You are on page 1of 13

Measures of national income and output

Previous (Measurement)
Next (Mecca)

Measures of national income and output are used in economics to measure a nation's
economic activity by totaling the value of goods and services produced in its economy. Simon
Kuznets developed the system of national accounting in the 1940s and 1960s. Some of the
more common measures are Gross National Product (GNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Net
National Product (NNP), and Net National Income (NNI).
These measurements are not easy to calculate accurately, for various reasons. Comparisons
between different countries, where the measures may have been based on different
calculations, may be misleading. Nevertheless, these measures are a valuable tool in assessing a
country's economic health in relation to its history, and may provide comparisons of economies
in different countries with the caveat that the methods of calculating them must be as similar
as possible.
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Overview
• 2 Gross National Product
o 2.1 Real and nominal values
o 2.2 Depreciation and Net National Product
• 3 Gross Domestic Product
o 3.1 Measuring GDP
o 3.2 Net Domestic Product
• 4 Gross National Income
o 4.1 Net National Income
• 5 GDP vs. GNP
• 6 Relationship to welfare
o 6.1 GNP
o 6.2 GDP
o 6.3 Critique by Austrian economists
• 7 Conclusion
• 8 References
• 9 External links
• 10 Credits
Attempts have been made to use these measures to assess the standard of living and the
welfare (or quality of life) of the members of different societies. This effort has serious
problems, as was noted by Kuznets. Although the standard of living can be viewed as a purely
economic measure, since a nation's production may provide great or little economic benefit to
its population, these measures are not closely correlated enough to allow them to be used
interchangeably. The prosperity of the society as a whole does not necessarily translate into
prosperity of the individuals within that society, even on a simple economic basis. The quality of
life of individuals is not a purely economic matter, but has significant psychological and
sociological components. Thus, to view the greater economic production of a nation as leading
to greater well-being of its citizens is an inadequate assumption. Human beings need more than
material wealth in order to experience happiness.

Overview
The original motivation for the development of national accounts and the systematic
measurement of employment was the need for accurate measures of aggregate economic
activity. This was made more pressing by the Great Depression and as a basis for Keynesian
macroeconomic stabilization policy and wartime economic planning. The first efforts to develop
such measures were undertaken in the late 1920s and 1930s, notably by Colin Clark. Simon
Kuznets developed the first usable models in the 1940s. Richard Stone led later contributions.
International rules for national accounting are defined by the United Nations System of
National Accounts. In Europe, the worldwide System of National Accounts has been transposed
into a European System of Accounts (ESA), which is applied by members of the European Union
and many other European countries.
National account systems provide a complete and consistent conceptual framework for
measuring the economic activity of a nation using detailed underlying measures that rely on
double-entry accounting. Such accounting makes the totals on both sides of an account equal
even though they each measure different characteristics.
There are several different ways of calculating measures of national income and output.
• The expenditure approach determines Gross National Expenditure (GNE) by summing
consumption, investment, government expenditure, and net exports.
• On the other hand, the income approach, yielding Gross National Income (GNI), and the
closely related output approach,yielding Gross National Product (GNP), can been seen as the
summation of consumption, savings, and taxation.
The three methods must yield the same results because the total expenditures on goods and
services (GNE) must by definition be equal to the value of the goods and services produced
(GNP) which must be equal to the total income paid to the factors that produced these goods
and services (GNI).
Thus, GNP = GNI = GNE by definition.
However, in practice minor differences are obtained from the various methods due to changes
in inventory levels. This is because goods in inventory have been produced (therefore included
in GNP), but not yet sold (therefore not yet included in GNE). Similar timing issues can also
cause a slight discrepancy between the value of goods produced (GNP) and the payments to
the factors that produced the goods, particularly if inputs are purchased on credit, and also
because wages are often collected after a period of production.
In the following calculations, "Gross" means that depreciation of capital stock is not subtracted
from the total value. If net investment (which is gross investment minus depreciation) is
substituted for gross investment in the equation, then the formula for net domestic product is
obtained. Consumption and investment in this equation are expenditure on final goods and
services. The exports-minus-imports part of the equation (often called "net exports") adjusts
this by subtracting the part of this expenditure not produced domestically (the imports), and
adding back in domestic area (the exports).
Gross National Product
Gross National Product (GNP) is the total value of final goods and services produced in a year by
domestically owned factors of production. Final goods are goods that are ultimately consumed
rather than used in the production of another good.
Example: A car sold to a consumer is a final good; the components such as tires sold to the car
manufacturer are not; they are intermediate goods used to make the final good. The same
tires, if sold to a consumer, would be a final good. Only final goods are included when
measuring national income. If intermediate goods were included too, this would lead to double
counting; for example, the value of the tires would be counted once when they are sold to the
car manufacturer, and again when the car is sold to the consumer.
NOTE: Only newly produced goods are counted. Transactions in existing goods, such as second-
hand cars, are not included, as these do not involve the production of new goods.
Income is counted as part of GNP according to who owns the factors of production rather than
where the production takes place.
Example: In the case of a German-owned car factory operating in the U.S., the profits from the
factory would be counted as part of German GNP rather than U.S. GNP because the capital used
in production (the factory, machinery, and so on) is German owned. The wages of the American
workers would be part of U.S. GNP, while wages of any German workers on the site would be
part of German GNP.
Real and nominal values
Nominal GNP measures the value of output during a given year using the prices prevailing
during that year. Over time, the general level of prices rise due to inflation, leading to an
increase in nominal GNP even if the volume of goods and services produced is unchanged.
Real GNP measures the value of output in two or more different years by valuing the goods and
services produced at the same prices. For example, GNP might be calculated for 2000, 2001,
and 2002 using the prices prevailing in 2002 for all of the calculations. This gives a measure of
national income which is not distorted by inflation.
Depreciation and Net National Product
Not all GNP data show the production of final goods and services—part represents output that
is set aside to maintain the nation's productive capacity. Capital goods, such as buildings and
machinery, lose value over time due to wear and tear and obsolescence.
Depreciation (also known as consumption of fixed capital) measures the amount of GNP that
must be spent on new capital goods to maintain the existing physical capital stock.
NOTE: Depreciation measures the amount of GNP that must be spent on new capital goods to
offset this effect.
Net National Product (NNP) is the total market value of all final goods and services produced by
citizens of an economy during a given period of time (Gross National Product or GNP) minus
depreciation. Net National Product can be similarly applied at a country's domestic output
level.
NNP is the amount of goods in a given year which can be consumed without reducing the
amount which can be consumed in the future. Setting part of NNP aside for investment permits
the growth of the capital stock and the consumption of more goods in the future.
NNP can also be expressed as total compensation of employees + net indirect tax paid on
current production + operating surplus.
Hence, through the income approach one defines:
• Net National Product (NNP) is GNP minus depreciation
• Net National Income (NNI) is NNP minus indirect taxes
• Personal Income (PI) is NNI minus retained earnings, corporate taxes, transfer
payments, and interest on the public debt
• Personal Disposable Income (PDI) is PI minus personal taxes, plus transfer payments
Then, in summary, one has:
• Personal savings (S) plus personal consumption (C) = personal disposable income (PDI)
• PDI plus personal taxes paid minus transfer payments received = personal income (PI)
• PI plus retained earnings plus corporate taxes plus transfer payments plus interest on
the public debt = net national income (NNI)
• NNI plus indirect taxes = net national product (NNP)
• NNP plus depreciation = gross national product (GNP)

Gross Domestic Product

Map of countries by 2007 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, April 2008).
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total value of final goods and services produced within a
country's borders in a year. GDP counts income according to where it is earned rather than who
owns the factors of production.
Example: In the above case of a German-owned car factory operating in the U.S., all of the
income from the car factory would be counted as U.S. GDP rather than German GDP.
Measuring GDP
There are two ways to measure GDP. The most common approach to measuring and
understanding GDP is the expenditure method. The other is the income method.

Expenditure method
Measured according to the expenditure method, GDP is equal to consumption + investment +
government expenditures + exports - imports, which can be written as
GDP = C + I + G + NX
where:
• C = Consumption
• I = Investments
• G = Government spending
• NX = net exports (exports minus imports)
Example 1: If an individual spends money to renovate their hotel so that occupancy rates
increase, that is private investment, but if they buy shares in a consortium to do the same thing
it is saving. The former is included when measuring GDP (in I), the latter is not. However, when
the consortium conducts the renovation the expenditure involved would be included in GDP.

Example 2: If a hotel is a private home then renovation spending would be measured as


Consumption, but if a government agency i?/s converting the hotel into an office for civil
servants the renovation spending would be measured as part of public sector spending (G).

Example 3: If the renovation involves the purchase of a chandelier from abroad, that spending
would also be counted as an increase in imports, so that NX would fall and the total GDP is
affected by the purchase. (This highlights the fact that GDP is intended to measure domestic
production rather than total consumption or spending. Spending is really a convenient means
of estimating production.)

Example 4: If a domestic producer is paid to make the chandelier for a foreign hotel, the
situation would be reversed, and the payment would be counted in NX (positively, as an
export). Again, GDP is attempting to measure production through the means of expenditure; if
the chandelier produced had been bought domestically it would have been included in the GDP
figures (in C or I) when purchased by a consumer or a business, but because it was exported it is
necessary to "correct" the amount consumed domestically to give the amount produced
domestically.
Income method
The income approach focuses on finding the total output of a nation by finding the total income
of a nation. This is acceptable, because all money spent on the production of a good—the total
value of the good—is paid to workers as income.
The main types of income that are included in this measurement are rent (the money paid to
owners of land), salaries and wages (the money paid to workers who are involved in the
production process, and those who provide the natural resources), interest (the money paid for
the use of man-made resources, such as machines used in production), and profit (the money
gained by the entrepreneur—the businessman who combines these resources to produce a
good or service).
In this income approach, GDP(I) is equal to Net Domestic Income (NDI at factor cost) + indirect
taxes + depreciation – subsidy, where Net Domestic Income (NDI) is the sum of returns of
factors of production in the society. Thus,
Net Domestic Income (NDI) = compensation of employees + net interest (credit – debit) +
corporate profits (distributed + undistributed) + proprietor’s income (self-employed + small
business) + rental income.
The difference between basic prices and final prices (those used in the expenditure calculation)
is the total taxes and subsidies that the government has levied or paid on that production. So
adding taxes less subsidies on production and imports converts GDP at factor cost to GDP(I) in
the above equation.
In calculating GDP, just as with GNP, only the price of final goods are included, not the prices of
intermediate goods used in production of final goods.
Example: The intermediate goods' selling prices for a textbook (sold in a bookstore) are as
follows: A tree company sells wood to a paper mill for $1; the paper mill sells paper to a
textbook publisher for $3; the publisher sells the book to a bookstore for $7, and the bookstore
sells the textbook for $75. Although the sum of all intermediate prices plus the selling price of
the book comes to $86, we add to GDP only the final selling price $75. The price of the "tree,"
"paper," and "book" is included in the final selling price of the textbook by the bookstore. To
include these amounts in GDP calculation would be to "double count."
Net Domestic Product
Net Domestic Product (NDP) is the equivalent application of NNP. Thus, NDP is equal to Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) minus depreciation: Net domestic product (NDP) equals the gross
domestic product (GDP) minus depreciation on a country's capital goods.
NDP = GDP – Depreciation
NDP is an estimate of how much the country has to spend to maintain the current GDP. If the
country is not able to replace the capital stock lost through depreciation, then GDP will fall. In
addition, a growing gap between GDP and NDP indicates increasing obsolescence of capital
goods, while a narrowing gap would mean that the condition of capital stock in the country is
improving.
Gross National Income
Gross national income (GNI) is GDP less net taxes on production and imports, less
compensation of employees and property income payable to the rest of the world plus the
corresponding items receivable from the rest of the world. It includes wages, rents, interest,
and profits, not only in the form of cash payments, but as income from contributions made by
employers to pension funds, income of the self-employed, and undistributed business profits.
In other words, Gross national income (GNI) is GDP less primary incomes payable to non-
resident units plus primary incomes receivable from non-resident units. From this point of view,
GNP is the better indicator of a country’s economic trend.
However, calculating the real GDP growth allows economists to determine if production
increased or decreased, regardless of changes in the purchasing power of the currency.
An alternative approach to measuring GNI at market prices is as the aggregate value of the
balances of gross primary incomes for all sectors.
NOTE: GNI is identical to gross national product (GNP) as, generally, used previously in national
accounts and we may formulate basic principle of fundamental national accounting:
The value of total output equals the value of total income
This makes another very important point:
Real income cannot be increased without producing more, redistributing income does nothing
to increase the amount of wealth available at any point in time (Mings and Marlin 2000).

Net National Income


Net National Income (NNI) can be defined as the Net National Product (NNP) minus indirect
taxes. Net National Income encompasses the income of households, businesses, and the
government. It can be expressed as:
NNI = C + I + G + (NX) + net foreign factor income - indirect taxes - depreciation
Where again:
• C = Consumption
• I = Investments
• G = Government spending
• NX = net exports (exports minus imports)

GDP vs. GNP


To convert from GDP to GNP you must add factor input payments to foreigners that correspond
to goods and services produced in the domestic country using the factor inputs supplied by
foreigners.
To convert from GNP to GDP one must subtract factor income receipts from foreigners that
correspond to goods and services produced abroad using factor inputs supplied by domestic
sources.
NOTE: GDP is a better measure of the state of production in the short term. GNP is a better
when analyzing sources and uses of income on a longer term basis.
Relationship to welfare
These measures of national economic activity have often been used as indicators of the welfare
or quality of life of citizens in different countries.
GNP
GNP per person is often used as a measure of people's welfare. Countries with higher GNP
often score highly on other measures of welfare, such as life expectancy. However, there are
serious limitations to the usefulness of GNP as such a measure:
• Measures of GNP typically exclude unpaid economic activity, most importantly domestic
work such as childcare. This can lead to distortions; for example, a paid childminder's income
will contribute to GNP, whereas an unpaid mother's time spent caring for her children will not,
even though they are both carrying out the same activity.
• GNP takes no account of the inputs used to produce the output. For example, if
everyone worked for twice the number of hours, then GNP might roughly double, but this does
not necessarily mean that workers are better off as they would have less leisure time. Similarly,
the impact of economic activity on the environment is not directly taken into account in
calculating GNP.

CIA World Factbook 2007 figures of total nominal GDP (top) compared to Purchasing power
parity (PPP)-adjusted GDP (bottom).
• Comparison of GNP from one country to another may be distorted by movements in
exchange rates. Measuring national income at purchasing power parity (PPP) can help to
overcome this problem. The PPP theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two
currencies to equalize their purchasing power. Developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920, it is based
on the law of one price which states that, in an ideally efficient market, identical goods should
have only one price.

GDP
Simon Kuznets, the inventor of the GDP, had this to say in his very first report to the U.S.
Congress in 1934:
…the welfare of a nation [can] scarcely be inferred from a measure of national income…
(Kuznets 1934).
In 1962, Kuznets stated:
Distinctions must be kept in mind between quantity and quality of growth, between costs and
returns, and between the short and long run. Goals for more growth should specify more
growth of what and for what (Kuznets 1962).
Kuznets’ own uncertainty about GDP being a good measure of national welfare is well
founded.The standard of living is a measure of economic welfare. It generally refers to the
availability of scarce goods and services, usually measured by per capita income or per capita
consumption, calculated in constant dollars, to satisfy wants rather than needs.
Because the well-being that living standards are supposed to measure is an individual matter,
per capita availability of goods and services in a country is a measure of general welfare only if
the goods and services are distributed fairly evenly among people. Besides, just as Kuznets
hinted, improvement in standard of living can result from improvements in economic factors
such as productivity or per capita real economic growth, income distribution and availability of
public services, and non-economic factors, such as protection against unsafe working
conditions, clean environment, low crime rate, and so forth.

Disadvantage
The major disadvantage of using GDP as an indicator of standard of living is that it is not, strictly
speaking, a measure of standard of living, which can be generally defined as "the quality and
quantity of goods and services available to people, and the way these goods and services are
distributed within a population."
GDP does not distinguish between consumer and capital goods; it does not take income
distribution into account; it does not take account of differences in the economic goods and
services that are not measured in GDP at all; it is subject to the vagaries of translating income
measures into a common currency and it fails to take into account differences of tastes among
nations.

World GDP per capita (in 1990 Geary-Khamis dollars) changed very little for most of human
history before the industrial revolution. (Note the empty areas mean no data, not very low
levels. There are data for the years 1, 1000, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1820, 1900, and 2003.)

Advantage
All these items notwithstanding, GDP per capita is often used as an indicator of standard of
living in an economy, the rationale being that all citizens benefit from their country's increased
economic production.
The major advantages to using GDP per capita as an indicator of standard of living are that it is
measured frequently, widely, and consistently; frequently in that most countries provide
information on GDP on a quarterly basis (which allows trends to be spotted quickly), widely in
that some measure of GDP is available for practically every country in the world (allowing crude
comparisons between the standard of living in different countries), and consistently in that the
technical definitions used within GDP are relatively consistent between countries (so there can
be confidence that the same thing is being measured in each country).
Critique by Austrian economists
Austrian economists are critical of the basic idea of attempting to quantify national output.
Frank Shostak (2001) quotes Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises:
The attempt to determine in money the wealth of a nation or the whole mankind are as childish
as the mystic efforts to solve the riddles of the universe by worrying about the dimension of the
pyramid of Cheops.
Shostak elaborated in his own criticism:
The GDP framework cannot tell us whether final goods and services that were produced during
a particular period of time are a reflection of real wealth expansion, or a reflection of capital
consumption. … For instance, if a government embarks on the building of a pyramid, which
adds absolutely nothing to the well-being of individuals, the GDP framework will regard this as
economic growth. In reality, however, the building of the pyramid will divert real funding from
wealth-generating activities, thereby stifling the production of wealth (Shostak 2001).

Conclusion
Various national accounting formulas for GDP, GNP, and GNI may now
be summarized here:
• GDP = C + I + G + (X - M)
• GNP = C + I + G + (X - M) + NR
• GNI = C + I + G + (X - M) + NR - CC – IBT.
Where,
C = Personal consumption expenditures;
I = Gross private domestic investment;
G = Government consumption expenditures;
X = Net exports of goods and services;
M = Net imports of goods and services;
NR = Net income from assets abroad;
CC = Consumption of fixed capital;
IBT = Indirect business taxes
These mea sures are valuable tools in assessing the state of a nation's economy. However, using
these strictly economic statistics (GNP, GDP) as attempts to capture the standard of living
trends and their mapping in any particular country, has serious problems. Even more
problematic is their use in assessing quality of life or "well-being" of the citizens, which is far
from a purely economic measure.
There are two reasons why these economic statistics tell little or nothing about the well-being
of the society, even if taken on a per capita basis. True, we can infer that if GDP (or GNP) per
capita series in constant dollars grows within the short period of years, the standard of living
may increase as well; but that is all we can say. As the Austrian economist Frank Shostak stated,
as noted above, if any government starts building pyramids, GDP will be growing, yet—as the
pyramids have no use for anybody—the standard of living will not (Shostak 2001).
The other reason is that we cannot compare or statistically infer anything regarding two or
more environments that are independent from each other. In this case, on the one hand is the
economy, and on the other is sociology combined with psychology. While there are factors that
affect both, there is not a correlation, let alone a causal relationship, between them.
For example, the distribution of income, not just the aggregate or per capita average, is
important in determining the standard of living and sense of well-being of individuals within the
country.
Example 1: Imagine an oil-rich developing country where all the monetary growth (mapped by
GDP, GNP per capita, and so forth) goes to a ruling clique and virtually nothing to the rest of the
society. There, although the GDP per capita may increase, most of the society’s expectations
and dreams of a better life are shattered and the coefficient of “well-being” (which is based on
“feeling good”) may actually decrease.
Example 2: In Eastern Europe under the Communist regimes everybody, with the exception of a
few elites, was equally poor (no matter what job they did), yet the mood, and to large extent
even their expression of being content with the situation, and morality (though not necessarily
ethics) were quite high. However, once the “democratic” turnaround, propelled by the old
Communist constitution, gave rise to the new class of nouveau riche (namely old Communist
apparatchiks who acquired state property because there was nothing in the constitution to
prevent them) the rest of society, still as poor as before, experienced a drastic downturn of
“mood” and thus, sense of “well-being,” even though the GDP and such measures kept rising.
This can be explained by the fact that the income distribution (mapped by the Gini Index)
showed incredibly high social stratification which, in Europe, historically has led to the society's
doldrums (Karasek 2005).
Nevertheless, even in the strictly economic sphere, these measures of national income and
output can serve their purpose—comparing economic trends within its own country’s history,
or with other countries’ trends; provide short-term forecasting, and so forth—only under
specific conditions. These conditions require the following:
• The definition of each of the statistical characteristics (measures) must be kept constant
over a long period of time (ideally not changed at all throughout the society’s history). With
regards to comparison with other countries, the problem of considerably different basic
definitions, due to political or other “societal” considerations, should be looked for, Thus, for
example:
Using Marxist principles, those countries sometimes exclude from aggregate output the value
of a wide range of services, such as government administration and transportation. Attention is
instead concentrated on output of goods. The exclusion understates GNP and influences
planning, which tend to neglect transport, distribution and services. Aggregate growth rates are
overstated since productivity increases more rapidly in the (counter) goods-producing sectors
than in neglected service sectors (Herrick and Kindleberger 1983).
• In analysis of historical trends, comparisons with other countrys' trends and, above all,
modeling and forecasts, work only with constant data series. This means that inflation or
deflation must be left out of all the data-series (Karasek 1988: 36, 73-74, 82).
• Still a significant problem remains with regard to the question of comparison of the
standards of living among several countries. Even though we have characteristics, such as
Personal Disposable Income (PDI) computed for an individual country’s currency, the official
exchange rates are not a sufficient equalizer. We have to go through the “typical consumers’
baskets” of the needs of an individual (or a household) that have to be bought in a certain
period (week or month). These “baskets” represent the cost of living and have to be compared
with personal (or household) income for the same period. Then and only then we can have a
more precise international comparison of living standards for the given countries.
• When using various quantitative data-series (monetary, physical, and so forth) for
statistical “massaging” and modeling, the “technique of transformation of absolute values into
growth rates” has proved to yield the best and most statistically credible result (Karasek 1988:
33, 73-75).
To conclude the almost impossible task of international comparisons of income and output
statistics, the warning of Oskar Morgensternmust also be heeded:
10 to 30 percent error can be expected in any real numerical (economic) datum (Morgenstern
1963: Ch. 6, fn. 14).

References
• Cobb, Clifford, Ted Halstead, and Jonathan Rowe. 1995. If the GDP is up, why is America
down? The Atlantic Monthly. 276(4): 59-78. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
• Herrick, Bruce, and Charles P. Kindleberger. 1983. Economic Development. McGraw-Hill
Book Co. ISBN 0070345848.
• Karasek, Mirek. 2005. Institutional and Political Challenges and Opportunities for
Integration in Central Asia. CAG Portal Forum 2005. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
• Karasek, Mirek, Waddah K. Alem, and Wasfy B. Iskander. 1988. Socio-Economic
Modelling & Forecasting in Lesser Developed Countries. London: The Book Guild Ltd. ISBN
0863322204.
• Kuznets, Simon. 1934. National Income, 1929-1932. 73rd US Congress, 2d session.
Senate document no. 124, 7. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
• Kuznets, Simon. 1948. Discussion of the new Department of Commerce Income Series;
National Income: A new version. The Review of Economics and Statistics. XXX(3): 151-179.
• Kuznets, Simon. 1956. Quantitative Aspects of the Economic Growth of Nations. I. Levels
and Variability of Rates of Growth. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 5: 1-94.
• Kuznets, Simon. 1962. How To Judge Quality. The New Republic.
• Kuznets, Simon. 1966. Modern Economic Growth Rate Structure and Spread. New
Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
• Kuznets, Simon. 1971. Economic Growth of Nations: Total Output and Production
Structure. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674227808.
• Mings, Turley, and Matthew Marlin. 2000. The Study of Economics: Principles, Concepts,
and Applications, 6th ed. Dushkin/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0073662445.
• Morgenstern, O. 1963. On the Accuracy of Economic Observations. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691003513.
• Shostak, Frank. 2001. What is up with the GDP? Von Mises Institute Papers. Retrieved
December 10, 2008.
External links
All links retrieved September 11, 2018.
• Australian Bureau of Statistics Manual on GDP measurement
• Bureau of Economic Analysis: Official United States GDP data
• Output and Inflation: Are We Mismeasuring Them? The "CPI Inflation" and "Chain-
Weight GDP" Debates
• Portal for historical statistics
• What's wrong with the GDP?
Credits
New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in
accordance with New World Encyclopediastandards. This article abides by terms of the Creative
Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper
attribution. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World
Encyclopediacontributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.
To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier
contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:
• Measures_of_national_income_and_output history
• Gross_domestic_product history
• Gross_National_Income history
• Net_National_Product history
• Net_National_Income history
• Net_domestic_product history
• National_accounts history
The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia:
• History of "Measures of national income and output"

Taken from the website:


http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Measures_of_national_income_and_output