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LR INSURANCE, INC,

ASME Boiler and


Pressure Vessel Code
Basic Training Course
Section IX, 2010 Edition, 2011
Addenda

Presented to
LILAMA 18 JSC

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Organisation, Content and Structure of Section IX

Structured in 2 Parts - Welding ( QW ) and Brazing ( QB )

 Both identical subdivided in 4 articles


• General requirements
• Procedure qualifications
• Performance qualifications
• Welding resp. brazing data

 Additionally
• Article V “Standard Welding Procedure Specifications” ( SWPS’s )

and

• Appendices : Mandatory and nonmandatory requirements

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

 Backgouging – The removal of weld metal and base metal from the
weld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and
complete joint preparation upon subsequent welding from that side.
 Backing – A material placed at the root of a weld joint for the purpose
of supporting molten weld metal so as to facilitate complete joint
preparation. The material may or may not fuse into the joint.
 Retainer – Nonconsumable material, metallic or nonmetallic, which is
used to contain or shape molten weld metal.
 Backing Gas – A gas, such as argon, helium, nitrogen, or reactive gas,
which is employed to exclude oxygen from the root side (opposite
from the welding side) of weld joints.
 Base metal – The metal or alloy that is welded, brazed, or cut.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

 Build-up of base metal – This is the application of a weld material to a


base metal so as to restore the design thickness and/or structural
integrity. Also may be called base metal repair or buildup.
 Butt joint – A joint between two member aligned approximately in the
same plane.
 Buttering – The addition of material, by welding, on one or both faces
of a joint, prior to the preparation of the joint for final welding, for
the purpose of providing a suitable transition weld deposit for the
subsequent completion of the joint.
 Consumable insert – Filler metal that is placed at the joint root before
welding, and is intended to be completely fused into the root to
become part of the weld.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

 Corner joint – A joint between two members located approximately at


right angles to each other in the form of an “L”.
 Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) – The arrangement of direct
current arc welding leads in which the electrode is the negative pole
and the workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc (straight
polarity).
 Direct current electrode positive (DCEP) – The arrangement of direct
current arc welding leads in which the electrode is the positive pole
and the workpiece is the negative pole of the welding arc (reverse
polarity).

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


(Tip : DCEN (DCSP) for E-7016 is wrong)

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


 Double-welded joint – A joint that is welded from both sides.
 Filler metal – The metal or alloy to be added in making a welded,
brazed, or soldered joint.
 Fillet weld – A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining
two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint,
tee joint, or corner joint.
 Groove weld – A weld made in a groove formed within a single
member or in the groove between two members to be joined.
 Heat affected zone – That portion of the base metal which has not
been melted, but whose mechanical properties or microstructures have
been altered by the heat of welding or cutting.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


 Interpass temperature – The highest temperature in the weld joint
immediately prior to welding, or in the case of multiple pass welds, the
highest temperature in the section of the previously deposited weld
metal, immediately before the next pass is started.
 Oscillation – For a machine or automatic process, an alternating
motion relative to the direction of travel of welding.
 Overlay, corrosion resistance weld metal – Deposition of one or more
layers of weld metal to the surface of a base material in an effort to
improve the corrosion resistance properties of the surface. This would
be applied at a level above the minimum design thickness as a
nonstructural component of the overall wall thickness.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


 Overlay, hard facing weld metal – Deposition of one or more layers of
weld metal to the surface of a base material in an effort to improve
the wear resistance properties of the surface. This would be applied at
a level above the minimum design thickness as a nonstructural
component of the overall wall thickness.
 Peening – The mechanical working of metals using impact blows.
 Preheat Maintenance – Practice of maintaining the minimum specified
preheat temperature, or some specified higher temperature for some
required time interval after welding or thermal spraying is finished or
until post weld heat treatment is initiated.
 Preheating – The application of heat to the base metal immediately
before a welding or cutting operation to achieve a specified minimum
preheat temperature.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


 Stringer bead – A weld bead formed without appreciable weaving.
 Weave bead – For a manual or semiautomatic process, a weld bead
formed using weaving.
 Weaving – A welding technique in which the energy source is
oscillated transversely as it progresses along the weld path.
 Welding, automatic – Welding with equipment which performs the
welding operation without adjustment of the controls by a welding
operator. The equipment may or may not perform the loading and
unloading of the work.
 Welding, machine – Welding with equipment that has controls that
are manually adjusted by the welding operator in response to visual
observation of the welding, with the torch, gun, or electrode holder
held by a mechanical device.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing


 Welding, manual – Welding wherein the entire welding operation is
performed and controlled by hand.
 Welding, semiautomatic arc – Arc welding with equipment which
controls only the filler metal feed. The advance of the welding is
manually controlled.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Definitions (QW/QB-492)

Definitions of common terms relating to welding/brazing

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)


 GTAW is a welding process wherein coalescence is produced by
heating with an arc between a tungsten electrode and the work.

 GTAW Advantages
• Works well with thin metals
• Welds have very few discontinuities

 GTAW Disadvantages
• Poor Speed and high cost

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

 GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding)

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)


 SMAW is a manual welding process in which the heat for welding is
generated by an arc established between a coated consumable
electrode and the work.

 The shielding can be obtained from combustion and decomposition of


the flux covering.

 Additional shielding is supplied for the molten metal in the weld


puddle by a covering of molten flux called slag.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)

 SMAW Advantages
• Portable equipment (No facilities to supply shielding gas is
required)
• Works well in difficult positions
• Usable on a wide variety of materials

 SMAW Disadvantages
• Fixed lengths on electrode
• Additional cleaning for slag removal
• Slower than other processes

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

 SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding)

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding, MIG Welding) / FCAW (Flux Cored
Arc Welding)

 GMAW is a arc welding process which produces coalescence metals by


heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal
(Consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained entirely
from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.

 FCAW is a arc welding process which produces coalescence metals by


heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal
(Consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is supplied by a flux
contained within a tubular electrode. Additional shielding may be
provided from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

GMAW/FCAW

 Advantages
• Continuous feed of filler metal (high speed welding)

 Disadvantages
• Welding equipment in so complex
• Electrode holder should be close to the work
• More susceptible to cracking in hardenable steels
• Poor impact value

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
Typical Metal Transfer Mode

 Spray Arc Mode


• The metal is transferred from the end of the electrode wire to the
puddle in an axial stream of fine droplets.
• The sizes of droplets vary, but the maximum diameter is less than
the electrode diameter.
• Argon or Argon rich gas are generally used for shielding gas.

 Globular Arc Mode


• Formation of a relatively large drop of molten metal at the end of
the tapered electrode wire.
• The drop forms at the end of the electrode wire until the force of
gravity overcomes the surface tension of the molten drop, at
which time the drop falls into the weld puddle.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

Typical Metal Transfer Mode

 Globular Arc Mode cont’d


• All types of shielding gases may be used.
• If overhead welding were attempted using globular transfer, the
molten electrode metal would fall down into the electrode holder
nozzle.

 Short-circuiting Transfer
• Metal transfer is which molten metal from a consumable electrode
is deposited during repeated short circuits.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

 GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding)

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

 FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding)

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

 Parts of A Weld

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX

 Parts of A Weld

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Weld Size

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Weld Size

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Penetration

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Penetration

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Fusion
 Complete Fusion

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Fusion
 Incomplete Fusion

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Weld Flaws

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Weld Flaws

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Processes addressed by Section IX
 Weld Flaws

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article I – Welding General Requirements

 QW-100.3
WPS, PQR, W(O)PQ made in accordance with the requirements of the
1962 Edition or any later Edition of Section IX may be used in any
construction built to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or the
ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping.

 QW-103.2
Each manufacturer or contractor shall maintain a record of the results
obtained in welding procedure and welder and welding operator
performance qualifications. These records shall be certified by the
manufacturer or contractor and shall be accessible to the AI.

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article I – Welding General Requirements

 QW-120 Test Positions for Groove Welds

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article I – Welding General Requirements
 QW-153 Acceptance Criteria – Tension Test
Minimum values for procedure qualification are provided under the
column heading “Minimum Specified Tensile” of table QW/QB-422.
In order to pass the tension test, the specimen shall have a tensile
strength that is not less than :
(a) the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal; or
(b) the minimum specified tensile strength of the weaker of the two;
or
(c) if the specimen breaks in the base metal outside of the weld or
weld interface, the test shall be accepted as meeting the requirements,
provided the strength is not more than 5% below the minimum
specified tensile strength of the base metal

☞ In case of material of SA-516 Gr.70 and if the specimen was broken


in the base metal, the ultimate unit stress calculated by area and
ultimate total load shall be over 70,000psi × 0.95 = 66,500psi, if the
specimen was broken in the weld, the ultimate unit stress shall be over
70,000psi.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article I – Welding General Requirements

 QW-163 Acceptance Criteria – Bend test


The guided-bend test specimens shall have no open discontinuity in
the weld or HAZ exceeding 1/8 inch, measured in any direction on the
convex surface of the specimen after bending.

For corrosion-resistant weld overlay cladding, no open discontinuity


exceeding 1/16 inch, measured in any direction, shall be permitted in
the cladding, and no open discontinuity exceeding 1/8 inch shall be
permitted along the approximate weld interface.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Responsibilities

 Authorized Inspector

 Before Fabrication
• WPS/PQR comply with ASME Sec. IX.
• Welders and Welding Operators are properly qualified.

 During Fabrication
• All welding is done within the parameters of the WPS.
• Welder qualification limits are not exceeded or have not expired.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Responsibilities

 Manufacturer

 Qualification of Procedures
• Establish a QC Program to control qualifications.
• Prepare the written WPS addressing all required variables for each
process.
• Assure metallurgical compatibility of the filler metal and the base
metal.
• Prepare and certify a PQR based on data recorded during the
welding and testing of the coupon.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Responsibilities

 Manufacturer cont’d

 Qualification of Welders
• Establish a QC Program to control welder’s qualification.
• Qualify each welder with each process that welder is to use.
• Weld the test coupon in accordance with a WPS.
• Control and supervise welding of the coupon.
• Maintain identification of welders.
• Document Welders qualifications such as WPQ, table of certified
welder list.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 A WPS is a written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide


direction for making production welds.

 Completed WPS shall describe all of the essential, nonessential, and, when
required, supplementary essential variables.

• Essential variables are those in which a change, as described in the


specific variables, is considered to affect the mechanical properties of
weldment, and shall require requalification of the WPS.

• Supplementary essential variables are required for metals for which


other Sections to specify impact tests.
(If impact test is not required, supplementary essential variables are not
be considered as a nonessential variables. In this case this
supplementary essential variables are not needed to be recorded in
WPS)

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Steps of Preparing PQR/WPS
<Sec.IX, QW-201, Sec VIII-1, UW-28>
Welding
Draft WPS
parameters

Preparation of
QW-463
Test Coupon

Full supervision Welding Welding Data

Preparation of
QW-463
Test Specimen

Mechanical Test Legends


Test Test Result
(Tension, Bend etc.)
: May use subcontractor
Record on PQR : Must be done by Manufacturer

Certification Acceptance Criteria


Of PQR (QW-150,160,170,180)

Essential Variables
Qualification Supplement Essential Variables
Of WPS Non-essential variables
other information

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

If “x” is located only in the supplementary essential variables, when impact test is
not required, these variables are not considered as nonessential variables.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS/PQR

• Nonessential variables are those in which a change, as described in the


specific variables, may be made in the WPS without requalification.
 The special process essential variables for corrosion-resistant and hard-
surfacing weld metal overlays are as indicated in the tables for the specified
process.
(It means that separate PQR/WPS in accordance with QW-252.1/253.1……..
264.1 plus QW-453 for overlay shall be prepared. The PQR/WPS which were
prepared in accordance with QW-252/253…….264 shall not be used for
overlay process)

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 Manufacturer’s or Contractor’s Responsibility


• Each manufacturer and contractor shall qualify the WPS by the welding
of test coupons and the testing of specimens, and the recording of the
welding data and test results in PQR.
• The weldments to be tested for qualification of procedures shall be
welded either by direct employees or by individuals engaged by
contract for their services as welders under the full supervision and
control of the manufacturer or contractor.
• Supervision and control of welding of the test weldments performed by
another organization is not permitted.
• If in an organization effective operational control of welding
procedure qualification for two or more companies of different names
exists, the companies involved shall describe in their Quality Control
System/Quality Assurance Program. In this case separate welding
procedure qualifications are not required.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 Manufacturer’s or Contractor’s Responsibility


• If in an organization effective operational control of welding
procedure qualification for two or more companies of different names
exists, the companies involved shall describe in their Quality Control
System/Quality Assurance Program. In this case separate welding
procedure qualifications are not required.
• When a manufacturer is acquired by a new owner, the PQRs and WPSs
may be used by the new owner without requalification, provided all of
the following are met :
(1) the new owner takes responsibility for the WPSs and PQRs.
(2) the WPSs reflect the name of the new owner.
(3) the Quality Control System/Quality Assurance Program reflects the
source of the PQRs as being from the former manufacturer or
contractor.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 Variables are defined for each process in QW-250 through QW-280


• Each variable shall be addressed, do not state N/A but facts, yes, no,
none or any other meaningful definition.

 Changes to WPS’s are allowed, however


• Changes in essential and supplementary essential variables require
requalification and a new WPS.
• Changes in nonessential variables can be made without requalification,
need to be documented and the WPS to be revised.

 A WPS is a written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide


direction for making production welds.
 A WPS used for Code production welding shall be available for reference
and review by the AI at the fabrication site.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 Completion of a WPS

• All variables to be addressed.

• Do not state single figures but always ranges.

• Ranges should be as broad as possible but adequate for the process.

• Joint design (nonessential) : do not show only one joint design but
either make reference to joints as shown on workshop drawings or
attach a separate sheet showing a variety of joints which can be used
for the process.

• QW – 424 : Base metal used for procedure qualification test coupon


versus range of base metals qualified.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS
 Cont’d completion of a WPS
 No limitation in positions : qualification in one position qualifies the
procedure ( but not the welder !! ) for all (meaningful) positions,

 QW-461 Positions of groove (G) and fillet (F) welds in plate and pipe
• 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G for plate groove welds
flat - horizontal - vertical - overhead

• 1G, 2G, 5G, 6G for pipe groove welds


flat - horizontal - multiple

• 1F, 2F, 3F, 4F for plate fillet welds


flat - horizontal - vertical - overhead

• 1F, 2F, 2FR, 4F, 5F for pipe fillet welds


flat -- horizontal - horizontal rotated - overhead - multiple

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 Cont’d completion of a WPS

 Thickness ranges : “T“ for base metal, “t“ for deposited weld metal
• Thickness ranges to be carefully considered when GMAW short
circuiting arc welding is employed (GMAW, short circuiting arc
welding, t<13mm => “T” qualified shall be below 1.1 times of test
coupon thickness.

 Preheat and postweld heat treatment temperatures to be considered.


Preheat decrease of 55 °C become an essential variable.
The meaning of preheat maintenance is maintenance preheat
upon completion of welding prior to any required postweld heat
treatment.

 Electrical characteristics and Technique


• Applicable variables for the process to be considered

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Welding Procedure Specifications - WPS

 Combination of WPS’s
 More than one WPS having different variables may be used in a single
production joint.
• Each WPS may include one or a combination of processes, filler metals
or other variables.
• Range of the deposited weld metal thickness qualified for each process
to be considered.

 More than one process may be recorded in one WPS


• All variables associated with each process to be applied and addressed.
• Base metal and deposited weld metal thickness limits for each process
to be applied.

 Format of the WPS : can be any format, as long as any variable for the
process is included or referenced.
• Form QW-482 has been provided as a guide for the WPS .

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

 PQR is a record of welding data used to weld a test coupon.

 It is a record of variables recorded during the welding of the test coupons.

 PQR shall document all essential and, when required, all supplementary
 essential variables for each welding process.

 Nonessential variables may be recorded (option).

 All variables are actual values used during welding of the test coupon.

 Changes to a PQR are not permitted as it is a record of what happened during a


particular welding test, except for editorial corrections and addenda.

 All changes require re-qualification (except editorial and addenda) and


recertification.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

 Thickness ranges of test coupons and number of test specimen

 QW-451.1 Number of tension and transverse bend tests


• Table generally to be used

 QW-451.2 Number of tension and longitudinal bend tests


• Table may be used in lieu of transverse bend tests for testing weld
metal or base metal combinations, which differ markedly in bending
properties between either two base metals or the weld metal and the
base metal.

 QW-451.3 Number of fillet weld tests


• macro test specimen required, however
• Groove tests qualify all fillet sizes on all base metal thicknesses and all
diameter

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

 QW-462 Dimensions of test specimen for tension, bend and impact test
specimen

 QW-463 + QW-464 Location of test specimen in test plates

 QW-466 to QW-469 Dimensions of test jigs

 QW-470 Etching processes and reagents


• Specifies etching solutions for ferrous and nonferrous metals

 Special testing requirements for P-No 11 base material, Corrosion –


Resistant Weld Metal, Electron and Laser Beam Welding, Hard-facing Weld
Metal Overlay, Joining of Composite (clad metals), Applied Linings and
Flash welding

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

 One PQR may support a number of WPS’s


or
One WPS may require a number of PQR’s

 Examples
• 1 G plate PQR support WPS’s for the F, V, H, and O position on plate
or pipe within all other essential variables.
• One WPS with thickness range from 1.5 mm to 32.0 mm is supported
by two PQR’s with thickness ranges from 1.5 through 5.0 mm and
from 5.0mm through 32.0 mm.
• One WPS with a combination of processes ( 2 or more ) is supported
by 2 or more PQR’s with single process qualifications within all other
essential variables.
• One PQR with a combination of processes ( 2 or more ) support WPS’s
with single processes within all other essential variables.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

 Some notable requirements

• Qualification in one position qualifies the procedure for all positions.

• A welder making and passing the WPS qualification test is qualified with
the limits for positions specified in QW-303.

• Qualification in plate also qualifies for pipe welding and vice versa.
Diameter limits for welder performance qualification to be considered

• Dissimilar base metal thickness


• More than one procedure qualification may be required to qualify for
some dissimilar thickness combinations (QW-202.4).

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

 The PQR shall be certified by the manufacturer.


• Is intended as the verification that the information on the PQR is a true
record of variables used during welding of the test coupon and that the
mechanical / chemical tests are in compliance with Code requirements.

 Form QW-483 has been provided as a guide for the PQR, however, any other
format may be used as long as every essential and, when required,
supplementary essential variable for the process is included.

WORKSHOP – COMPLETION OF WPS’s + PQR’s

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article II - Procedure Qualification Record - PQR

Weldability Performance

Not possible to be Possible to be


found by NDE found by NDE

Approval of weldability Approval of welder


(Mechanical/Chemical) performance

Procedure Qualification Performance Qualification

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

 General Issues

• Article lists the welding processes with the essential variables that apply
to welder and welding operator performance qualifications.

• Welder qualification is limited by essential variables given for each


process.

• Variables are listed in QW-350 / QW-360 and defined in Article IV.

• Welder may be qualified by mechanical tests or by radiography of a test


coupon or radiography of his initial production welding (The welder
may be qualified by the production welding : minimum 6 inch (150mm)
length of the first production weld. This may be applied in the field).

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Welding Steps of Welder/welding Operator Qualification
(Sec IX, QW-300.2, Sec VIII-1, UW-29; Sec. I, PW-28)
Qualified WPS

Preparation of
QW-463
Test Coupon

Full supervision Welding Welding Data

Preparation of
Test Specimen

Mechanical Test Legends


Test Test Result
NDE
: May use subcontractor
Record on WPQR : Must be done by Manufacturer

Certification of Acceptance Criteria


Welder/welding (QW-160,180 & 190)
Operator

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

 General Issues

• Manufacturer is responsible for conducting tests to qualify the


performance of a welder in accordance with a qualified WPS.

• If in an organization effective operational control of the welder


performance qualification for two or more companies of different
names exists, the companies involved shall describe in their Quality
Control System.
In this case requalification of welders and welding operators within the
companies of such an organization will not be required.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

 General Issues

• When a manufacturer is acquired by a new owner, the WPQs


may be used by the new owner without requalification,
provided all of the following are met :
(1) the new owner takes responsibility for the WPQs
(2) the WPQs reflect the name of the new owner
(3) the Quality Control System/Quality Assurance Program
reflects the source of the WPQs as being from the former
manufacturer or contractor

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
 General Issues cont’d

• Responsibility cannot be delegated to another organisation, however


• Preparation of test coupon, test specimen, destructive and non-
destructive tests can be subcontracted.

• The welder who has welded a WPS qualification test coupon is


qualified within the limits of the performance qualifications for that
process.

• Each welder shall be assigned an identifying number which shall be


used to identify the work of that welder.

• The record of the welder performance qualification (WPQ) tests shall


include the essential variables, the type of test and test results and the
ranges qualified.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
 Welders who are not the employee of the manufacturer may be
permitted provided :

• All code construction is the responsibility of the manufacturer.


• All welding shall be performed in accordance with the
manufacturer’s WPS which have been qualified by the
manufacturer in accordance with the requirements of Section IX.
• The manufacturer has qualified all the welders.
• Complete and exclusive administrative and technical supervision
for the welders shall be performed by manufacturer.

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
 Type of tests required
 Type and number of test specimen required for mechanical
testing shall be in accordance with QW-452
• Normally visual examination and 2 bend tests required
• When radiography: minimum length of test coupon shall be
150 mm and if pipe: it shall include the entire weld
circumference
(If test coupon size for welder qualification is NPS 0.5inch (OD
21.34mm, 3 Coupons are required for satisfaction of min. length)

• Test coupon and specimen to be in accordance with QW-463

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

 Special Processes QW-360 and QW-380


 Requirements and tests on special processes
 Electron beam, laser beam and friction welding
 Corrosion resistant and hard-facing weld metal overlay
 Joining of clad material
 Resistance and flash welding operator qualification

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
 Combination of welding processes
 Welder may be qualified by either
• Making tests with each individual process
or
• With a combination of welding processes in a single test coupon
Limits of deposited weld metal carefully to be considered

 A welder qualified in combination on a single test coupon is


qualified to weld in production within his limits of qualification
with each specific process.

 Welding variables
• are summarized for each process in QW-416

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification
 Limits of qualified positions and diameters
• Table QW-461.9 defines the range of positions and diameters qualified
for production groove and fillet welds based on their qualification tests
made in either plate, pipe, groove or fillet welds.

• Position of qualification test weld is decisive for position and type


of weld in production.

• Diameter limits for pipe production welds to be considered.

• Welders who pass the required tests for groove welds shall also be
qualified to make fillet welds in all thicknesses and pipe diameters
of any size within the limits of variables given in QW-350 / QW-360.

• Fillet weld qualifications are restricted to thickness of material, size


of fillet weld and diameter of pipe.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III – Welding Performance Qualification
 Qualification thickness limits and test specimen
 QW-452.1(a) Groove weld – thickness limits and test specimen
• 3 groups ( < 10mm, 10-19mm, >19mm )
• except for special positions 2 bend tests only required

 QW-452.1(b) Groove weld - thickness of weld metal qualified


• 2 groups only ( all, >13mm )
• either 2t or maximum to be welded

 QW-452.3 Groove weld diameter limits


• based on outside diameter of test coupon
• 3 groups ( < 25mm, 25-73mm, >73mm )

 QW-452.4 to QW-452.6 Fillet weld tests


• Limits on diameter and thicknesses, however, any groove weld
qualifies all base material thicknesses, fillet sizes and diameter

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III – Welding Performance Qualification

 Important tables
QW - 423 : Alternate base metals for welder qualification

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III – Welding Performance Qualification

 Cont’d Alternate base metals for welder qualification

• Metals used for welder qualification conforming to national or


international standards or specifications may be considered as
having the same P as an assigned metal provided it meets the
mechanical and chemical requirements of the assigned metal.

• The base metal specification and corresponding P Number shall


be recorded on the qualification record.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

 Expiration of qualification
• Performance qualification is affected when one of the following
conditions occur.
• When he has not welded with a process during a period of 6
month or more, his qualification for that process expire.
• Whenever a change is made in one or more essential variables.
• When there is specific reason to question his ability to make welds
that meet the specification.

 Renewal of qualification
 Renewal of qualification expired may be made for any process by
welding a test coupon of
• Either plate or pipe, any material, thickness or diameter in any
position and by testing of the test coupon as required.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article III - Welding Performance Qualification

WORKSHOP

COMPLETION OF A WPQ

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

 QW-400 to QW-416
Variables
 QW-420 to QW 424
Material groupings
 QW-430 to QW-433
F – Numbers
 QW-440 to QW-441
Weld metal chemical composition
 QW-450 to QW-452
Procedure and performance qualification
limits and test specimen requirements
 QW-460 to QW-469 Graphics, test positions, diameter limitations
for performance qualification, dimensions
and locations of test specimen
 QW-470 to QW-473 Etching – processes and reagents
 QW-490 to QW-492 Definitions

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

 QW-400 to QW-416 Variables

 Section “Variables” is covering all aspects of welding processes.


• Joints, base and filler metal, positions, preheat, postweld heat
treatment, gas, electrical characteristics and technique.
However
Do NOT read individual paragraphs on their own but in conjunction with
procedure or personnel qualification requirements only.

 Three Types of Variables


• Essential Variables - affect mechanical properties or ability of a welder.
• Supplementary Essential Variable - affect notch toughness properties.
• Nonessential Variable - will not affect mechanical properties.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

 QW-420 to QW 424 Material groupings

 Base metals are assigned P Numbers in table QW / QB – 422.


• P-Number : Ferrous / Nonferrous material according to base metal spec.

 Each individual P Number cover a great variety of materials in order to


reduce the number of procedure qualifications.
 When a base metal with a UNS number designation is assigned a P Number,
then a base metal listed in a different ASME material specification with the
same UNS number shall be considered that P Number whether or not these
specifications are listed in table QW/QB422.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

 QW-430 to QW-433 F – Numbers


• grouping of electrodes and welding rods
• Based on their usability characteristics
• Grouping similar to P Numbers
• Table QW-432 shows F, ASME (SFA….) and AWS (E….) numbers

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data
 QW-451 and QW-451.X shall be used for procedure qualification by groove-
weld and fillet weld (PQR/WPS).

 QW-452 and QW-452.X shall be used for performance qualification (WPQR).

 QW-453 shall be used for procedure and performance qualification by hard-


facing and corrosion resistant overlays (PQR/WPS/WPQR).

 QW-461.9 shall be used for performance qualification (WPQR).

 When applying the thickness range in the table from QW-451 to QW-453, “T” is
the base metal thickness and “t” is the weld metal thickness.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

If the size of test coupon is NPS ¾ inch, the outside diameter of this
coupon is not 0.75 inch but 1.05 inch (26.67mm).

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

If test welding for welder was performed by groove-welding, the


welder is qualified for all base metal thickness, all fillet sizes and
diameters in fillet welding.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article IV -- Welding Data

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article V – Standard Welding Procedure Specifications

 Standard Welding Procedure Specifications (SWPS’s)

• Are standardized procedure specifications for the most common processes


and materials
• Are acceptable for Code construction
• Are not permitted when impact testing is required

 Prior to use

• Specified information must be entered in the SWPS


• One groove weld test coupon shall be welded
• Coupon shall be visually examined, mechanical tested (2 bend tests) or
radiographically examined

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Article V – Standard Welding Procedure Specifications

 Form QW-485
• is a suggested form for documenting the welding conditions and test
results of the demonstration.

 Production use
• Welding shall be strict in accordance with the SWPS.
• SWPS’s may not be supplemented with PQR’s or revised.
• SWPS’s shall not be used in the same production joint together with WPS’s
qualified by the manufacturer.
• SWPS’s shall be certified by the manufacturer.

 Advantage / Disadvantage
• Less qualification testing but limited use.

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Appendices - Mandatory and Nonmandatory Requirements

 Mandatory requirements
• Appendix A – Submittal of technical enquiries to the Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Committee
• Identical as for all other Code sections
• Appendix E – Permitted SWPS’s
• Appendix F – Standard units for use in equations

 Nonmandatory requirements
• Appendix B – Welding and brazing forms
• Appendix D – P-Number listing
• Appendix G – Guidance for the use of U.S. customary and SI units

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Welding monitoring

 What should be monitored during production welding

• Use a qualified WPS


• Use a qualified Welder or Welding Operator
• Welding within the parameters of a qualified WPS
• Use only welding material described in the WPS
• Record the welder identification
• Inspect the weld for defects
• Assure required NDE is performed

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Tube-to-Tubesheet Welds

 Which methods are being used for preparing PQR/WPS and WPQR?

• Dissimilar Base metal thickness in accordance with Sec. IX QW-202.4


• Use the rules in either section III, NX-4350 or Section VIII, Div. 2, Article
F-3
• Sec. IX QW-193 and QW-288

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Tube-to-Tubesheet Welds

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Tube-to-Tubesheet Welds

 Interpretation : VIII-1-89-32
Date Issued : September 20, 1988
File Number : BC88-202

Question : Do the requirements of Section VIII, Div. 1 prohibit the


use of the rules in either Section III, Division 1, NX-4350 or Section
VIII, Division 2, Article F-3 to be used to qualify a tube-to-tubesheet
welding procedure?

Reply : No.

LR INSURANCE INC
ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
Tip : Preparation for Welder qualification

 Type of welder qualifications required in the shop

- Welders for groove and fillet welding in the plate

- Welders for groove welding for small diameter pipe

- Welding operators for automatic welding

- Welders for weld metal overlay

- Welders for tube-to-tubesheet welding

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ASME CODE TRAINING
Section IX
For more information, please contact:

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IX Rev.1, 3rd October 2011