards
5. Why do objects seem to [“I Do”, “We Do”, “You Do”] See “Notes” on ppt slides for
move across the sky? suggested instructional approaches where applicable or
**Supplemental Vocabulary
view the Movement of Objects Across the Sky ppt Notes
listed in the state
 Movement of Objects Across the Sky Notes [“You Do”]
frameworks and/or other
 Possible Activities [“You Do”]:
state document
o Students can draw a diagram illustrating what
causes objects to appear to move across the sky [a
box is on the notes sheet for an illustration]
o Students can make a flipbook illustrating objects
seeming to move across the sky (be sure they
include the cause of the appeared movement). The
following website provides information on making a
flipbook: http://jimmie.squidoo.com/flip-book-fun
o Modeling the Night Sky [“We Do”]

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The first  S6E2a,b Sample
Essential*
Standard(s): resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire lesson Assessment Items
Alignment
S6E2a. Demonstrate the including activating, teaching and summarizing strategies. The
Solar Eclipse
phases of the moon by activities listed below the ppt are used during the lesson and are
Lunar Eclipse
showing the alignment of identified for use where they are most likely appropriate in the ppt. The
Phase (wax, wane)
the earth, moon, resources can be used as an entire lesson or pulled out for use
and sun separately.
Supplemental**
 Phases of the Moon and Eclipses ppt [“I Do”, “We Do”, “You Do”]
Shadow
S6E2b. Explain the See “Notes” on ppt slides for suggested instructional approaches
Luminous
alignment of the earth, where applicable or view the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses ppt
moon, and sun during Notes
solar and lunar eclipses.  Textbook page 663,669,670
*Essential Vocabulary
Phases
listed in the GPS
Essential Question:  Phases of the Moon Notes [“You Do”] – Students use the Notes
Standards
6. How does the position sheet to record important information during the lesson
of the sun, Earth, and  Phases of the Moon Rap [linked in ppt]
**Supplemental
moon affect each other?  Suggested Activities [all activities or worksheets are not needed.
Vocabulary listed in the
Select 2-3 activities as needed or use the varying activities to
state frameworks and/or
remediate or reinforce the phases]
other state document
o Moon Phases and Eclipses ActivInspire Interactive
Flipchart [“We Do”] – The suggested instructional
approach is to use the flipchart in small groups either
through differentiation or rotation stations. Students place
moon phase images onto a diagram and use images to
illustrate the two types of eclipses. Instructional Video for
Moon Phases and Eclipses ActivInspire Flipchart
o Moon Phase Box [“I Do”] – This might be a good teacher
demonstration because it only shows the four main phases.
It might help the students understand the concept though in
the early stages of the lesson
o Phases Flipbook [“You Do”] – students put together a flip
book showing the position of the Earth and Sun and the
resulting phase of the moon
o Marcia Krech: Cut and Paste Moon Phase Activity [“You
Do”] – Students cut out pictures of phases of the moon and
paste them in the correct position on a diagram.
o Moon’s Phases in Oreos | Oreo Moon Phase Key | Oreo
Moon Phase Image | Moon Phase Image [“You Do” or “We

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
Do”] Students make models of the phases using oreos
o Baseball Moon [“I Do” or “We Do”] – model the phases of
the moon
o Phases of the Moon Calendar [“You Do”] – Students keep
a daily calendar for a period of time in which they write the
date, based on their observation of the moon color in the
dark part of the moon leaving the bright part white.
Additionally, they label the phase and circle the location of
the moon in relation to the earth and sun in the diagram
provided that would cause the observed phase.
o Phases of the Moon Wheel Review [“You Do”] – the
students construct a “wheel” to reinforce the position of the
Earth and Sun and the resulting Moon phase
o Moon Phases Worksheet [“You Do”] – students draw the
moon phase we would see if we were on Earth in the
diagrams shown and then write the name of that moon
phase
o Learning Moon Phases Worksheet [“You Do”] – the
students draw how the moon would look in each phase
based on a diagram
o Moon Phases Activity Sheet [“You Do”] – Have students
add the missing moon phases
o The Moon’s Phases Lesson Plan – second page has a
clear diagram that may be useful for different versions
o Moon Phase Project (Head as Earth)
o Kinesthetic Activity for learning moon phases
 Phases of the Moon Constructed Response [“You Do”]
 Phases Formative Assessment or Summarizer [“You Do”]
 Animations of Phases [linked in ppt]
o Moon Phase Animation from Harcourt
o http://astro.unl.edu/naap/lps/animations/lps.html
o http://astro.unl.edu/classaction/animations/lunarcycles/luna
rphasequizzer.html
o http://ww2.valdosta.edu/~cbarnbau/astro_demos/frameset_
moon.html
o http://web.archive.org/web/20060514142413/http://www.ion
cmaste.ca/homepage/resources/web_resources/CSA_Astr
o9/files/multimedia/unit3/phases_moon/phases_moon.swf

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
 Instructional strategies- When differentiating or using small groups,
these websites can be used with a smart board, smart projector, or
promethean board. Students can come to the board one at a time
as the teacher monitors while working with small group. These
websites can be used as reinforcement and practice in the
computer lab or using chrome books.
o http://www.quia.com/quiz/688297.html
o http://teachers.henrico.k12.va.us/staffdev/clough_d/moon/P
hases.html
o http://quizlet.com/10178138/scatter
Eclipses
 Eclipse Notes [“You Do”] – Students use the Notes sheet to record
important information during the lesson
 Suggested Activities to demonstrate eclipses [select one or two
activities]
o Modeling Eclipses Suggestions [“You Do”]
 Little Moon Giant Sun Demonstration
 Creating Eclipses – Scroll to the bottom to find
Eclipse model directions
 Blackout (Solar Eclipse) Demonstration
o Use the Sun, Earth, and Moon Images [“You Do” or “We
Do”] to review eclipses by calling out "Lunar Eclipse" or
"Solar Eclipse" and students have to quickly move their
pieces into the correct positions. Another option is to form
groups of three. One person is the sun, one the moon, and
one the Earth. (With only two kids, a large light could
represent the sun.) As "lunar" or "solar" are called out, they
would need to arrange themselves correctly.
 Video Clips on Eclipses
o http://www.neok12.com/video/Eclipse/zX027e52507b75487
7644063.htm
 Animations of Eclipses [linked in ppt]
o http://ww2.valdosta.edu/~cbarnbau/astro_demos/frameset_
moon.html
 Phases and Eclipses Summarizer [“You Do”] – Each student
should complete the summarizer and the teacher should use the
summarizer to determine the need for differentiation.

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Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The  S6E3d. Causes of
Essential*
Standard(s): first resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire Tides Sample
Tides
S6E3d. Explain the causes lesson including activating, teaching and summarizing strategies. Assessment Items
of waves, currents, and The activities listed below the ppt are used during the lesson and
Supplemental**
tides. are identified for use where they are most likely appropriate in
Neap Tides
the ppt. The resources can be used as an entire lesson or pulled
Spring Tides
Essential Question: out for use separately.
7. What causes tides?  Activating Strategy [first slide of ppt] – time lapse video
showing ultra-low tide to high tide. Do not show the title of the
*Essential Vocabulary
video nor show the essential question until after the video.
listed in the GPS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMKvqMUZwV4 [1:18]
Standards
 Tides ppt [“I Do”, “We Do”, “You Do”] See “Notes” on ppt
slides for suggested instructional approaches where
**Supplemental
applicable or view the Tides ppt Notes
Vocabulary listed in the
 Tides Notes [“You Do”] – Students should use the Tides
state frameworks and/or
Notes during the lesson to record important information
other state document
 Activities [select one or two of the activities if needed]:
o Rise and Fall of Tides Demonstration [“I Do”] –
teacher demonstration or student activity
demonstrating bulging water
o Spring and Neap Tides Wheel:
http://www.srh.weather.gov/srh/jetstream/ocean/ll_mo
onphase.htm [“You Do”] - Students create a wheel to
illustrate the position of the Sun and the Earth, the
moon phases, and the tides
o Spring or Neap Tide Worksheet [“You Do”] – Students
identify Spring or Neap Tides based on diagrams
 Tides Formative Assessment | Tides Summarizer [“You Do”]
you may decide to use the formative assessment document
as the summarizer and vice versa
 Videos/Online Resources:
o Study Jams Tides [linked in ppt]
o http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/tides/med
ia/supp_tide01.html [shown in ppt]
o http://ww2.valdosta.edu/~cbarnbau/astro_demos/tides
/neap_sp.html [linked in ppt]

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TCSS 6th Science Characteristics of Science

Standard(s) and
Vocabulary Resources [Back to Top] Assessment
Essential Question
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The  S6E2c. Seasons
Essential*
Standard(s): first resource is a ppt which provides guidance for the entire Sample Assessment
Tilt
S6E2c. Relate the tilt of the lesson including activating, teaching and summarizing Items
Climate
earth to the distribution of strategies. The activities listed below the ppt are used during
Distribution (sunlight)
sunlight throughout the the lesson and are identified for use where they are most likely
year and its appropriate in the ppt. The resources can be used as an entire
Supplemental**
effect on climate lesson or pulled out for use separately.
Axis
 Seasons ppt [“I Do”, “We Do”, “You Do”] See “Notes” on ppt
Rotation
Essential Question: slides for suggested instructional approaches where
Revolution
8. What are the reasons for applicable or view the Seasons ppt Notes
Angles of Sunlight
the seasons?  Notes on Seasons [“You Do”] – Students use the notes to
Solar radiation
record important information during the lesson.
 Activities/Demonstrations for angles of sunlight [all are
*Essential Vocabulary listed
similar in nature so select the most practical one for your
in the GPS Standards
classroom]
o Sun Rays Demo [“I Do”] - teacher-led demonstration
**Supplemental Vocabulary
allows students to visualize how the incoming angle
listed in the state
of the Sun’s rays affects the concentration of solar
frameworks and/or other
energy on areas of the Earth
state document
o Comb Beams [“You Do”] - This demonstration shows
how the light rays from the sun can be spread out
or concentrated to cover large or small areas
o Equator is Hot, North Pole is Not Demonstration
[“You Do”] - To demonstrate why direct rays of sun
are hotter than slanted rays of sun
 Seasons Summarizer [“You Do”]
 Videos
o One Year in 40 seconds [activator in ppt]
o Study Jams Seasons [linked in ppt]
 Animations [linked in ppt]
o Angle of the Sun [linked in ppt]
o Astronomy: Journey to the Cosmic Frontier Seasons
Interactive
o Astronomy Education at the University of Nebraska-
Lincoln [similar to the previous animation]
 Textbook Pages: 492, 661, 663

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TCSS 6th Science Characteristics of Science
S6CS2. Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations.
a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.
b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations.
c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.

S6CS3. Students will use computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations.
a. Analyze scientific data by using, interpreting, and comparing numbers in several equivalent forms, such as integers and decimals.
b. Use metric input units (such as seconds, meters, or grams per milliliter) of scientific calculations to determine the proper unit for expressing
the answer.
c. Address the relationship between accuracy and precision and the importance of each.
d. Draw conclusions based on analyzed data.

S6CS4. Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific
activities.
a. Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create
simple files.
b. Estimate the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole.
c. Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and
temperature, and choose appropriate units for reporting various quantities.

S6CS5. Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters.
a. Observe and explain how parts are related to other parts in systems such as weather systems, solar systems, and ocean systems
including how the output from one part of a system (in the form of material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts. (For
example: El Nino’s effect on weather)
b. Identify several different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies) that could be used to represent the same thing, and
evaluate their usefulness, taking into account such things as the model’s purpose and complexity.

S6CS6. Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly.


a. Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting scientific investigations, operating a piece of equipment, or following a procedure.
b. Understand and describe how writing for scientific purposes is different than writing for literary purposes.
c. Organize scientific information using appropriate tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal.

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TCSS 6th Science Characteristics of Science
S6CS7. Students will question scientific claims and arguments effectively.
a. Question claims based on vague attributions (such as “Leading doctors say...”) or on statements made by people outside the area of their
particular expertise.
b. Recognize that there may be more than one way to interpret a given set of findings.

The Nature of Science


S6CS8. Students will investigate the characteristics of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved.

Students will apply the following to scientific concepts:


a. When similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which
often requires further study. Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before
accepting the results as meaningful.
b. When new experimental results are inconsistent with an existing, well-established theory, scientists may require further experimentation to
decide whether the results are flawed or the theory requires modification.
c. As prevailing theories are challenged by new information, scientific knowledge may change and grow.

S6CS9. Students will investigate the features of the process of scientific inquiry.

Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices:


a. Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. They usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and
formulating explanations.
b. Scientists often collaborate to design research. To prevent bias, scientists conduct independent studies of the same questions.
c. Accurate record keeping, data sharing, and replication of results are essential for maintaining an investigator’s credibility with other
scientists and society.
d. Scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance the process of scientific inquiry.
e. The ethics of science require that special care must be taken and used for human subjects and animals in scientific research. Scientists
must adhere to the appropriate rules and guidelines when conducting research.

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