Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Two-dimensional woven fabric has three types (1) Normal Fabric (2) Leno Fabric (3) Triaaxial

Fabric. Here we will discuss only leno and triaxial fabrics.

Leno fabric is made from two warp yarns and one weft yarn. Leno-weave is also known as
gauze, doup or cross weave, and differs from normal fabric weaves in its level of complexity
both in terms of fabric formation and structure. Warp yarns in leno fabrics comprise of
stationary ends (also called standard ends or straight ends) and crossing ends (or looping
ends). Two groups of warp threads are arranged in leno pairs. In normal fabrics, warp ends
lay parallel to and interlace with the weft threads. The structure of leno-weave fabric differs
substantially from that of other weaves. The adjacent warps in leno-weave fabrics are twisted
together to form a special open structure. Warp yarns are divided into stationary ends and
crossing ends. The stationary ends stay parallel with the fabric lengthways during weaving,
while crossing ends appear on both the right side and left side of the ground ends alternately.
The crossing ends are twisted with the stationary ends, as the former change position on the
stationary end side. Once removed from the loom the stationary ends are bent under the
stress of the crossing ends. It has open structure and used for window curtain, vegetable
storage bags, reinforcement materials for papers, grinding wheel and as backing materials of
many products e.g. foam nonwoven etc. It is also used in making fashionable veils and
overskirt.

There are three types of leno weaving system, easyleno, powerleno and posilleno. Each
system has different shedding mechanism and claim high speed weaving process.

Triaxial weaving uses three sets of parallel fibres, known as the warp, the whug and the
weft. These fibres are typically at angles of 60 degrees to each other. The whug is not
present in conventional, biaxial weaving. The three sets of parallel fibres can be interwoven
in a variety of patterns, producing fabrics with a variety of different weights and properties.
Desirable properties exhibited by triaxial fabrics include extremely light weight, good
resistance to damage, near-isotropic strain resistance and the ability to withstand shearing
forces.

Triaxial fabrics typically have good tear resistance, abrasion resistance and bursting
resistance. They also have good isotropic strain resistance, due to fibres running in many
directions. Ladders in the fabric tend not to propagate very easily, since two-thirds of the
elements in the fabric have to break for a ladder to propagate.