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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter explains about the related theories used during the analysis of

the data. The first Felicity Condition, Interpersonal meaning and Previous Study.

A. Theoretical Review

1. Interpesonal Meaning

Schneider (2003: 54) said interpersonal meaning is “I consider it

possible” togheter with “an invitation to the hearer to confirm the

assessment”. Now the same modality is expressed a number of times in

the aboveutterance and “the effect is cumulative”. The same applies to

interpersonal pattern in longer stretches of discourse. Martin and Rose

talk about attitudinal meanings “in the manner of a musical prosody”.

For example, some texts such as acts tend to have little attitude,

graduation and heteroglossia, which personal narratives, which tent to

invite the sharing of feelings, bring in other voices and raise and lower

the volume by means of graduation devices in order to keep the

listener/reader interested (Martin and Rose 2003: 55).

Dolly (2006:69) said interpersonal meaning deals with fact that

language is used to accomplish different intentions. As we’ve already

stated above, utterances are not only to inform, utterances are used to

perform according to the speake’r purpose.


Halliday (2009:31) said points out that the interpersonal meaning can be

expressed by mood, modality and key. Later, he added pronoun system,

attitudinal modifier and rhythmic features of words. Interpersonal

meaning is construed through for building identities and forging

relatioships, concepts which are largely subjective. This means that

cannot really be judged in terms of truth values.

Eggins (2004:25) found that the link between language systems and the

choice made by the speaker in the exchange enable us to see speakers

making meaning about interpersonal: the extent of their intimacy, their

level of familiarity with each other and their attitudes and judgments In

a speech, to accomplish the interaction with the audience is the initial

purpose of every speaker. So this paper explores how the speaker fulfills

interpersonal meaning during the interaction in terms of mood, modal

auxiliary, personal pronouns and tense shif.

2. Felicity Condition

a. Definitions of Felicity Conditions

Hurford (2007: 285) said the felicity conditions of an illocutionary act

are conditions that must be fulfilled in the situation in which the act is carried

out if the act is to be carried out properly, or felicitously. One of the felicity

conditions for the illocutionary act of ordering is that the speaker must be

superior to, or in authority over, the hearer. Thus, if a servant says to the

Queen ‘Open the Window’, there is a certain incomgruity, or

anomalousness, or infelicity in the act (of ordering) carried out, but if the
Queen say’s ‘Open the Window’ to the sevant, there is no infelicity. A

felicity conditions for the illocutionary act of accusing is that the deed or

property attributed to the accused is wrong is wrong in some way. Thus one

can felicityously accuse someone of theif or murder, but normally only

infelicityously of, say being a nice guy, or of helping an old lady to cross

the road.

Turnbull (2003: 48) said felicity conditions for actions provide an

explanation of how utterances can be connected to the social actions that are

prodeced by making utterances in the total speech situation. It can be

assumed that felicity conditionsare shared by competent members of a

culture (i.e., felicity conditions are cultural conventions). Felicity conditions

for act can be built into a formal model of how speakers accomplish and

recognize actions in talk. felicity conditions are convention that speakers

and addressing use as code to produce and organize actions.

However, felicity condition are expected or appropriate circumstances

technically known as felicity condition for the performance of speech act to

be recognized as intended.

While Levison (2008: 25) said that appropriatencess or felicity

condition is a pragmatic theory that concern of principle predict for each and

every well- formed sentence of a language, on a particular semantic reading,

the set of context in which it would be appripiate.

Yule states that (2003: 53) felicity condition are contain expected or

appropiate circumstances for the performance of a speech act to be


recognized as intended. For some clear cases, the performance will be

infelicitous (inappropriate) if the speaker is not a specific person in a special

context for example:

I sentence you to six month in prison

Based on the theory above, the researcher concludes the sentence is

felicitous. But if the speaker is not a judge in a coutroom, the sentence will

infelicitous. Because the felicity condition will be felicitous if the speaker is

a specific person in a special context. In everyday context among ordinary

people, there are also pre- condition of speech act. According to Yule (2005:

50) felicity condition devides the types of condition, namely: general

conditions, content conditions, preparatory conditions, sincerity conditions,

essential conditions.

b. Types of Felicity Conditions

Felicity condition divides the types of condition into five classes,

namely; general conditions, content conditions, preparatory conditions,

sincerity conditions, essential conditions.

1. General Conditions

General conditions on the participant, for example, that they can undertand

the languange being used and that they are not playing acting or being

nonsensical.

Example : Submit your homework now!

The example above is that showing general condition is word submit. The

reason Submit included in the general conditiomd because If you submit to


something, you unwillingly allow something to be done to you, or you do

what someone wants, for example because you are not powerful enough to

resist.

The teacher said to the student. All participant understand the language, they

are not playing acting and the teacher’s sentence makes sense.

2. Content Conditions

For example, for both a promise and a warning, the content of the utterance

must be about a future event. A further content condition for a promise

requires that the future event will be a future act of the speaker.

Example: If you don’t behave, I promise you there’s going to be trouble.

The example above is that showing content condition is word Promise. The

reason Promise included in the content condition because a declaration or

assurance that one will do a particular thing or that a particular thing will

happen.

3. Preparatory conditions

For a promise are significanty different from those for a warning. When

someone promise to do something, there are two preparatory conditions:

first, the event will not happen by itself, and second, the event will have a

benefical effect. When someone utters a warning, there are the following

preparatory conditions: it is not clear that the hearer knows the event will

occur, and will not have a benefical effect.

Example: You will hear my readiness


The example above is that showing preparatory conditions is word

readiness. The reason readiness included in the preparatory conditions

because the state of being fully prepared for something.

The condition related to another condition, thet is sincerity conditions.

4. Sincerity Conditions

Sincerity Conditions is a condition that must be fulfilled if the fact act the

said to be carried out sincerely, but failure to meet such as a condition does

not prevent the carrying out of the act altogether.

Example: I will definitly back at 6 p.m.

The example above is that showing sincerity conditions is word will. The

reason will included in the preparatory conditions because expressing the

future tense. And, for a warning, the speaker genuinely believes that the

future events will not have a benefical effect.

5. Essential Conditions

Essential conditions cover the fact that by the act of uttering a promise, the

speakers thereby intend to create an obligatory to carry out the action as a

promise. In other words, the utterance changes the speakers’ from non-

obligatory to obligation. Similarly, with a warning, under the essential

condition, the utterance changes the speakers’ state from non- informing of

a bad future event to informing. This essential condition thus combines with

specification of what must be in utterance context, the context, and the

speakers’ intentions, in order for a order for a specific speech act to be

appropriately (felicitously) performed.


Example: I sentence you 6 months in prison.

The example above is that showing essential conditions is word Prison. The

reason prison included in the essential conditions because a building in

which people are legally held as a punishment for a crime they have

committed or while awaiting trial.

Based on the theory above, the researcher concludes the felicity condition

can be definedas general condition, content condition, preparatory

condition, sincerity condition, essential condition. Those are all of felicity

condition that has been categorized by George Yule. The reseacher uses all

of the condition in this recearch. in a courtroom and the hearer is a

defendant. In other words. The speaker has the authority to command while

the hearer has the obligation to carry out this command.

a. Felicity conditions: Request

Propositional content: Future act A of H. Preparatory condition: (i) H is

able to do A.(ii) It is not obvious to both S and H that H will do A in the

normal course of events ofhis own accord. Sincerity condition: S wants H

to do A. Essential condition: Counts as an attempt to get Hto do A.

Example : I’d like a day return to Morecambe, please.

b. Felicity conditions: Asserting/Stating

Propositional content: Any proposition p. Preparatory condition: (i) S has

evidence (reasons, etc) for the truth of p. (ii) It is not obvious for both S and

H that H knows (does not need to be reminded of, etc) p. Sincerity condition:
S believes p. Essential condition: Counts as an undertaking to the effect that

p represents an actual state of affairs.

Example : Look at the mess you’ve made under your chair.

c. Felicity conditions: Question

Propositional content: Any proposition. Preparatory condition: (i) S does

not know the answer (ii) It is not obvious that H will provide the

information without being asked. Sincerity condition: S wants this

information. Essential condition: Counts as an attempt to elicit this

information.

Example : Are you asking me or telling me?

d. Felicity conditions: Thanking

Propositional content: Past act A done by H. Preparatory condition: A

benefits S and S believesA benefits S. Sincerity condition: S feels grateful

or appreciative for A. Essential condition: Counts as an expression of

gratitude or appreciation.

Example : Thank you very much

e.Felicity conditions: Congratulating

Propositional content: Some event, act, etc., E related to H Preparatory

condition: (i) E is in H's interest. Sincerity condition: S is pleased at E.

Essential condition: Counts as an expression of pleasure at E.

Example : Congratulations on passing your driving test


B. The Vow Movie

1. Movie

a. Definition of Movie

Movie becomes one of the most efficient ways to communicate with

different people. It has function to reveal ordinary people’s dream or

desire for something that they cannot achieve in their life.

Carrol (2008:80) states, “Movie is a typically comprised of a series of

moving picture, called shots, which themselves are animated as a

succession of still pictures, called frames, pass before the projector

beam.” From this definition, it can be found that movie is a series of a

moving picture which is called shots and called frames when a picture a

succession of still picture before the project beam.

Choi (2006:7), “Film, it was said, merely added movement to

photography, Film is just moving photography, Film is essentially no

more than a photographic instrument.” It means that film is not more just

a photography, also used to added movement to photography.

The researcher concludes all the theories of movie above, it can be

assumed that movie is a moving image as a means to deliver the message

to the audience in other to aim for positive things and describe the social

life of the community. But sometimes the movie plays a real life of human

being. The politeness pattern is divided into four kinds, they are: bald on

record, positive politeness, negative politeness, and off record


strategy. Although the related studies above discuss about speech

acts, they are different from this research, because in this research, the

researcher conducts an analysis of felicity conditions. This is intended to

analyze the use of felicity conditions in The Vow.

b. Kinds of Movie

Movie itself has kinds of genre, below are the genres of movie:

1. Action movie

Action films usually include high energy, big-budget physical stunts and

chases, possibly with rescues, battle, fights, escapes, destructive crises (floods,

explosions, natural disasters, fires, etc.) non-stop motion, spectacular

rhythm and pacing, and adventurous, often two-dimensional‘good-guy’

heroes (or recently, heroines) battling ‘bad-guys’ –all designed for pure

audience escapism. The examples are: The Matrix, Heat, Total Recall, The

Perfect Storm, Mission Impossible

2. Adventure Movie

Adventure films are usually exciting stories, with new experiences or exotic

locales, very similar to or often paired with the action film genre. They can

include traditional swashbucklers, serialized films and historical spectacles


(similar to the epics film genre), searches or expeditions for lost continents,

“jungle” and “desert” epics, treasure hunts, disaster films, or searches for

the unknown. The examples are: Cast Away, The Revenant, Jaws, Die Hard, The

Lion King

3. Comedies Movie

Comedies are light-hearted plots consistently and deliberately design to amuse

and provoke laughter (with one-liners, jokes, etc), by exaggerating the situation,

the language, action relationships and characters. This section describes

various forms of comedy through cinematic history, including slapstick,

screwball, spoofs and parodies, romantic, comedies, black comedy (dark

satiratical comedy), and more. The example of comedy movies are: Dumb and

Dumber, As good as it Gets, In Bruges, The 40-year-old virgin, The Princess Bride

4. Drama Movie

Dramas are serious, plot-driven presentations, portraying realistic characters,

settings, life situations, and story involving intense character development and
interaction. Usually, they are not focused on special-effects, comedy, or action.

Dramatic films are probably the largest film genre, with many subsets. The

example of drama films are: Taxi Driver, Schindler's List, The Dark Knight,

Glengarry Glen Ross, Quiz Show

5. Horror Movie

Horror films are to frighten and to invoke our hidden worst fears, often

in a terrifying, shocking finale, while captivating and entertaining us at the

same time in a cathartic experience. Horror films feature a wide range of style,

from the earliest silent Nosferatu classic, to today’s CGI monster and deranged

humans. They are often combined with science fiction when the menace or

monster is related to a corruption of technology, or when Earth is threatened by

aliens. They fantasy and supernatural film genres are not usually synonymous with

the horror genres. There are many sub-genres of horrors, slashes, teen terror, serial

killers, satanic, Dracula, Frankenstein, etc. The example of Horror films are:

Insidious, The Witch, The Babadook, The Cabin in the Woods, Texas Chainsaw 3D
6. Science Fiction Movie

Sci-fi films are often quasi-scientific, visionary and imaginative-complete

with heroes, aliens, distant planets, impossible quests improbable settings,

fantastic places, great dark and shadowy villains, futuristic technology,

unknown and unknowable forces, and extraordinary monster (things or creature

from space), either created by mad scientists or by nuclear havoc. They are

sometimes an offshoot of fantasy film, or they share some similarities with

action/adventurefilms. Science fiction often expresses the potential of

technology to destroy human kid and easily overlaps with horror films

particularly when technology are alien life forms become malevolent, as in

the “Atomic Age” of sci-fi films in the 1950s. The example of Science Fiction films

are: WALL•E, Back to the Future, Minority Report, District 9, A Clockwork Orange

7. War Movie

War (and anti-war) films acknowledge the horror and heartbreak of war,

letting the actual combat fighting (against nations or humankind) on land, sea, or

in the air provide the primary plot or background for the action of the film. War

films are often paired with other genres, such as action, adventure, drama,

romance, comedy (black) suspense, and even epics and westerns, and they often
take a denunciatory approach toward warfare. They may include POW tales, stories

of military operations, and training. The example of war films are: Apocalypse Now,

The Bridge on the River Kwai, Where Eagles Dare, the dam busters, Pearl Harbor

2001

8. Romance movie

Romance movie are love stories, or affairs of the heart that center on passion,

emoticon and the romantic, affectionate involvement of the main characters

(usually a leading man and lady), and the journey that their love takes through

courtship or marriage. Romance films make the love story the main plot focus. The

example of romance movies are: The Vow, Notting Hill, Brokeback Mountain,

You've Got Mail, Something's Gotta Give

9. Animation movie

Initially, films in this genre only consisted of movies done in 2D animation. As

technology progresses and more and more computer generated movies are coming

out, the animation film genre is expanding its reach to clay animation, paper

animation, stop motion animation and computer generated animation. The example
of animation movies are: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, The Nightmare Before

Christmas, Ratatouille, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Beauty and the Beast 1991

10. Sports movie

Movies that have a sport setting, such as: football or baseball stadium, arena,

or the Olympics, etc. Events such as: the big game, fight, race, or competition,

and/or athlete (boxer, racer, surfer, etc). The examples of the sports films are: A

League of Their Own, Space Jam, Rocky IV, The Blind Side. The example of sports

movies are: The Waterboy, DodgeBall, Rocky IV, The Rookie, Friday Night Lights

Based on the theory above, the researcher concludes the movie is imanges in

the frame that represent social phenomenon of a society. It is as the desire, needs,

fears, and aspiration of a society at a given time. The themes and stories of movie

derived from its social environment. There are many gentres of movie are popular

and well known. The genres of movie are action, Adventure, Comedies, Drama,

Horror, Science Fiction, War, Romance, Animation, Sports.


Based on the The Vow is very special awful which is, come to think of it, the

only reason to talk about the movie at all. Although post-coma Paige (that’s the

wife) can’t remember anything about her marriage and doesn’t recognize Leo

(that’s the husband), Paige’s memory isn’t entirely gone. She can, in fact, summon

up her past up to about the time she was a sheltered, infantilized, preppy young

woman from a wealthy, snobbish family, dutifully attending law school (per her

daddy’s wishes) and engaged to an equally self-satisfied yuppie (Scott Speedman).

The poor thing just can’t remember the years when she shed her square, genteel

airs, got out from under her parents’ prejudices, met Leo, and grew a spine. (Sam

Neill bullies and coerces as Paige’s father; Jessica Lange flutters uselessly, a painful

sight, as Paige’s possessive mother.) It’s a tragedy, really: According to the hapless

team who made the movie, Our Paige is a relatively interesting young liberal who

knows her own mind before the accident and a rather tedious, girlish conservative

who fusses about keeping her hair smooth afterwards

c. The Vow

The Vow is a romance movie which is directed by M ichael Sucsy and

played by Channing Tatum and Rachel McAdams. This movie was inspired

from the real story by Kim and Krickitt Carpenter. Leo (Channing Tatum) and

Paige (Rachel McAdams) out of the theater. When they stopped at a red
light. Paige opened the seat belt bent down and kissed Leo. At that time, a

truck rammed them from behind and Paige was thrown through the windshield.

Both were rushed to the emergency room. As Leo, Paige remembered how she

first met. It can be seen how they courted, all those wonderful memories

until their wedding day. Leo suffered no injuries were so severe, so he can keep

Paige until he regained consciousness.

When Paige conscious, he thought that Leo is a doctor, it turned out

he lost part of his brain memory. Paige verified what memories left were

when he started a conversation with Leo. Turned out he did not lose all, except for

the last few years of his life given him remember that he wanted to be an artist in

high school. Paige did not remember why he left law school, and even he did not

recall that there has been married to Leo, Paige even remember with ex-fiance,

Jeremy. Then her parents found out about the accident. It was the first time that Leo

met them. They learned that the doctor suggested she go back to the normal r outine,

but her parents and Leo disagree about what his normal routine at this point.

Leo told Paige that she stopped speaking to her parents before the accident,

especially because his father insisted he attend law school while she attended

art school.

Paige cannot understand why she broke off the engagement with

Jeremy. Leo tried to persuade him to return home with him but he asked for

evidence of such a diary. He insists that he did not know of the diary as existing

before the accident. His parents insisted on taking home with them, Paige

agree with the assumption that he might have married Leo for some mutual benefit.
When he would go, Leo Paige came to play a voice message in which he sounded

very happy and romantic. Paige decided to come back with Leo hoped it would help

him regain his memory loss.

Michael Sucsy (born February 14, 1973) is an Emmy winning film director,

screenwriter, and producer. Sucsy was raised in New York and New England

and graduated from Georgetown University's Edmund A. Walsh School of

Foreign Service. He went on to earn a Masters of Fine Arts in film from Art

Center College of Design. Sucsy began directing commercials through Los

Angeles-based Palomar Pictures and he was soon dubbed by Shoot! Magazine

"as one of the industry's c rop of new directors to watch." He was subsequently

nominated for the Young Director of the Year Award given in conjunction

with the 2002 Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival.

In 2003, Sucsy began work on Grey Gardens, a film based on the famous

true story of Jackie O's eccentric relatives 'Big Edie' Bouvier Beale and 'Little Edie'

Bouvier Beale. After viewing the well -known documentary of the same name,

Sucsy was inspired to write and direct a narrative feature about the reclusive

mother-daughter duo and immediately embarked on what was to become a six-year

process to get Grey Gardens made. While he researched and wrote the script, Suscy

would wake up at 5AM daily and work for several hours before heading to a

full-time job assisting an entertainment lawyer.

In 2005, two years after his initial idea to write Grey Gardens, a first

draft was finished and immediately became a "hot read." With Jessica Lange and

Drew Barrymore attached based on the strength of the script, the project made its
way to HBO who in 2006, announced that Grey Gardens was moving into

production. After another year of script development and pre-production,

principle photography on Grey Gardens began in October 2007. The film

wrapped just two months later in December 2007, on time and under budget.

After six years, the film had high-profile premieres preceding its HBO

premiere at the legendary Ziegfeld Theater in New York City and at the Grauman's

Chinese Theater in Hollywood. Grey Gardens debuted on HBO in April 2009 to

great acclaim from critics and audiences both new and old to the Grey Gardens

phenomenon. The film has received multiple nominations including 17 Emmy

Award nominations, including Sucsy for writing, directing, and producing and

the 2009 Television Critics Association award for Outstanding Achievement

Movies, Mini-Series, and Specials. The film's 17 Emmy Award nominations

ties the all -time nomination record for made for TV movies.

d. Main character

Character does not only mean the individuals who are in the drama, but

also, it refers to the true essence of those individuals which can only be

revealed through the actions that they take over the course of the story. The

writer will discuss about the definition of characters, kinds of character and

the main character according to the experts. “Character is any representation

of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through

extended dramatic or verbal representation.” The statement explains that


character is a representation which presented in a dramatic and narrative that

expanded through.

Happy young married couple Paige (McAdams) and Leo (Tatum) are, well,

happy. Then a car accident puts Paige into a life-threatening coma. Upon awakening

she has lost the previous five years of memories, including those of her beloved

Leo, her wedding, a confusing relationship with her parents, or the ending of her

relationship with her ex-fiance. Despite these complications, Leo endeavors to win

her heart again and rebuild their marriage.

Channing Tatum (Leo Collins): a hopeless romantic with dreams of one day

becoming a music industry maverick. Leo prefers the sound of an old bass drum to

the hip, over-produced sounds of contemporary music. When he’s not at his messy

Chicago loft with the love of his life, a sculptor named Paige, he’s usually hanging

out with his fellow artists and musicians. funny, goofy, and devoted. Leo isn’t afraid

of love or commitment; in fact, he embraces them. He’s so committed to his wife

Paige that he’s willing to do anything to get her back after she suffers a life-

changing accident and loses her memory. Don’t let that guitar slung over his
shoulder fool you, Leo is no lazy bohemian. When he wants something, he goes

and gets it.

Rachel McAdams (Paige Collins): is the main protagonist in the romantic

drama, The Vow. When a car accident puts Paige in a coma, when she wakes, she

doesn't remember anything about recent events, which includes her marriage to her

husband Leo and why she disowned her family and why left her previous fia. When

she was living with her family, Paige was always under their control, she went along

with the future they had planned for her and did everything they told her too. She

is a free spirited, warm, caring and loving person. She gets upset when she's put

under pressure or overwhelmed. When she went back to her home she was

described as a sorority chick by Leo. Her appearance changes a few times as the

film progresses. When she first met Leo, Her hair was short, curly and brown. A

couple years later, her hair was just below shoulder length and had less curls. When

she comes out of her coma, she walked out of her room wearing Leo's collage

jumper, telling him it was the only thing she felt comfortable in out of her clothes,

possibly because she was thinking of going back to law collage. When she moved

back in with her parents, she died her hair a dark shade of blonde. She has a
turquoise tattoo on her back. Paige disowned her family when she discovered her

father had an affair with her friend, Diane Chain. She finally left when she

discovered her mother had decided to stay with him.

3. Teaching Speaking

a.Speaking

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves

producing and processing information in the communication activities. It is one of

the communicative activities in spoken form by speak up to the hearer. In teaching

and learning process, Speaking is very important to transferring the information

from the speaker to the hearer between the lecturer and the students. It is one

of the instruments to doing communication with each other and having

influence in the effectiveness of teaching and learning process.

Mastering of speaking skills in English is a priority for many second

language or foreign language learners. Learners often evaluate their success

in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on

the basis of how much they feel they have improved their spoken language

proficiency. Speaking is a productive skill. It could not be separated from

listening, because when people produce utterances someone can catch by listening

them. When we speak we produce spoken language and it should be meaningful.

In the nature of communication, we can find the speaker, the listener,

the message and the feedback. According to Gert and Hans in Efrizal (2012:

127) speaking is speech or utterance with the purpose of having intention to be

recognized speaker and the receiver processes the statements in order to recognize
their intention. Speaking is the effort to feeling or to interact with others through

communication between the speakers to the hearer. In every speaking activity,

each speaker and hearer has meanings or ideas to express and to understand. We

can develop our speaking proficiency using conversation, for example we share or

giving opinion to some others, it express our idea, so our speaking proficiency

will developed directly.

Each of speech activities has different purpose. According to Brown and

Yule in Richard (2008: 21) there are three functions of speaking; talks as

transaction, talk as interaction, and talk as performance.

a. Talk as Transaction

Transactional is produced in order to get something, or to get something

done. Talk as transaction refers to situations where the focus is on what is said

or done. In talk as transaction, the speaking activity focuses on a message that

is conveyed and makes other people understand what they want to convey clearly

and accurately. In this type of spoken language, students and teacher usually

focus on meaning or how they understand someone’s said. The examples of

talk as transaction areclassroom group discussion and problem solving

activities, buying something in a shop, ordering food from a menu in

restaurant, asking

someone for directions on the street.

There are two different types of talk as transaction dependent on the focus.

Burns in Richard (2008: 26) distinguishes between two different types of talk

as transaction. The first type involves situations where the focus is on giving and
receiving information and where the participants focus primarily on what is said

or achieved (e.g., asking someone for directions). Accuracy may not be a

priority, as long as information is successfully communicated or understood. The

second type is transaction that focuses on obtaining goods or services, such

aschecking into a hotel or ordering food in a restaurant. There are some of the skills

involved in using talk for transactions are explaining a need or intention,

describing something, asking question, making suggestion, agreeing and

disagreeing.

b. Talk as Interaction

Interactional language is produced for social purpose. Talk as

interaction refers to conversation with each other people. When people meet

someone, they exchange greetings, engage with small talk or tell their recent

experience to their friend. Our daily communication remains the interactional

with other people. This refers to what we say as conversation. It is an interactive

communication which is done spontaneously by two or more people. This is about

how people try to convey their message to other peoples. Therefore, they must

use speaking skill to communicate to other person. The main intention in this

function is social relationship. Some of the skills involved in using talk as

interaction involve knowing how to do the following things are opening and

closing conversations, joking, making small talk, recounting personal incidents and

experiences, interrupting.

c.Talk as Performance
In this case, the speaking activity focuses on multilogue rather

thanmonologue. The function of speaking as performance happened at

speeches, public talks, public announcements, storytelling, and so on.Based on the

explanation above it is concluded that speaking is whatever we produce or

say, it can be utterances and meaningful statements.

d.Aspect of speaking

In the learning of speaking, it should be considerable about the important

aspect to encourage the interaction and communicative skill. The aspects of

speaking are:

a. Vocabulary

The essential element to learn before practice speaking is vocabulary.

We are difficult to speak without mastering vocabulary. According to Hornby

(1995) vocabulary is all the words that person knows or uses. The learner

should have many vocabularies it will be easier for him to express her/ his idea.

b. Grammar

One factor in influencing the students’ speaking skill is the functional

grammar. Sometimes the students speak English with lack of functional grammar.

According to Hornby (1995:517) grammar is the rules in a language for changing

them into sentences.

c. Pronunciation.

According to Hornby (1995) pronunciation is way in which a language

or a particular words or sounds is spoken. Pronunciation is how to say a word

in made of sound, stress and intonation.


d. Fluency

Byrne in Paisal (2011:14) states that the main goal in teaching the produce

skill of speaking will be oral fluency. This can define as the ability to express on

self intelligibly, reasonably, accurately and without too much hesitation in

communication.Fluency also aspect of speaking when the people take the

communication.

e. Accuracy

According to Hornby (1995) accuracy is the state of being correct or exact

and without minor, especially as a result of careful effort. While Marcel

(1978) states that accuracy is a manner of people in using appropriate word

and the pattern of sentences.

e.Teaching Speaking

Teaching speaking is the activity of importing knowledge and skill of speaking

to the students. Teaching speaking is a process to teach students how to use

the language for communication, expressing ideas, or share information. The goal

of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because

students are insisted to be able to express themselves and learn how to follow

the social and cultural rules appropriately in each communicative circumstance.

Speaking is the basis skill that the students should master in learning a second

language. The students can be stated as being success learners in learning the

second language if they can master the speaking skill.

Teaching is the activity of importing knowledge or skill from the teacher to the

learner or students. In speaking skill, the students must be active in the class. To
make the students active in learning speaking, the students must practice it. In this

case, the teacher must be standing beside their students. We should help students

speak by helping them find ideas and supporting them, so they feel confident

enough to speak. We can give them opportunity to interact with their friend in

English. In teaching speaking we must know what the learning focuses on and we

must choose appropriate strategies in teaching speaking based on both the students’

background and need.

Brown (2006: 8) expains teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling

the learner to learn setting the condition for learning. Teaching means showing or

helping someone to learn how to do something. Providing with knowlegde, causing

to know or understand.

While Bailey (2003:48) stated that speaking is the productive aural/oral skill. It

consist of prodecting sytematic verbal utterances to convey meaning. So, the

researcher concludes that speaking is the process of guiding and facilitating and

moreover helping the learners to get productivity in oral skill.

Thourbuty (2005: 63) had appropriate activities to teach speaking as following:

a.Drilling and chants

Drilling that is imitating and repeating words, phrases, and whole even

utterances may in the fact be a useful noticing technique since it draws attention to

material that learner might not otherwise have registed. Thus after learners have

listened to a taped dialogue, and studied the transcript; the teacher can isolate

specific phrases or utterances and ask the learners to repeat them.

b.Writing task
Writing has a useful role play as an initial stage in the appropriation of newly

encountered language for speaking. It can actas a way of easing the trasition from

learning to using. Inevitably, because of the constraints placed on mental processing

by the demands of real time speaking. Learners tend to rely on a very narrow

repertoire of memorized expressions in face to face interaction. To do this, it may

sometimes help to reduce the processing demands placed on them in order to give

them time consciously accses alternatives to their habitat repertoire.

c.Reading aloud

Reading aloud is the natural ‘next step’ between writing and speaking. It is

analogues to the way actors read their lines before commiting the next top play to

memory. It also has the advantage of providing a secure framework within which

learners can focus on lower level features of talk, such as pronunciation without the

added pressure of always having to plan the next utterances.

d.Assisted perfomance and scaffolding

Socio cultural theory argues that the appropriation of a skill is achieved

through the mediation by a ‘better other’ what is something called assisted

performance. Assisting performance through scaffolding and other timely

intervention is well documented in L2 learning.

e.Dialogues

Praciticing dialogues has a long history in language teaching not

surprisingly, since language is essentially dialogue in its use, and any grammar

sructure or lexical area can be worked into a dialogue with a little ingenuity.
Dialogue practice also provides a useful change of focus from teacher led classroom

interaction.

f.Communicative task

Fundamental to the view that speaking is skill is the idea that knowledge

becomes increasingly automated through successive practice. Practice meke if not

perfect at least, fluent. A corollary to this view is that the automating process can

be speeded up by creating practice conditions that ‘park’ the attention.

One way to distract attention from a dependence on declarative knowledge to

incrase the processing demands of the task, such as reducing the time availabe.

Another way is to set a task requires attention to be directed at achieving some extra

linguistic goal, such as buying a bus ticket or winning an argument. Communicative

task, thus, fulfill two important language learning needs: they the prepare learners

for real life language use, and they encourage the atomization of language

knowledge.

Based on the theory above, the researcher concludes the Teaching is the activity

of importing knowledge or skill from the teacher to the learner or students. In

speaking skill, the students must be active in the class. To make the students active

in learning speaking, the students must practice it. In this case, the teacher must be

standing beside their students. We should help students speak by helping them find

ideas and supporting them, so they feel confident enough to speak. We can give

them opportunity to interact with their friend in English. In teaching speaking we

must know what the learning focuses on and we must choose appropriate strategies

in teaching speaking based on both the students’ background and need.


C. Previous study

In the research, the researcher would like to analyze felicity contition shown in

the movie entitled The Vow Movie. To make sure that this research is original, the

researcher would like to present other researches that have close relation with this

research Windy Novanti. 2016. “The Analysis of Felicity Condition found in The

Hunger Games Movie and Its Application to Teach Speaking at Twelfth Grade of

Senior High School”. A Thesis English Education Program. Teacher Training

and Education Faculty, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo.This research

deals with felicity condition in The Hunger Games movie. The objectives of the

study are to find out kinds of felicity condition contained in The Hunger Games

movie and to describe the application of felicity condition in teaching speaking at

the twelfth grade of senior high school. Mention similarity and differences betwen

Windy’s rsearch and yours The similarity of this previous study and the

researcher’s is on the analysis of the types of felicity condition.The difference

is on the source of data which is taken from different film, and the application

of felicity condition in teaching speaking.

This research is a qualitative research. The data source of this research is the

manuscript and the scene from The Hunger Games movie. The researcher

conducted library approach to get information about felicity condition. In

collecting the data, the researcher found the movie and the manuscript first. Then

watched the movie and read the manuscript while list some dialogue which

contain some clues of felicity condition into its type. And then the researcher

analyzes them and gives the reason why the dialogues are categorized as fulfilling
felicity condition.The result of the study shows that there are 49 felicity conditions

occured in The Hunger Games movie. 6 (12.33%) data belongs to general

condition, 7 (13.37%) data belongs tocontent condition, 6 (12.24%) data belongs

to preparatory condition, 14 (28.57%) data belongs to sincerity condition, and

12 (24.49%) data belongs to essential condition of felicity .

The application of felicity condition in teaching speaking can be applied in XII

grade of senior high school semester 1. The material which is closely related with

felicity condition is expressions. The teacher can use utterances in the movie to teach

expressions such as admitting, promising, blaming, and wondering.

The second research has been conducted by Ari RohmaniWisatawati, a student

of Pamulang University. She conducted her study in 2013 entitled “Illocutionary

Act and Its Felicity Conditions Analysis in Rise of The Guardians Film By

Peter”. Ari’s study concentrated on the illocutionary act that implied on dialogues

of the main characters and analyzed its felicity conditions in each illocutionary

act in Rise of the Guardians film, while the researcher will concentrate on the

types of felicity condition proposed by Yule.She used qualitative method that

employs descriptive technique.

The result of Ari’s study is not all the illocutionary acts that occurred in the

utterance could be performed properly because not all conditions of the felicity

conditions in each illocutionary acts could be fulfilled in the selected data. If one

of the felicity conditions is not satisfied, it will make the utterance becomes

infelicitous. It is necessary to fulfill all conditions to make the messages in every

utterances can be understood by the all involved parties to avoid


misunderstanding. Meanwhile, this research concerns in the types of felicity

condition and its application in teaching speaking. As the result, the researcher

intends to an analysis of felicity condition in the scene and script of The Vow movie.

The similarity of this previous study and the researcher’s is on the

analysis of the felicity condition and also analyzing fillm and main characther in

teaching speaking. The difference between the previous study of ari’s and ,e is that

if you have ari’s, talk about the illocutionary act while I am about the type felicity

conditions.