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(COMBINED) TOA ISMS

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1. PRE HISTORIC MONUMENTAL BUT PRIMTIVE 24. ART BEFORE WORLD WAR I (1880s)
NOUVEAU Style that is Naturalistic but stylized
2. PRE HISTORIC DAWN OF ARCHITECTURE"
forms, often combined with more geometric
3. EGYPTIAN MONUMENTAL AND ENORMOUS shapes - particularly arcs, parabolas, and
4. EGYPTIAN EARLY MASTERS OF ENGINEERING semicircles

5. CLASSICAL BEAUTY FROM ORDER


The first style to stop looking
6. BYZANTINE GRACEFUL, CLASSICALLY INSPIRED backwards in history for ideas, taking
inspiration instead from what is around
• USE OF BRICKS us
• DOMED ROOFS, ELABORATE
25. ART DECO AFTER WORLD WAR I
MOZAICS, CLASSICAL FORMS
The deprivations of the great
7. BYZANTINE WHEN ROME BUILDS AN EASTERN war years gave way to a whole
EMPIRE new opulence and extravagance
8. ROMANESQUE TRANSITIONAL; MEDIEVAL
ARCHITECTURE + ROMAN + BYZANTINE Streamlined and geometric
Utilized modern materials like chrome,
9. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE REACHES NEW stainless steel and inlaid wood
HEIGHTS
26. ART DECO Style that is graphic or textural
10. GOTHIC • POINTED ARCHES Features bold shapes like
• RIBBED VAULT ; FLYING BUTTRESSES sunbursts, zigzags and
11. RENAISSANCE • SYMMETRY • PROPORTION broad curves

12. RENAISSANCE CLASSICAL IDEAS REBORN 27. ART Style that is naturalistic but stylized
NOUVEAU forms, often combined
13. BAROQUE • NEW EXPLORATION OF FORMS
with more geometric
• LIGHT AND SHADOW
shapes - particularly arcs,
• DRAMATIC INTENSITY
parabolas, and
14. BAROQUE "ARCHITECTURE OF EXUBERANCE" semicircles
15. ROCOCO Late Baroque 28. MODERNISM COMMON NOTIONS OF THIS STYLE:
16. ROCOCO "ARCHITECTURE IN THE AGE OF • soulless container
MOZART" • absence of relationship with the environment
• Arrogant
17. NEOCLASSISISM "NEW APPROACHES TO CLASSICAL • Unarticulated
ARCHITECTURE" • Monstrous
18. NEO GOTHIC "MODERN GOTHIC" • Speculative
• mass-produced
19. ARTS & CRAFTS Manifesto:
MOVEMENT William Morris, "The Lesser Arts of Life" 29. MODERNISM _____ is marked by the following:
(1877) • Renunciation of the old world
• Addressed mass housing
20. ART NOUVEAU "The New Style" in french
• Explored potentials of materials and new
21. Jugendstil "The New Style" in German forms
22. Modernismo "The New Style" in Spain • Technological determinism and structural
rationalism
23. ART DECO "20th Century JAZZY ARCHITECTURE"
• Aesthetic self-expression
• Belief in the power of form to transform the
world
• Sleek machined surfaces
• Mass production and cost reduction
• Skyscrapers and capitalism
• Grand urban projects
30. Expressionism A movement of modernism style, Early- 36. Minimalism design elements convey the message of
& Neo - modernist simplicity.
Expressionism adoption of novel
materials, formal The basic geometric forms, elements
innovation, and very without decoration, simple materials and
unusual massing, the repetitions of structures represent a
sometimes inspired sense of order and essential quality.
by natural
37. Organic a philosophy of architecture which
biomorphic forms,
promotes harmony between human
sometimes by the
habitation and the natural world. This is
new technical
achieved through design approaches that
possibilities offered
aim to be sympathetic and well-
by the mass
integrated with a site, so buildings,
production of brick,
furnishings, and surroundings become
steel and especially
part of a unified, interrelated
glass.
composition.
31. Structuralism A movement of modernism style that Built
38. POST - Manifesto:
structures corresponding in
MODERNISM Robert Venturi,
form to social structures
"Complexity and Contradiction in
32. Formalism A movement of modernism style that Architecture" (1966)
Focuses on the Geometry of
Architectural Forms Richness
Of meaning
33. International A movement of modernism style that
Style considers the ff: 39. Deconstructivism A movement of post-modernism style
which appeared in the 1980s, which gives
the program for building a house should be the impression of the fragmentation of the
set out with constructed building.
the same precision as that for building a
machine; It is characterized by an absence of
• structural frame should be separately harmony, continuity, or symmetry.
identified from the
40. Mannerism Manipulation of styles or forms achieved
space-enclosing walls;
by the learned juxtaposition of elements
• house should be lifted on pilotises so the
for the exclusive aim of achieving
garden may
originality or effect
spread under it;
• roofs should be flat, capable of being used 41. Eclecticism Usually applied to any building that
as a garden; incorporates a mixture of the historical
• interior accommodation should be freely styles
planned 42. American Henry Richardson and Louis Sullivan
34. High-Tech is a type of Late Modern architectural style Eclecticists
that emerged in the 1970s, incorporating 43. British Auguste Pugin, Richard Shaw, Sir George
elements of high-tech industry and Eclecticists Scott, Alfred Waterhouse
technology into building design.
44. French Eugene Violet-le-duc
35. Brutalism flourished from the 1950s to the mid-1970s, Eclecticist
having descended from the modernist
45. German Gottfried Semper
architectural movement of the early 20th
Eclecticist
century.
46. Structuralism • Iron Construction
The term originates from the French word for • Initiated by Joseph Paxton's Crystal
"raw", as Le Corbusier described his choice Palace
of material béton brut, meaning raw • Locomotive & large-scale "engineering"
concrete in French. types of structures
47. Monumentalism • The idea of building monuments 56. De Styl • Founded by Van Doesburg, a painter
• The form of an object should last (Adolf • Principal aim: Construct without any illusion,
Loos) without any decoration"
• Chicago Tribune Tower by Loos • Broke away from Naturalism and Historicism
• Took hold among the German pioneers of and by appealing to abstraction
modern architecture
57. L'Ecole de The style turned to Gothic revival due to its
48. National • From 1860 - 20th Century Beaux Arts brevity, idealism, heroism, and picturesque
Romanticism • Ideas of national aggrandizement style. Verticality was a trend. (Example: Eiffel
• Self-emulating style Tower)
• Fed on historical motifs and devices as
58. Bauhaus • The creative center of artistic experiment
well as great historical periods in
Style during the 1920's
architecture
• Internationally known through its
49. Proto • Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Glasgow) publications and exhibitions
Modernists • Eilel Saarinen, Lars Sonck, Gallen Kallela • Bent metal furniture & hanging globe lamps
(Finland) to the black, block, lowercase lettering to be
• Richard Norman Shaw; Charles Voysey found on exhibition posters the world over.
(Britain)
59. The "Ready-made style" imported from the U.S.
• Antonio Gaudi (Spain)
International
• Paul Bonatz, Albert Speer (Germany)
Style
50. Art Nouveau • "Fin De Sieclism"
60. International • CIAM
• Dynamic forms, whiplash lines, curving
Modernism • International Modernism
design
• Set up by Le Corbusier and Siegfried
51. Radicalism Radical shift in emphasis from the buildings Giedon
of the past to the design of those which • Ideas of modern architecture & urbanism
met the demands of modern life. became known to the world
• Characterized by cubic, white surfaced, flat
52. Constructivism It was a passionate pleading for ideas on
roofed architecture, usually set in an arid
form and space in architecture
landscape
(anthropometric & ergonometric) as well
as in the other arts. 61. TEAM X • Formed by a rebellious group of young
Turks who contested the principles of modern
53. Expressionism • Term used to describe the work of those
architecture
architects who prefigured the International
and Functionalist Period of the Modern 62. Organicism • Architecture that symphatizes with its
Movement environment which is shown in the early work
• Outward manifestation of a design of Frank Lloyd Wright - Prairie School
through an individual expression • Antithesis of the geometrical organized
facadism of those architects who believe that
54. Futurism • Architecture of calculation of audacity &
architecture should intrude on the
simplicity
environment in the classic, neo-classic, and
• The architecture of reinforced concrete,
gothic sense
iron, glass, and all those substitutes for
wood, stone, and brick 63. Utilitarianism • Seeking for economic solutions for low
• Maximum elasticity and lightness in a value sites as well as alternative/cheap forms
rhetorical manner of construction in timber, brick & metal, low-
cost housing was referred to as utilitarian
55. Neoplasticism • This term relates to the theory of pure
architecture.
plastic art which had a pronounced
influence on Dutch architects 64. The New • Originally was meant to indicate a certain
• Consisted in the exclusive use of the right Brutalism type of architecture of the 1950's
angle in a horizontal position • Introduced by British Architects
• The use of 3 primary colors contrasted • Lays claim to an earlier version, "Neo
with or incorporating in various canvases Brutalism"
of 3 non-colors: white, black, and grey
65. Metabolism • This concerns with the problems of 72. Metarationalism • The logic of economist James
cities Galgraith's view that in the affluent
• Important convert was Kenzo Tange society there is no meaningful distinction
• "Human society as a vital process, a between luxury and necessity meets that
continuous; development from atom to of complexity science with its ability to
nebula" overturn conventional structural logic.
• Concentrated on new order of • Feast of consumerist experiences
relationships between man and the presented within phenomenally complex
environment forms.
66. Post-Metabolism • Implies an attempt to summarize some 73. Modernisms Chief characteristic of the 20th century
very divergent currents that characterized
74. MODERNISM - emerging in 20th century
the Japanese architectural scene at the
- responded to changes in technology
moment.
and society
• It was a reaction to the "meta-
architecture" of the earlier metabolists. 75. HALLMARKS OF - exploration of New Materials
MODERNISM (man/factory made)
67. Isolationism It is conceived independently from its
- rejection of Traditional Styles
immediate or historical context. It stands
- simplification of Forms
on its own.
- reduction of Ornaments
68. Contexualism Architecture should be apprehended in its
76. FORMALISM - parts to whole
total setting. The knowledge of history,
- emphasizes form
the world, or science makes the total
- monumental in scale
experience far richer.
- shape is the focus of attention
69. Post-Modernism This is an alternative to modern - lines and rigid geometric shapes
movement ideas like revivals of pattern - colonnades and entablatures
book principles of the 19th century, a new
77. EXAMPLES OF Bank of China, Hong Kong (1982)
interest in vernacular forms adapted to
FORMALISM - I.M. Pei (Ieoh Ming Pei)
modern needs, a much more strict
interpretation of the theatrical element in
John F. Kennedy Center for the
Modern Movement Architecture.
Performing Arts, Washington DC (1971)
70. Deconstructivism It is the abstraction of Modernism to the - Edward Durell Stone
extreme and mainly worked on the
principle of exaggeration of familiar Fullerton City Hall, California (1963)
motifs. It is also known as the new
modernism. Dorothy Chandler Pavillion, LA. CA.
(1964)
71. Ecoism • Any form of design that minimizes
- Welton Becket
destructive impacts by integrating itself
with living processes. 78. FORMALISM - Welton Becket
• Is not limited to one material but PRACTITIONERS - Philip Johnson
instead encourages the use of materials - Edward Durell Stone
that are most appropriate for a particular - Minoru Yamasaki
place, climate, and program.
79. EXPRESSIONISM - representation of Forms and Shapes
• It merges the interests of sustainability,
from the Emotional Feelings of the
environmental consciousness, green,
designer
natural, and organic approaches to
- external manifestation of the internal
evolve a design solution from these
function
requirements and from the characteristics
of the site, neighborhood context, and the
local micro-climate & topography.
80. EXAMPLES OF Einstein Tower (Einsteinturm), Potsdam, 86. EXAMPLES OF Monochrome House/Gropius House,
EXPRESSIONISM Germany (1920) BAUHAUS Lincoln, Massachusetts (1938)
- Erich Mendelson - Walter Gropius

TWA Flight Center (John F. Kennedy Miller House, Palm Springs, CA.
Airport) (1962) (1930)
- Eero Saarinen - Richard Neutra
87. PRACTITIONERS OF - Walter Gropius
Kansas City Public Library Parking
BAUHAUS - Le Corbusier
Garage, Missouri (2004)
- Richard Neutra
- CDFM2 Architects
- Philip Johnson
- Ludwig Mies van de Rohe
Kindergarten School, Bijelo, Polje,
- Marcel Breuer
Montenegro (2013)
- Rifat Alihodzic 88. FUNCTIONALISM - building designed based on its
purpose
81. EXPRESSIONISM - Gunther Domenig
- Form follows Function
PRACTIONERS - Hans Scharoun
- ornaments reduces to bare
- Rudolf Steiner
essentials
- Bruno Taut
- must be inexpensive, durable,
- Erich Mendelson
beautiful
- Eero Saarinen
89. EXAMPLES OF Yale Center for British Art, New
82. CONSTRUCTIVISM - combined engineering and
FUNCTIONALISM Haven, Connecticut (1974)
technology that flourished in Russia in
- Louis I Kahn
1920s-1930s
- from Russian futurism
Villa Savoy, Poissy, France (1931)
- glass and steel
- Le Corbusier
- machine-made building parts
- technological details (ex. antennae,
Steiner House, Wien, Austria (1910)
signs, projection screens)
- Adolf Loos
- abstract geometric shapes
- sense of movement
AEG Turbine Factory, Berlin
83. EXAMPLES OF Talin's Tower, Russia (1920) Germany (1910)
CONSTRUCTIVISM - Vladimir Tatlin - Peter Behrens
90. FUNCTIONALISM - Le Corbusier
USSR Pavilion, Paris (1925)
PRACTITIONERS - Peter Behrens
- Konstantin Melnikov
- Adolf Loos
84. CONSTRUCTIVISM - Vladimir Tatlin
91. INTERNATIONAL - Bauhaus in the USA, symbol of
PRACTITIONERS - Konstantin Melnikov
STYLE capitalism
- Nikolai Milyutin
- favored office buildings and homes
- Aleksandr Vesnin
for the rich
- Leonid Vesnin
- geometric, monolithic skyscrapers
- Viktor Vesnin
- flat roof
- Vladimir Krinsky
- glass curtain wall
- Lakov Chernikhov
- no ornamentation
85. BAUHAUS - german expression=house or building - stone, steel, glass
- architecture in its most pure form,
92. EXAMPLES OF UN Secretariat bldg, New York (1952)
devoid of ornamentation
INTERNATIONAL - Le Corbusier
- flat roofs
STYLE
- smooth facades
Seagram Building, New York (1958)
- cubic shapes
- Ludwig Mies van de Rohe
- white, gray, beige, black
- steel frame with glass curtain walls
Lakeshore Drive Arts, Chicago,
Illinois (1951)
- Ludwig Mies van de Rohe
93. INTERNATIONAL STYLE - Le Corbusier 100. HIGH-TECH - machine-like, preference for
PRACTITIONERS - Richard Neutra technology and tectonics
- Philip Johnson - steel, aluminum, glass
- Ludwig Mies van de Rohe - bright colored braces, girders,
beams
94. DESERT MODERNISM - reginal International Style
- prefabricated parts
approach
- utilities system on the exterior
- rocks, trees, landscape
- universal interior spaces
- expensive glass walls and
windows 101. EXAMPLES OF HIGH- Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
- dramatic rooflines TECH (1977)
- wide overhangs - Richard Rogers & Renzo Piano
- steel and plastic + wood and
stone London City Hall, London (2002)
- open floor plans - Norman Foster
- outdoor living spaces
102. HIGH-TECH - Norman Foster
95. EXAMPLES OF DESERT Edris House, Palm Springs, CA. PRACTITIONERS - Renzo Piano
MODERNISM (1954) - Richard Rogers
- Stewart Williams
103. BRUTALISM - architecture of raw concrete or
beton brut (1950s-70s)
Kaufmann House, Palm Springs,
- precast concrete slabs
CA. (1946)
- rough, unfinished surfaces
- Richard Neutra
- exposed steel beams
96. DESERT MODERNISM - William F. Cody - massive, sculptural shapes
PRACTITIONERS - Albert Frey
104. EXAMPLES OF Laboratories, Long Island
- John Lauthner
BRUTALISM - Paul Rudolph
- Richard Neutra
- Donald Wexler
Ronchamp Chapel, France (1995)
- E. Stewart Williams
- Le Corbusier
97. STRUCTURALISM - spatial system architecture
- living cells St. John's Abbey, Minnesota (1958)
- cell like, honeycomb shapes - Marcel Breur
- intersecting planes, cubed
105. BRUTALISM - Le Corbusier
grids
PRACTITIONERS - Paulo Mendes da Rocha
- densely clustered spaces,
- Marcel Bruer
connecting courtyards
106. DECONSTRUCTIVISM - to disturb and dislocate the
98. EXAMPLES OF Habitat 67, Canada (1967)
structure of a building
STRUCTURALISM - Moshe Safdie
- aesthetic controlled chaos
- fragmentation
El Castell, Sitges, Spain (1968)
- no visual logic
- Ricardo Bofill
- unrelated, disharmonious, abstract
forms
Palais Bulles (Bubble Palace) of
Pierre Cardin (1984)
- Annti Lovag
99. STRUCTURALISM - Piet Blom
PRACTITIONERS - Aldo van Eyck
- Herman Hertzberger
- Antti Lovag
107. EXAMPLES OF Experience Music Project, Seattle, 112. METABOLISM - cities are living things that can change
DECONSTRUCTIVISM Washington (2000) over time
- Frank Gehry - prefabrication, expansion, and
contraction based on need
Royal Ontario Museum/The Crystal, - attachable/detachable substructure
Canada (1912 & 2007) - replaceable units (cells/pods)
- Daniel Libeskind - sustainability
113. EXAMPLES OF Nagakin Capsule Tower, Tokyo (1972)
Hotel Marques de Riscal, Elciego,
METABOLISM - Kisho Kurokawa
Spain (2006)
- Frank Gehry
Shizuoka Press & Broadcasting Center,
Tokyo (1967)
Bus Stop, Aachen, Germany (1996)
- Kenzo Tange
- Peter Eisenman
114. METABOLISM - Fumihiko Maki
Seattle Public Library, Washington PRACTITIONERS - Masato Otaka
(2004) - Kiyonari Kikutake
- Rem Koolhaas - Kisho Kurokawa
- Arata Kozaki
Beko Building, Belgrade, Serbia - Kenzo Tange
(2004) 115. ORGANICISM - building should complement its
- Zaha Hadid environment so as to create a single,
108. DECONSTRUCTIVISM - Peter Eisenman unified space that appears to "grow
PRATITIONERS - Daniel Libeskind naturally" out of the ground. - Frank Lloyd
- Zaha Hadid Wright
- Frank O. Gehry - use of natural colors
- Rem Koolhaas - reveal the nature of materials
- open up spaces
109. MINIMALISM - reductive design
- a place for natural foliage
- only the most essential elements
- emphasis on the outline/frame 116. EXAMPLES OF Fallingwater (Kaufmann House), Mill Run,
- elimination of interior walls ORGANICISM Pennsylvania (1964)
- lighting to dramatize lines and - Frank Lloyd Wright
planes
- negative spaces around the Joshua Treehouse, Mojave Dessert, CA.
structure are part of the overall (2000)
design - Kendrick Bangs Kellogg

110. EXAMPLES OF Koshino House, Kobe, Japan (1984) 117. ORGANICISM - Frank Lloyd Wright
MINIMALISM - Tadao Ando PRACTITIONER
118. POST- - combining new ideas with traditional
Casa Giraloi, Mexico City (1976) MODERNISM forms
- Luis Barragan - symbolisms to make a statement or
simply to delight the viewer
Bridge Hampton Residence, New - colors
York (2010)
119. EXAMPLES OF Sony Building (formerly AT&T bldg), New
- Richard Gluckman
POST- York (1984)
111. MINIMALIST - Tadao Ando MODERNISM - Philip Johnson
PRACTITIONERS - Luis Barragan
- Yoshio Taniguchi Portland Building, Oregon (1982)
- Richard Gluckman - Michael Graves

Team Disney Building, Burbank, CA. (1986)


- Michael Graves
120. POST-MODERNISM - Robert Venturi 126. EXAMPLES OF 2008 Olympic Stadium/Bird's Nest,
PRACTITIONERS - Michael Graves BIOMORPHISM Beijing, China (2008)
- Robert A.M. Stern - Herzog & de Meuron
121. SUSTAINABLE - minimize the negative
Aqua Tower, Chicago, Illinois (2010)
ARCHITECTURE environmental impact
- Studio Gang Architects
- efficiency and moderation in the
(reflected the sky and lake Michigan
use of materials, energy and
with waves)
development space
122. EXAMPLES OF Proposed Heathrow International Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain
SUSTAINABLE Airport's Greenfield Atrium, London (1882-2026)
ARCHITECTURE (2016) - Antoni Gaudi and Mark Burry
- Grimshaw, Hadid, HOK & Benoy (tree-like columns that branch out to
Architects the ceiling)

US Pavilion's Vertical Farm and Sydney Opera House, Australia (1973)


Green Wall, Italy (2015) - Jørn Utzon
(sliced oranges)
Indochine Cafe, Vietnam
127. BLOBITECTURE - wavy, curvy design
- Vo Trong Nghia Architects
- no traditional edges
- no traditional symmetric form
Asia's First Bottle School, San Pablo,
Philippines 128. EXAMPLES OF Graz Art Museum, Graz, Austria
BLOBITECTURE (2003)
Energy-Plus Homes, Freiburg, - Peter Cook
Germany
Metropol Parasol, Seville, Spain (2011)
Mechanical Louvres - Jürgen Hermann Mayer
- move in 3 dimensions to adapt to
sunlight at different times of the day Selfridges Building, Birmingham, UK
- Tyler Short (2003)
- Future Systems
123. ZOOMORPHIC/ - late 20th and early 21st century
NEW ANIMAL - literal and abstract representation
The Sage Gateshead Theater, New
ARCHITECTURE of animal forms
Castle, England (2004)
124. EXAMPLES OF Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin - Norman Foster
ZOOMORPHIC (2001) (fish)
- Santiago Calatrava

Zayed National Museum, Abu Dhabi


(2016) (flight of a falcon)
- Norman Foster

Nautilus House, Mexico (2006)


(snail)
- Javier Senosiain
125. BIOMORPHISM - inspiration from mother nature