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ST.

LAWRENCE COLLEGE
OF HIGHER EDUCATION

Session: (2018-2020)
B.ED. 1 YEAR
ST

Preliminary school
ENGAGEMENT -2
CODE: BED156

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:


Miss.bhavya YESHI CHAUHAN
1
(asst. professor) ENROLLMENT NO. :
40399902118

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am using this opportunity to express my gratitude to
the Chairman and Principal ST. LAWRENCE COLLEGE
OF HIGHER EDUCATION , for giving me an opportunity
for being a part of Preliminary School Engagement 2.
It is my humble privilege to record the names of
those who have helped me in the completion of this
assignment. First of all, I am grateful to my subject
teacher Mrs. MAM, Miss. MANVI Mam , Mrs.
SUKHWINDER KAUR, Miss. BHAVYA SHARMA and
Miss. KANIKA ARORA for giving us guidance in such a
wonderful manner for this assignment. This would
not have been a success without their guidance and
support.
2
I would like to express my deepest
appreciations to all those humble teachers who
permitted me to observe in their classrooms.

PARTICULARS TEACHER’S
SIGNATURE

OBSERVATION OF SCHOOL
INFORMATION ABOUT SHOOL
SCHOOL INFRASTRUCTURE
CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITY
CCA ACTIVITY IN SCHOOL
CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION
PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS IN CARRYING OUT CCE
ASSIGNMENT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
ASSIGNMENT OF HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL
FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION
ASSIGNMENT OF ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING
ASSIGNMENT OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH

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ASSIGNMENT OF TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

OBSERVATION
A classroom observation is a formal or informal observation of teaching while it is taking
place in a classroom or other learning environment . Typically conducted by fellow
teachers, administrators, or instructional specialists, classroom observations are often
used to provide teachers with constructive critical feedback aimed at improving their
classroom management and instructional techniques. School administrators also
regularly observe teachers as an extension of formal job-performance evaluations.
Classroom observations may be called learning walks, teacher observations,
walkthroughs, and many other things, and they may be conducted for shorter or longer
periods of time—from a few minutes to a full class period or school day. Educators may
also use a wide variety of classroom-observation methods —some may be nationally
utilized models developed by educational experts, while others may be homegrown
processes created by the educators using them. In many cases, observation notes are
recorded using common templates or guidelines that describe what observers should be
looking for or what the observed teacher would like feedback on. Increasingly, educators
are conducting and recording classroom observations using digital and online
technologies—such as smartphones, tablets, and subscription-based online systems—that
can provide educators with observational functionality and data analytics that would not
be possible if paper-based processes were used. While classroom observations are
conducted for a wide variety of purposes, they are perhaps most commonly associated
with job-performance evaluations conducted by school administrators and with
professional learning communities groups of teachers who work together to improve their
instructional skills. Classroom observations may be conducted by teachers in the same
content area or grade level—in these cases, teachers share students or similar expertise—
or they may be conducted by teachers across academic disciplines—in this case, the goal
may be to observe and learn from the varied instructional practices used in different types
of classes. It should also be noted that many educators make a strict delineation between
observations made for the purposes of helping a teacher improve, and those conducted for
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the purposes of job-performance evaluation. Some educators may object to the use of
walkthrough, or other terms associated with non administrative observations, when
referencing evaluative observations by school administrators. Reform Generally speaking,
classroom observations could be considered a de-facto school-improvement A classroom
observation is a formal or informal observation of teaching while it is taking place in a
classroom or other learning environment. School administrators also regularly observe
teachers as an extension of formal job-performance evaluations. Classroom observations
may be called learning walks, teacher observations, walkthroughs, and many other things,
and they may be conducted for shorter or longer periods of time—from a few minutes to a
full class period or school day. Educators may also use a wide variety of classroom-
observation methods —some may be nationally utilized models developed by educational
experts, while others may be homegrown processes created by the educators using them.
In many cases, observation notes are recorded using common templates or guidelines that
describe what observers should be looking for or what the observed teacher would like
feedback on. Increasingly, educators are conducting and recording classroom
observations using digital and online technologies—such as smartphones, tablets, and
subscription-based online systems—that can provide educators with observational
functionality and data analytics that would not be possible if paper-based processes were
used. While classroom observations are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, they are
perhaps most commonly associated with job-performance evaluations conducted by
school administrators and with professional learning communities groups of teachers who
work together to improve their instructional skills. Classroom observations may be
conducted by teachers in the same content area or grade level—in these cases, teachers
share students or similar expertise—or they may be conducted by teachers across
academic disciplines—in this case, the goal may be to observe and learn from the varied
instructional practices used in different types of classes. It should also be noted that many
educators make a strict delineation between observations made for the purposes of
helping a teacher improve, and those conducted for the purposes of job-performance
evaluation. Some educators may object to the use of walkthrough, or other terms
associated with nonadministrative observations, when referencing evaluative
observations by school administrators. Reform Generally speaking, classroom
observations could be considered a de-facto school-improvement.

5
1. NAME OF THE SCHOOL: SHRI SANATAN DHARAM
SEC SCHOOL

2. ADDRESS: SHRI RAGHUNATH MANDIR, KRISHNA


NAGAR, GHONDLI, DELHI

3. RURAL/URBAN : Urban

4. NAME OF THE CITY : New Delhi

5. DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT : In the year 1979

6. STAGE AND TYPE OF SCHOOL: Co-Educational


Secondary School.

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7. NAME OF THE PRINCIPAL: SMT MEENU SHARMA

Location and Overview

Standing apart from the rest is Shri Sanatan Dharam Sec School
in Delhi with its well defined morals and teachings. From then on
it has made and continues to make a significant mark on the
students that pass out from here. The school stands on a strong
foundation that has been built from high standard values and
immense respect for another. Along with the academics that it
pays great attention to, it inculcates in its students the
understanding of how to deal with various life situations too. The
school is well recognised in the educational sector and across the
city too. Owning a chief location in the place, the establishment
is convenient for a number of the students. One can spot the
college on which would be right next to Shri Raghunath Mandir,
Ghondli which is also a major landmark in the vicinity. The
neighbourhood is well connected and for older students who

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travel on their own, transport to various parts of the city is easily
available.

CRITICAL
ANALYSIS OF
SCHOOL
INFRASTRUCTURE
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 The shape of the building is rectangular and constructed in a
well-mannered way.
 There are two floors in the school building
 The materials used in the making of a building are of good quality
known from the management.
 There is proper ventilation in the whole building.
 The size of the rooms are constructed appropriately i.e.,
according to the good capacity of desks.
 Desks in the schools are placed very well as there is proper
distance between the two rows.
 There are well maintained laboratories in the school i.e., with the
required equipment.
 Also there are 6 classrooms in the school along with 3 other
rooms.
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 Playground of the school is clean
 Separate washrooms are available for both boys and girls.

PLAY GROUND

NAME OF THE TEACHER : Mr. Vinod Sir


LOCATION : Centre of the school
TYPES OF GAMES : Indoor and Outdoor games
INDOOR GAME : Badminton
OUTDOOR GAME : Cricket 22 yards
Volleyball
Long jump 9m×2.75m

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SPORTS MATERIAL AVAILABLE : yes

Playground is an outdoor area used for outdoor play or recreation,


especially by children, and often containing recreational equipment
such as slides and swings. This school has 2 playgrounds one is for
junior students, and one for senior students. One of the playgrounds
is out of school premises. Floor of playground was very harsh.
School Library

LOCATION : Second floor


TOTAL NO. OF BOOKS : 1000
TYPES OF BOOKS : Story books, Novels, Magazines, References books,
Sample Paper
NO. OF ALMIRAHS : 4 Almirahs
NO. OF BOOK RACKS : 16 Racks
NO. OF TABLES : 1 Tables

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NO. OF CHAIRS : 4 Chairs
NO. OF WINDOWS : 4 Windows
NO. OF FANS : 4 Fans
NO. OF DOORS : 2 Doors
NO. OF BENCHES : 1 Bench
The library is considered to be a very important part of the school. Library
is considered to the store house of all the books. The library of school is
not only used by the students but also used by the teachers. On the
observation of library it was found to be well maintained books shelves,
new collection of books , quotes ( present on the wall) and many more.

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Water is essential for life. We can say that water is life. An adequate
water supply must be available to all. Providing safe and hygienic
water to school children is very important. Safe water supply should be
available in schools. In this school I have observed that there are total
four water coolers in school i.e. one water cooler in each floor. The
water coolers are in working condition and supplying cool water to the
school students.
There is little need of maintenance and cleanliness around the water
coolers so that the students can safely drink good quality of water in
hygienic condition.

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Schools provide excellent opportunities to support sanitation and hygiene
promotion programs. The curriculum naturally offers opportunities to
teach about dirt and disease and what can practically be done to improve
health through better sanitation and hygiene. Construction and use of
appropriate child friendly sanitary facilities (hand washing, stations, soap
and toilets) can be especially effective in reducing the incidence of
Diarrhea.

In Guru Harkrishan Public School we see that there is good sanitation


facility provided, keeping in mind the health of children.

School provides sufficient sanitation facilities such as toilets, hand


washing facilities, water supplies available in the school grounds and on
each floor of the school building. All those facilities which are provided in
the school are kept clean, are durable and the maintenance is organized.
The sanitation facilities are child, gender and age friendly. Everyone uses
them.

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The only thing that needs to be kept in mind is the cleanliness of the
washrooms. They are only cleaned once a day whereas they should be
cleaned at least twice as the floor gets wet very quickly. And also there
should be soaps or hand wash kept for better hygiene of the students.

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COMPONENT-1

Organise co-curricular activities


and record experiences in a
reflective journal

INTRODUCTION OF CCA
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CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES (CCA) earlier known as Extra
curricular Activities (ECA) are the components of non – academic
curriculum. These help to develop various facts of the personality
development of the child and students.

DEFINITION OF CCA
CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES are defined as the activities that
enable to supplement and complement the curricular or main syllabi
activities.

TYPES OF CCA

 Literary Activities
 Physical Development Activities
 Aesthetic & Cultural Development Activities
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 Civic Development Activities
 Social Welfare Activities
 Leisure Time Activities
 Excursion Activities

 Literary activities-
 Debate and discussion
 Story Writing
 Recitation
 Seminar
 School Magazine
 Physical development activities
 Games
 Athletics
 Parade
 Scouting
 NCC

 Aesthetic & cultural development activities


 Music
 Dancing

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 Drawing
 Fancy dress
 Civic development activities
 Student Council
 Celebration of religious, national& social
festivals
 Organising School Panchayat
 Social welfare activities
 Social study circle
 Cultural Programmes
 Social survey
 First aid & red cross
 Leisure time activities
 Stamp collection
 Coin collection
 Photography
 Excursion activities
 Picnic
 Visit to Museum
 Visit to exhibition

ORGANIZATION OF CCA:
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NAME OF THE SCHOOL: SHRI SANATAM
DHARAM SEC. SCHOOL
NAME OF THE CONTEST: Debate.
CLASS :6th C

NAME OF PARTICIPANTS:
Group A: (Ashish, Amanita, Anurag, Karun, Priya)

Group B: (Pooja, Kirti, Abhishek, Aditi, Neha)

Group C: (Palak, Aarushi, Tarun, Megha, Mayank)

Group D: (Rachna, Nisha, Suman, Rishi, Lalit)

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RULES OF CONTEST :
Rules for Classroom Debate

 Each group is to agree on two to three significant points of


argument.

 The “pro” group will read the first point of argument. A


debate on the validity of that particular point will ensure,
providing others in the group opportunities to elaborate and
the “con” group opportunities to counter.

 One person speaks at a time. No side discussions!

 All comments must address the previous student comment


directly. You may not simply ignore a comment and shift the
argument to an unrelated point.

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 Each person will credit the source of any statistic,
quotation, survey, or other research information. At the time
that source is mentioned during the debate.

STEPS:

1. Know who are participating.


2. Tell your participants to proper like write some key points
to discuss.
3. Allow them to speak on their respective side of the debates.
4. Do not allow it go on and on.
5. Find a pleasant solution to create an artificial ending.
6. Maintain decorum.

DEBATE ETIQUETTE:
1. Team members must meet together in preparation for the
debate, so they can work together as an effective team.
Practice, practice, practice!

2. All members of each side must participate in the debate.

3. Do not read your materials.

4. You may bring some brief notes, but you may not read them.

5. Maintain good eye contact with the audience.

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6. Use proper language and be polite in referring to your
opposing team.

CRITERION OF JUDGEMENT

All statement, body language and responses are judged on the


basis of relevance, confidence, timings, speaking skills and
overall presentation of students as follows:-

 RELEVANCE: It is the appropriateness of the topic

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 CONFIDENCE: The state of expressing the content without
doubt, with full research.

 TIMINGS: The students were given 2 minutes time to


express their points

 SPEAKING SKILLS: The language, Fluency and content are


checked.

 OVERALL PRESENTATION: Relevance, confidence, timings,


speaking skills of the students are observed.

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Result

 Teams were divided into 4 group Team A, B, C and D.


 Students actively participated and discussed about topic
fluently and confidently.

 Students enjoyed a lot and they were very confident about


the points they spoke.
 Everybody performed well, whole class thoroughly
participated.
At the end Team B won the debate, they scored the
highest- 23 points.

WINNER – Team B won the


competition.

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CHALLENGES FACED
1) Some students were getting offensive in between the
debate
2) Sometimes their voice was not audible.
3) They were also diverted from the given topic.

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4) During arguments, some students took the arguments
seriously and started teasing each other.

SUGGESTIONS
 If By phrasing questions and criticism carefully, you can
generally avoid defensive or hostile responses. You are
supportive, encouraging, and respectful of student ideas in
class; you can correct wrong answers or point out
weaknesses without discouraging your students.
 Always show students the courtesy of listening to and
responding to their answers when they offer an idea.
 Rather than dismissing a weak or inaccurate idea
immediately, ask the student to clarify it using class
material. Often, students can talk their way into a more
thoughtful response.

 You will also want to be careful about teasing or sarcastic


humor, since these are all too often easily misinterpreted.

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We visited class 6th in our arrangement period where we had
to organize a Co-Curricular Activity (CCA). We organize a
debate competition and made four teams and asked the teams
to speak on the topic different sources of energy. Firstly, I
explained the rules of competition to class. Then students
asked their doubts to us. We invited the interested students in
the front of the class from each group and they submitted their
names in group to my partner. Four teams were formed like A,
B, C, D. Then we had a judgement sheet and rating scale
through which we easily judged and finally we declared the
result of this competition i.e. team B won this competition.

All the groups performed really well.

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LEARNING OUTCOME
1) By praising questions and criticism carefully defensive or
hostile responses can do be avoided.
2) If we are supportive encouraging and respectful to students’
idea in class we can correct wrong answer or point out
weakness without discouraging students.
3) Always show students the courtesy of listening to and
responding to their answer when they offer an idea.
4) Rather than dismissing a weak or inaccurate idea
immediately ask the student to clearly it using class
material after students can talk their way into a more
thoughtful response.
5) You will also have to be careful about testing or sarcastic
humor, since there are all too often misinterpreted.

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COMPONENT-2

 A reflective journal on the problem


faced by the teacher in assessment
through the scheme of CCE

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MEANING OF CONTINOUS AND
COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION

Continuous and comprehensive evaluation is an approach that


aims at assessing these attributes of the personality of the
students which cannot be accessed through one written
examination. It assesses the allround personality of the child,
which is not possible through the traditional system of
examination.

There are three terms involved in the framework of


‘continuous’, ‘comprehensive’, ‘evaluation’.

CCE = CONTINUOUS + COMPREHENSIVE + EVALUATION

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CONTINUOUS
The term ‘continuous’ refers to regular assessment. The
growth of the child is a continuous process thereafter, it
should be evaluated continuously. It means that evaluation
has to be completely integrated with teaching and learning
process so that the progress of the students can be evaluated
regularly and frequently.

COMPREHENSIVE
The term ‘Comprehensive’ refers to both the scholastic and no
scholastic areas of the pupil growth. In fact, the fun of the

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school is not only to build up the cognitive capacities of the
child but also to develop the non-cognitive abilities. This can
be ensured only by comprehensive evaluation. It converts the
whole range of the student’s experiences. It includes aspects
of his personality like physical, intellectual, social and
emotional growth.

EVALUATION
Evaluation is the process of finding out the extent to which
the desired changes have taken place in the pupils. Therefore,
it requires collection of evidence regarding growth or progress
of the child. This information gathering, judgement making
and decision making, are the three phases of the process of
evaluation.

 Daily Evaluation
 Monthly Evaluation
 Weakly Evaluation
 Half Yearly Evaluation
 Yearly Evaluation

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TYPES OF EVALUATION

 FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Formative Assessment
Formative assessment takes place during the formative years of the
student. It implies evaluation of pupil’s during instruction. It takes into
account smaller and independent units of curriculum. In the end of
each unit, students should be given tests and measures should
diagnose. Formative test is constructed for evaluation of each unit.

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Summative Assessment
Summative assessment is a type of evaluation used at the end of
term/course or programme. For the purpose of grading, certificate,
evaluating progress or research on the effectiveness of curriculum,
course of study or educational plan. For Summative Assessment tests
the general level of student is judged, on the bases of student’s
performance. The effectiveness of teaching and instruction of
evaluated. Thus it provides reinforcement to teachers and help in
planning and organising of further teaching.

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Term Type of assessment Percentage Term Total
weightage in -wise
academic weigh
session tage

First Term Formative 10% FA1


(April- Assessment-1 +
September) FA2
=
Formative 10%
20%
Assessment-2
Formative=40%
Summative 30% SA1=
Assessment-1 30% Summative=60%

Second Formative 10% FA3 Total=100%


Term Assessment-3 +
(October- Formative 10% FA4
March) Assessment-4 =
20%
Summative 30% SA2=
Assessment-2 30%

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Problem faced by the teachers
during CCE
 Teachers felt that the syllabus was lengthy and thus found
difficulty in implementation of CCE in classes.
 Due to heavy syllabus they were finding it difficult to
manage time while implementing CCE. They had to hurry
while carrying out CCE in order to finish syllabus on time and
thus couldn't give proper justice to CCE at times.
 Most of the teachers handled classes with more than forty
students and this made it difficult for them to effectively
implement CCE. They were also not able to give personal
attention to students while assessing them due to the high
strength.
 Another problem being faced was that many students were
not submitting their assignments on time. According to
teachers this was mainly because students were not
properly aware of CCE and its implementation.
 Every child differs from the other with respect to his abilities
and talent in each task. Teachers were not clear on how to
make assessments in such situations.

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Problems faced by the students
during CCE
 Staying ahead of the curve (use of new media, curriculum
and assessment tools).
 Activity wise focus on each individual is difficult.
 Criteria of discipline created problems.
 Making learning truly inclusive (catering to every child’s
needs)
 Enabling participative learning
 Managing relationships (parents, other teachers, service
providers)
 Non scholastic grade affected academically.
 Continuous checking and correctly evaluating the thinking
skills is difficult.

CONCLUSION
Evaluation is one of the indispensable components of any
curriculum. It plays a very crucial role in teaching learning
process and influences the quality of teaching and learning.
Only when learners are evaluated, can their weaknesses and
difficulties be diagnosed and remedies are given for more
effective learning. With the onset of globalization a skilled
workforce is the demand of the hour and for this all round
development of learner is very important. A lot of innovations
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are being made in schools for the same and the introduction
of CCE is one among them. But mere implementation of CCE
would not ensure the desired results. Findings of the present
study also direct towards the same. Workshops conducted are
not adequate. More workshops and training programmes have
to be conducted periodically and feedback taken from
teachers simultaneously. Teachers need to be given more
clarity and more specific materials on how exactly to conduct
CCE and on how to tackle the problems they face while
implementing CCE in their classes. More uniformity has to be
bought in implementation of CCE. Discussion sessions have to
be organized for the same at State level. Studies have to be
taken up to evaluate the implementation of CCE. This would
help find out the problems and challenges that hinder proper
implementation of CCE and thus help in finding solutions for
the same.

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COMPONENT-3
Observation of children at
play:

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1). Group game- Kho-Kho

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Rules:
 Each side consists of 9 players.
 An innings will consist of chasing and running turns
which will be of seven minutes duration. Each match
will consist of two innings.
 An interval of 5 minutes is allowed after an inning
and 2 minutes between two turns. The side of the
chasers scores one point for putting out each
runner.
 The chaser or runner has the option to end the turn
before the expiry of the allotted time.
 The captain of the toss winning team will have the
choice of chasing or running.
 At the commencement of the game the eight
chasers (players sitting in the squares) will sit in the
squares facing opposite directions. No adjacent
chasers should face in the same direction. The 9th
chaser will stand at either of the posts.
 The runners will fix their entry serially with the
scorer.
 With the commencement of the game three runners
are to get inside the court. As soon as a runner is
put out the next three runners must enter the field
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before "kho" is given. If a runner fails to enter the
field, he is given out.

 A runner goes out by the following means:

 If touched by a chaser.
 Fails to enter the field when a runner is given out.
 If he touches the seated chasers twice or after
receiving a warning for similar infringement.

 Rules for the chasers:

 "Kho" is to be given from behind a sitting chaser and


loudly.
 The seated chaser shall not get up without getting
"kho".
 An active chaser shall not recede to give "kho".
 An active chaser shall sit down immediately after
giving "kho".
 After getting "kho" the sitting chaser becomes
active and follows the direction he is facing.
 An active chaser is not to cross the centre line.
 He is to take the direction that he has initially taken
to the M or N posts.
 When an active chaser leaves a post, he shall go in
the direction of other post remaining on the side of
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the centre line which he was facing before leaving
the post.
 Chasers are not to obstruct runners while being
seated.
 The face (shoulder line) of an active chaser must be
in a direction he has taken. He shall not turn his
face. He is only allowed to turn his face parallel to
the centre line.
 If a foul is committed by an active chaser he will be
directed to go in the opposite direction of his chaser
as indicated by the umpire and if a runner is put out
by this act he will not be given out.
 When an active chaser lets go his hold of the post or
goes beyond the rectangles he is known as leaving
the post.
 Team players: - A team consist of 12 Players, one
Coach, One Manager and other Supporting Staff. 9
Players will take the Field in the beginning to start
the match.

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Observation:

Observational Traits Not Beginning Developing Consistent


Observed
Motor Skills (Gross Motor
Skills and Fine Motor Skills)
● Demonstrates Physical

Strength

● Moves with Co-
ordination and balance ✓
● Demonstrates Control

Language used during Play


(Verbal and Non- Verbal)
● Use language to
communicate ideas and
feelings ✓
● Follows verbal and non- ✓
verbal instructions to
participate in an activity
and acts accordingly ✓
● Incorporates imaginary
objects into their play


Interactions
● Extent to which ✓
Children Coordinate
with each other

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● Demonstrates positive ✓
attitude towards self and ✓
others
● Respects the rights of
self and others

Making Rules and


Following them

● Follows rules ✓
● Manages transitions
without disputes ✓
● Express anger in words
● Moves from one
emotional state to
another (angry to calm)
Gender Behaviour
● Shows gender ✓
difference (selection of
games)
● Selects gender based ✓
playmates
● Show competency
among similar gender ✓
group

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Pattern of Negotiation and
resolving Conflict( Verbal
and Physical Tactics)

● Compromising
● Shows empathy ✓
● Sharing (giving or
taking a toy, entering a ✓
play space)

● Bartering

● Argumenting
● Expressive
● Aggressive ✓
● Seeking adult ✓ ✓
intervention
● Taking advantage of
physical age, size, ✓
ability or knowledge ✓
● Expresses anger in
appropriate ways

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Strategies:
 The team discuss and select active and extra
players for any emergency.
 The chasing team try to “out” most runners with
least no of fouls.
 The teams try to have most fouls of opponent team.
 The chasing player tries to spend at most time at
the playground so that opposite team gets least
score.

Relationship between teams:


 The teams had game spirit and were supportive.
 Did not intentionally disturb the game.
 The teams had some dispute over a point where
decision of re free was taken as final.

analysis and interpretations:


 Preparations were done before starting game like
distributing players in the teams, drawing
boundaries, making score cards, checking ground to

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be free from pebbles, motivating players to take
active participation with game spirit and team spirit.
 Players were introduced to rules and following them
just before starting.
 No sport uniform was there, playing in school dress
with sweaters and blazers, sports shoes and PT
shoes.
 It was sunny day of winter season where players
were enjoying playing, surface was sandy court.
 First aid facility was present in case of any injury.

Motor skills:
 Kho- Kho needs a good physical fitness as it involve
sit-ups, jumps, running, balancing, etc,
 Hands, legs, and abdominal muscles get developed
and strengthened with practicing the game.
 In addition it needs a very attentive mind with good
coordination to all body muscles.

49
Language and interaction:
 The language used was informal and local language
was used; e.g. “ oye kho de kho de”, “oye suunn”.
 The mode of language was bilingual;e.g.”bs do
minute oor”

Interaction Between teams:


 The teams had competitive nature and also had
dispute at a player being out or not.
 The game spirit and team spirit was there; the
decision of re free was accepted by all and team
members were motivating each other as well.

Individual to individual:
 Individuals had their different capacity and
potentials which added to the performance of the
team.
 The team members were cooperative and
motivating, they well coordinated to win the match.

50
With teacher or coach:
 The teacher Mrs.Neelam was giving instructions
about any rule violation or directing them; the
players listened to her and acted accordingly.

Resolving conflicts:
 When the chaser run out a player some players of
the team shouted “out- out” and a small conflict
arose but the decision of teacher was accepted by
players and the conflict was solved.

Gender behaviour:
 No gender biasness or gender stereotype was
observed.
 Both the girls and boys played the game.

Learning outcomes:
 We observed what preparations are needed to
conduct the game like- scheduling, team making,
motivating, drawing the ground, making score cards.

51
 As the game is a team game it needs well
coordination, team working.
 Punctuality and agility are keys and also it needs
high confidence, presence of very active mind,
physical fitness, good stamina, etc.

Suggestions:
 Two re frees on both sides are needed so that any
conflicts can be solved easily.
 Audiences should be motivating all teams without
any kind of biasness.
 Proper sports dress which allow easy movement of
all body parts, and to avoid injuries as well.
 Game spirit of players must be high so that they can
give their best without conflictions and quarrel.

We observed the benefits of the sport and how to


organise it, so we will keep these things in mind in
case we have to organise that kind of event.

52
2). Group game- Volleyball

53
Rules:

 Playing area:
 Indoor court is 18m x 9m, also include an attack
area designated by line 3m back from centre line.
 Lines of court are 5cm (2”) wide.
 Free zone is minimum 2m wide.

 Net height:
 Height of net shall be 2.43m for men 2.24 m for
women.

 Ball:
 Circumference: 65- 67 cm
 Weight: 260- 280 grams
 Inside pressure: 0.30 – 0.325 kg/cm2

 Playing the ball:


 Maximum hit to return ball (in addition to blocking)
is 3 hits.
 6 players on a team, 3 on the front row and 3 on the
back row.
 Maximum of three hits per side.
54
 Player may not hit the ball twice in succession (A
block is not considered a hit)
 A ball hitting a boundary line is in.
 A ball is out if it hits
 An antennae,
 The floor completely outside the court,
 Any of the net or cables outside the antennae,
 The referee stand or pole,
 The ceiling above a non-playable area.
 It is legal to contact the ball with any part of a
player’s body.
 It is illegal to catch, hold, or throw the ball.
 If two or more players contact the ball at the same
time, it is considered one play and either player
involved may make the next contact (provided the
next contact isn’t the teams 4th hit.)
 A player cannot block or attack a serve from on or
inside the 10 foot line.
 After the serve, front line players may switch
positions at the net.

Observation
Observational Traits Not Beginning Developing Consistent
Observed

55
Motor Skills (Gross Motor
Skills and Fine Motor Skills)
● Demonstrates Physical

Strength

● Moves with Co-
ordination and balance ✓
● Demonstrates Control

Language used during Play


(Verbal and Non- Verbal)
● Use language to
communicate ideas and
feelings ✓
● Follows verbal and ✓
non-verbal instructions
to participate in an
activity and acts ✓
accordingly
● Incorporates imaginary
objects into their play

Interactions
● Extent to which ✓
Children Coordinate
with each other
● Demonstrates positive
attitude towards self

and others

● Respects the rights of
self and others

56
Making Rules and
Following them

● Follows rules ✓
● Manages transitions
without disputes ✓
● Express anger in words
● Moves from one
emotional state to
another (angry to calm)
Gender Behaviour
● Shows gender ✓
difference (selection of
games)
● Selects gender based ✓
playmates
● Show competency
among similar gender ✓
group

57
Pattern of Negotiation and
resolving Conflict( Verbal
and Physical Tactics)

● Compromising
● Shows empathy ✓
● Sharing (giving or
taking a toy, entering a ✓
play space)

● Bartering

● Argumenting
● Expressive
● Aggressive ✓
● Seeking adult ✓ ✓
intervention
● Taking advantage of
physical age, size, ✓
ability or knowledge ✓
● Expresses anger in
appropriate ways

Rules followed

 Proper court boundaries with accordance to the


rules were drawn with chalk powder.
 Height of net was according to the rules.

58
 Playing the ball:
 Players were not allowed to hit ball twice in
succession and it was counted as foul.
 A ball was out(foul) if it hits
 An antennae,
 The floor completely outside the court,
 Any of the net or cables outside the antennae.
 It was legal to contact the ball with any part of a
player’s body.
 It was illegal to catch, hold, or throw the ball.
 No of players in each team were 6.
Rules not followed:
 3 on the front row and 3 on the back row.

(They were standing randomly not in front or back


rows.)
 Maximum of three hits per side.
(Any no. of hits was allowed before passing to other
side.)

Strategies:
 The main aim of team is to throw ball to ground of
opponent team.

59
 The distribution of players in the teams in
accordance to their heights.
 The players made strategies about their position to
have best coordination.
 The centre player was changing again and again.
 Players were standing height wise i.e. short players
in front and long at back.

Group and individual behaviour:


 A good coordination was observed while motivating
each-other to hit the ball.
 Addressing team players calling their names to
identify which one is going to hit and motivate him.
 A warm interaction between players individually and
between teams with high game spirit not only a
competition.

Relationship between teams:


 A friendly environment while enjoying sport and did
not caused any serious conflicts.

60
 Motivating each other calling names or clapping on
getting point.
 They were playing for their teams at their best
regardless of having their friends in opponent team.

Analysis and interpretations:


 Preparations were done before starting game like
distributing players in the teams, drawing
boundaries, making score cards, checking ground to
be free from pebbles, motivating players to take
active participation with game spirit and team spirit.
 Players were introduced to rules and following them
just before starting..
 No sport uniform was there, playing in school dress
with sweaters and blazers, sports shoes and PT
shoes.
 It was sunny day of winter season where players
were enjoying playing, surface was sandy court.
 First aid facility was present in case of any injury.

61
Motor skills:
 Volleyball include running, jumping, hitting ball by
hands.
 Physical strength, power, stamina, flexibility of
players improves.
 Hand muscles get well developed and became
strong and well coordinated with vision and mind.

Language and interaction:


 Players used bilingual and non- formal language to
interact but no abusive words were used; e.g. When
ball was going out of court players said “Out h! Mt
maar. ”,”pakad ley, out h!”
 To indicate which player is going to hit the ball, the
player used sound-“yes”.
 Other members used to call the name of the player
to motivate and address the player which they
supposed- going to hit the ball.

62
Interaction Between teams:
 The players had good team spirit in spite of having
their friend in opponent team.
 A friendly and supporting environment while playing,
helping to play and follow rules.
 Winning team was teasing the loosing team after
game was over.

Individual to individual:
 Players were motivating each other for better
coordination during playing.
 Calling names of active player going to hit to
motivate.
 Followed their strategies to have best coordination
to win the game.
 Also players were clapping on getting points.
 After the game was over the losing team players
started to blame each other but solved their
conflicts themselves.

With teacher or coach:


 The teacher was motivating and telling rules on any
fouls.
 The players listened to her without arguments.
63
Resolving conflicts:
 During play, no serious conflict was observed; the
players were motivating each other creating a
supportive environment to play at their best.
 After the results declared the winning team teased
the opponent team and the losing team members
blamed each- other but they solved their problems
themselves.

Gender behaviour:
 A gender stereotype that volleyball is not for girls
was observed.
 Sports which need good physical strength is avoided
for girls.
 Girls themselves were also not interested to
participate in such games; rather they prefer to play
games which need less physical activities like-
“gallery”.

64
Learning outcomes:
 We came to know the importance of warming up,
cooling down before and after playing.
 We observed that rules of games and strategy a
teacher remind players before game.
 The preparation before game like drawing
boundaries of the court, making score card, first-aid
facilities etc.

Suggestions:
 Audiences should be motivating all teams without
any kind of biasness.
 Proper sports dress which allow easy movement of
all body parts, and to avoid injuries as well.
 Gender stereotypes must be avoided giving equal
opportunity and motivation to students.
 Game spirit of players must be high so that they can
give their best without conflictions and quarrel.

We observed the benefits of the sport and how to


organise it, so we will keep these things in mind in
case we have to organise that kind of event.

65
3). Individual game- long
jump

66
Rules:
 No part of the athlete's foot should cross the front
edge of the foul line. If, at the point of take-off, any
part of his foot (even the toe edge of his shoe)
crosses the front edge of the foul line, then the jump
is termed to be illegal or a 'foul jump', and does not
count.
 Typically, in International track and field events, a
long jumper has three attempts to register his or her
best legal jump. A foul jump accounts for an
attempt, but the time isn't registered. Only the
farthest legal jump counts.
 The distance, or the 'jump' is measured from the
front edge of the foul line to the first landing point of
the athlete. To better understand this, consider an
athlete taking off legally from the foul line and
landing on his feet 15 ft from the foul line. However,
if, while landing, his hands touch the ground before
his legs and a foot behind his farthest landing point,
he would be awarded a jump of 14 ft, since the
hands are nearer to the foul line than the feet and
are the first point of contact.

67
 Similarly, even if the athlete takes off from behind
the foul line, the starting point is still considered to
be the front edge of the foul line, rather than the
athlete's actual point of take off.
 Somersaults are not permitted during the jump.
 The maximum allowed thickness for a long jumper's
shoe sole is 13 mm.
 Records made with the assistance of a tailwind of
more than 2 m/s are not considered. However, the
time is registered in the ongoing competition, since
all the athletes benefit from the same wind
conditions.

68
Observation

Observational Traits Not Observed Beginning Developing Consistent

Motor Skills (Gross Motor


Skills and Fine Motor Skills)
● Demonstrates Physical

Strength

● Moves with Co-
ordination and balance ✓
● Demonstrates Control

Language used during Play


(Verbal and Non- Verbal)
● Use language to
communicate ideas and
feelings ✓
● Follows verbal and non- ✓
verbal instructions to
participate in an activity
and acts accordingly ✓
● Incorporates imaginary
objects into their play


Interactions
● Extent to which Children ✓
Coordinate with each
other


69
● Demonstrates positive ✓
attitude towards self and
others
● Respects the rights of self
and others

Making Rules and Following


them

● Follows rules ✓
● Manages transitions
without disputes ✓
● Express anger in words
● Moves from one
emotional state to another
(angry to calm)
Gender Behaviour
● Shows gender difference ✓
(selection of games)
● Selects gender based
playmates ✓
● Show competency among
similar gender group

70
Pattern of Negotiation and
resolving Conflict( Verbal and
Physical Tactics)

● Compromising
● Shows empathy ✓
● Sharing (giving or taking
a toy, entering a play ✓
space)

● Bartering

● Argumenting
● Expressive
● Aggressive ✓
● Seeking adult ✓ ✓
intervention
● Taking advantage of
physical age, size, ability ✓
or knowledge ✓
● Expresses anger in
appropriate ways

Strategies:
 The competition was organised with same age/
class group students.
 Players did warming up and practice before actual
competition started.
 Some players followed their strategy to run slowly at
beginning and sprint afterwards to have longer jump
with inertia, while others just run and jump.
71
 How and when to take jump and how to land safely.
 Decision making regarding which player is going
before and after.

Individual behaviour:
 During competition some players were pushing
others to jump first.
 Some players motivated each other to give them
confidence to jump.
 Players were less competitive and more enjoying
the game.
 Players were allowed to jump more than once to
give their best.

72
Analysis and interpretations:
 Students were detailed with the rules before
starting the game.
 The playground was well bounded with chalk
powder
 Preparations were done before starting game like
drawing boundaries, making score cards, digging
and checking ground to be free from pebbles,
motivating players to take active participation with
game spirit.
 No sport uniform was there, playing in school dress
with sweaters and blazers, sports shoes and PT
shoes.
 It was sunny day of winter season where players
were enjoying playing, surface was sandy.
 First aid facility was present in case of any injury.

Motor skills:
 Long jump includes running, jumping, and proper
balancing.
 Physical strength, power, stamina, flexibility of
players improves.
73
 A good coordination of vision, mind and body is
needed to take right jump and land properly.
 Legs muscles are well developed and strengthened.

Language and interaction:


 The language of conversation was informal during
conversation between players.
 The formal language was used by players for
interaction to teacher.

Resolving conflicts:
 They had game spirit and were obeying instructions
by teacher hence no conflict was observed.

Gender behaviour:
 The girls did not participate in this game.
 They were very less confident to play the game.

74
Learning outcomes:
 We observed what preparations are needed to
conduct the game like- scheduling, motivating,
drawing the ground, making score cards.
 Punctuality and agility are keys and also it needs
high confidence, presence of very active mind,
physical fitness, agility, good stamina, etc.

Suggestions:
 Audiences should be motivating all players without
any kind of biasness.
 Proper sports dress which allow easy movement of
all body parts, and to avoid injuries as well.
 Game spirit of players must be high so that they can
give their best without conflictions and quarrel.

We observed the benefits of the sport and how to


organise it, so we will keep these things in mind in
case we have to organise that kind of event.

75
4). Individual game- Shot-put

Rules:
The player must first position the shot just behind his
neck, between the neck and the shoulder. He/she is
not supposed to throw the ball in a conventional way,
but has to put it. This means that the player is
supposed to push the ball into the air, and not throw it
like a baseball. The player puts the shot from the
starting position, and then, using the body, pushes the
shot into the air. Various throwing styles have been
76
used over the years, the most popular being the glide
and the spin. The objective is to put it long, and the
player is allowed to use whatever technique he/she
likes, as long as the 'putting' action is complied with
and doesn't qualify as 'throwing'.

Observation

Observational Traits Not Beginning Developing Consistent


Observed
Motor Skills (Gross
Motor Skills and Fine
Motor Skills)

● Demonstrates

Physical Strength
● Moves with Co- ✓
ordination and
balance
● Demonstrates
Control

Language used during


Play (Verbal and Non-
Verbal)
● Use language to
communicate ideas ✓
and feelings ✓
● Follows verbal and
non-verbal
77
instructions to ✓
participate in an
activity and acts
accordingly
● Incorporates

imaginary objects
into their play

Interactions
● Extent to which ✓
Children Coordinate
with each other
● Demonstrates
positive attitude ✓
towards self and
others ✓
● Respects the rights
of self and others

Making Rules and


Following them

● Follows rules ✓
● Manages transitions
without disputes ✓
● Express anger in
words
● Moves from one
emotional state to
another (angry to
calm)
78
Gender Behaviour
● Shows gender ✓
difference (selection
of games)
● Selects gender based ✓
playmates
● Show competency
among similar ✓
gender group
Pattern of Negotiation
and resolving Conflict(
Verbal and Physical
Tactics) ✓
● Compromising ✓
● Shows empathy
● Sharing (giving or ✓
taking a toy, ✓
entering a play
space) ✓
● Bartering
● Argumenting ✓
● Expressive ✓

● Aggressive
● Seeking adult
intervention ✓
● Taking advantage of ✓
physical age, size,
ability or knowledge
● Expresses anger in
appropriate ways

79
Strategies:
 The players were trying to throw at some angle to
have longest range.
 Some players throw with twisting their body to apply
more inertia.

Individual behaviour:
 During competition some players were pushing
others to throw first.
80
 Players were less competitive and more enjoying
the game.
 Players were allowed to throw shot-put more than
once to give their best.

Analysis and interpretations:


 Students were detailed with the rules before
starting the game.
 The playground was well bounded with chalk
powder
 Preparations were done before starting game like,
drawing boundaries, making score cards, motivating
players to take active participation with game spirit.
 No sport uniform was there, playing in school dress
with sweaters and blazers, sports shoes and PT
shoes.
 It was sunny day of winter season where players
were enjoying playing.
 First aid facility was present in case of any injury.

81
Motor skills:
 Shot-put include throwing the shot-put to longest
distance possible
 Physical strength, power, flexibility of players
improves.
 Hand muscles are well developed and strengthened.

Language and interaction:


 The language of conversation was informal during
conversation between players.
 The formal language was used by players for
interaction to teacher.

Resolving conflicts:
 They had game spirit and were obeying instructions
by teacher hence no conflict was observed.

Gender behaviour:
 The girls did not participate in this game.
 They were very less confident to play the game.

82
Learning outcomes:
 We observed what preparations are needed to
conduct the game like- scheduling, motivating,
drawing the ground, making score cards.
 Punctuality and agility are keys and also it needs
high confidence, presence of very active mind,
physical fitness, agility, good stamina, etc.

Suggestions:
 Audiences should be motivating all players without
any kind of biasness.
 Proper sports dress which allow easy movement of
all body parts, and to avoid injuries as well.
 Game spirit of players must be high so that they can
give their best without conflictions and quarrel.

We observed the benefits of the sport and how to


organise it, so we will keep these things in mind in
case we have to organise that kind of event.

83
LEARNING AND
TEACHING
(BED102)

THEORIES OF
LEARNING

SUBMITTED TO:
MRS. SUKHWINDER KAUR
(ASST. PROFESSOR)

84
Edward Thorndike
The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of
behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming
between stimuli and responses. Such associations or “habits” become
strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.
The paradigm for S-R theory was trial and error learning in which certain
responses come to dominate others due to rewards. The hallmark of
connectionism (like all behavioral theory) was that learning could be
adequately explained without refering to any unobservable internal states.

Thorndike’s theory consists of three primary laws: (1) law of effect –


responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs
will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation, (2)
law of readiness – a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy
some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked, and (3) law of exercise
– connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when
practice is discontinued. A corollary of the law of effect was that responses
that reduce the likelihood of achieving a rewarding state (i.e., punishments,
failures) will decrease in strength.

The theory suggests that transfer of learning depends upon the presence of
identical elements in the original and new learning situations; i.e., transfer is
always specific, never general. In later versions of the theory, the concept of
“belongingness” was introduced; connections are more readily established if
the person perceives that stimuli or responses go together (c.f. Gestalt
principles). Another concept introduced was “polarity” which specifies that
connections occur more easily in the direction in which they were originally
formed than the opposite. Thorndike also introduced the “spread of effect”
idea, i.e., rewards affect not only the connection that produced them but
temporally adjacent connections as well.

85
Application
Connectionism was meant to be a general theory of learning for animals
and humans. Thorndike was especially interested in the application of his
theory to education including mathematics (Thorndike, 1922), spelling and
reading (Thorndike, 1921), measurement of intelligence (Thorndike et al.,
1927) and adult learning (Thorndike at al., 1928).

Example
The classic example of Thorndike’s S-R theory was a cat learning to escape
from a “puzzle box” by pressing a lever inside the box. After much trial and
error behavior, the cat learns to associate pressing the lever (S) with
opening the door (R). This S-R connection is established because it results
in a satisfying state of affairs (escape from the box). The law of exercise
specifies that the connection was established because the S-R pairing
occurred many times (the law of effect) and was rewarded (law of effect) as
well as forming a single sequence (law of readiness).

Principles
1. Learning requires both practice and rewards (laws of effect /exercise)
2. A series of S-R connections can be chained together if they belong to
the same action sequence (law of readiness).
3. Transfer of learning occurs because of previously encountered
situations.
4. Intelligence is a function of the number of connections learned.

86
Lev Vygotsky
The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social
interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.
Vygotsky (1978) states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development
appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level;
first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child
(intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical
memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate
as actual relationships between individuals.” (p57).

A second aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that the potential for
cognitive development depends upon the “zone of proximal development”
(ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social
behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction.
The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer
collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.

Vygotsky’s theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end


product of socialization. For example, in the learning of language, our first
utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose of communication but
once mastered they become internalized and allow “inner speech”.

Vygotsky’s theory is complementary to Bandura’s work on social


learning and a key component of situated learning theory as well. Because
Vygotsky’s focus was on cognitive development, it is interesting to compare
his views with those a constructivist (Bruner) and a genetic
epistemologist(Piaget).

87
Application
This is a general theory of cognitive development. Most of the
original work was done in the context of language learning in
children (Vygotsky, 1962), although later applications of the
framework have been broader (see Wertsch, 1985).

Example
Vygotsky (1978, p56) provides the example of pointing a finger.
Initially, this behavior begins as a meaningless grasping motion;
however, as people react to the gesture, it becomes a movement
that has meaning. In particular, the pointing gesture represents an
interpersonal connection between individuals.

Principles
1. Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any
given age.
2. Full cognitive development requires social interaction.

88
B.F. Skinner
The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function
of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an
individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A
response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or
solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern
is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. The
distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of
behaviorism (e.g., connectionism, drive reduction) is that the organism can
emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external
stimulus.
Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner’s S-R theory. A reinforcer is
anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a
good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The
theory also covers negative reinforcers — any stimulus that results in the
increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from
adversive stimuli — punishment — which result in reduced responses). A
great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement (e.g. interval
versus ratio) and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior.

One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner’s theory is that it attempted to


provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena.
For example, Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation
and reinforcement schedules. Skinner (1957) tried to account for verbal
learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although
this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists. Skinner
(1971) deals with the issue of free will and social control.

89
Application
Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings (i.e.,
behavior modification) as well as teaching (i.e., classroom management)
and instructional development (e.g., programmed instruction).
Parenthetically, it should be noted that Skinner rejected the idea of theories
of learning (see Skinner, 1950).

Example
By way of example, consider the implications of reinforcement theory as
applied to the development of programmed instruction (Markle, 1969;
Skinner, 1968)

1. Practice should take the form of question (stimulus) – answer


(response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual
steps
2. Require that the learner make a response for every frame and receive
immediate feedback
3. Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always
correct and hence a positive reinforcement
4. Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary
reinforcers such as verbal praise, prizes and good grades.

Principles
1. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent
reinforcement is particularly effective
2. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses
can be reinforced (“shaping”)
3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli (“stimulus
generalization”) producing secondary conditioning

90
Carl Rogers
Rogers distinguished two types of learning: cognitive (meaningless) and
experiential (significant). The former corresponds to academic knowledge
such as learning vocabulary or multiplication tables and the latter refers to
applied knowledge such as learning about engines in order to repair a car.
The key to the distinction is that experiential learning addresses the needs
and wants of the learner. Rogers lists these qualities of experiential
learning: personal involvement, self-initiated, evaluated by learner, and
pervasive effects on learner.

To Rogers, experiential learning is equivalent to personal change and


growth. Rogers feels that all human beings have a natural propensity to
learn; the role of the teacher is to facilitate such learning. This includes: (1)
setting a positive climate for learning, (2) clarifying the purposes of the
learner(s), (3) organizing and making available learning resources, (4)
balancing intellectual and emotional components of learning, and (5)
sharing feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominating.

According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when: (1) the student participates


completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and
direction, (2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical,
social, personal or research problems, and (3) self-evaluation is the
principal method of assessing progress or success. Rogers< also
emphasizes the importance of learning to learn and an openness to change.

Roger’s theory of learning evolved as part of the humanistic education


movement (e.g., Patterson, 1973; Valett, 1977).

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Application

Roger’s theory of learning originates from his views about psychotherapy


and humanistic approach to psychology. It applies primarily to adult learners
and has influenced other theories of adult learning such
as Knowles and Cross. Combs (1982) examines the significance of Roger’s
work to education. Rogers & Frieberg (1994) discuss applications of the
experiential learning framework to the classroom.

Example

A person interested in becoming rich might seek out books or classes on


ecomomics, investment, great financiers, banking, etc. Such an individual
would perceive (and learn) any information provided on this subject in a much
different fashion than a person who is assigned a reading or class.

Principles

1. Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to


the personal interests of the student
2. Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or
perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at
a minimum
3. Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low
4. Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive.

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Pavlov Learning Theory

The concept of classical conditioning is studied by every entry-level psychology student,


so it may be surprising to learn that the man who first noted this phenomenon was not
a psychology at all. Ivan Pavlov was a noted Russian physiologist who went on to win
the 1904 Nobel Prize for his work studying digestive processes. It was while studying
digestion in dogs that Pavlov noted an interesting occurrence – his canine subjects
would begin to salivate whenever an assistant entered the room.

In his digestive research, Pavlov and his assistants would introduce a variety of edible
and non-edible items and measure the saliva production that the items produced.
Salivation, he noted, is a reflexive process. It occurs automatically in response to a
specific stimulus and is not under conscious control. However, Pavlov noted that the
dogs would often begin salivating in the absence of food and smell. He quickly realized
that this salivary response was not due to an automatic, physiological process.

. While studying the role of saliva in dogs’ digestive processes, Pavlov stumbled upon a
phenomenon he labeled “psychic reflexes.” While an accidental discovery, he had the
foresight to see the importance of it. Pavlov’s dogs, restrained in an experimental
chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a
surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who
begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the
presence of the handler or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that
distributed the meat powder.

Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as
the ringing of a bell. After the meat powder and bell (auditory stimulus) were presented
together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlov’s dogs, as predicted, responded
by salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral
stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs’ salivation). However, by pairing
the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to
acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated
how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of
learning) are formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this
finding.

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In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
and the dog’s salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral
stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a
conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation
after repeated pairings between the bell and food.

Process of Classical Conditioning

Conditioning is a form of learning in which either (1) a given stimulus (or signal)
becomes increasingly effective in evoking a response or (2) a response occurs with
increasing regularity in a well-specified and stable environment. The type of
reinforcement used will determine the outcome. When two stimuli are presented in an
appropriate time and intensity relationship, one of them will eventually induce a
response resembling that of the other. The process can be described as one of stimulus
substitution. This procedure is called classical (or respondent) conditioning

Process of conditioning

The entire process of conditioning can be explained like this:

Food——————-Salivation

Bell—-Food————-Salivation

REPEAT

Bell———————Salivation

THIS ASSOCIATION IS CONDITIONING

In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)


and the dog’s salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral
stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a
conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation
after repeated pairings between the bell and food.

UCS—————- UCR

CS—UCS————-UCR
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REPEAT

CS——————UCR

THIS ASSOCIATION IS CONDITIONING

Laws of Conditioning

Classical Conditioning is based on three laws:

1. If the Conditioned Stimulus ( Bell ) is given after the Unconditioned Stimulus ( Food
) ,there will be no conditioning.
2. If the Conditioned Stimulus ( Bell ) is given before the Unconditioned Stimulus (
Food ) ,the conditioning will sure to take place.
3. If the Conditioned Stimulus ( Bell ) and the Unconditioned Stimulus ( Food ) ,is
given simultaneously, the Conditioning may or may not take place.

Education Implication of Classical Conditioning:

Emphasis on behaviour: Students should be active respondents to learning, and in the


learning process. They should be given an opportunity to actually behave or
demonstrate learning. Secondly students should be assessed by observing behaviour,
we can never assume that students are learning unless we can observe that behaviour is
changing.

Drill and practice: the repetition of stimulus response habits can strengthen those
habits. For example, some believe that the best way to improve reading is to have
students read more and more. “Practice is important; Students should encounter
academic subject matter in a positive climate and associate it with positive emotions;
To break a bad habit, a learner must replace one S-R connection with another one
(Exhaustion Method, Threshold Method, Incompatibility Method); and, Assessing
learning involves looking for behaviour changes

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Wolfgang Kohler
In order to establish the existence of insight, Kohler conducted a number of
experiments on a chimpanzee named Sultan. Although he conducted a number of
other experiments on dogs, hens, and other creatures, his experiments with Sultan
were the most noteworthy. Kohler divided his experiment in to four steps.

1. Sultan was placed in a cage. A stick was placed in the cage and a banana just
outside the cage, but outside Sultans direct reach. Sultan made many attempts to
obtain the banana but it failed. It sat down in despair. But, after sometime it suddenly
got up, lifted the stick and used it to draw the banana towards itself.
2. In the second stage, Kohler placed inside the cage two sticks which could be joined
to each other. This time the banana was so placed that it could not be drown by the
chimpanzee towards itself with a single stick. After numerous attempts, Sultan joined
the two sticks together and succeeded in obtaining the banana.
3. In the third step, Kohler hung the banana from the roof of the cage of such a height
as to ensure that Sultan could not reach it even by jumping upwards. A box was also
placed inside the cage. After many attempts, Sultan climbed up on the box and
obtained the bananas.
4. In the final step, Kohler placed two boxes at one place in the cage the banana was
placed at an even high level. At first, Sultan kept on trying to reach the banana by
standing up on one box, but after numerous failures, it placed one box upon the other
and claiming quit obtained the banana.

Principles Involved in Insightful Learning

There are principles involved in perceptual organization or insightful learning. Some


of the basic laws propounded by Gestalt psychologists are as follows;
1. Law of figure ground: Everything is perceived in the context of its background.
Thus, close relationship is there between figure and ground. For example, we try to
96
solve a sum by using the means that closed areas are more stable and satisfying than
the unclosed ones. Closed areas form groups very easily. This law is also called law
of closure.
2. Law of pragnanz: An organism is motivated to learn when there is tension or
disequilibrium of forces in the psychological field. Learning is the removal of this
tension. When we perceive an object, we find some gaps in our perceptions. These
gaps are filled by the perceiver and a whole figure is prepared.
3. Law of continuity: Objects having continuity are learnt easily because they can
easily make a whole.
4. Law of similarity: this law makes the individual to grasp things which are similar.
They are picked out as they were from the total context. Similar ideas and experiences
get associated. An object revives another object which resembles or looks similar to
it. For example, seeing a man and remembering an intimate friend by some
resemblance though never saw them together in the past.
5. Law of proximity: this law states the proximate or near together things are picked
up first and learnt easily than distant things. In other words, perceptual grounds are
favoured according to the nearness of their respective parts. Items tend to form groups
if they are spaced together. For instance, a triangle or a circle is understood in this
way.

Educational Implications

1. Subject matter (learning material) should be presented in Gestalt form. The plant
or flower as a whole be presented before the students and later on the parts should be
emphasized.
2. In the organization of the syllabus and planning of the curriculum, the Gestalt
principle should be given due consideration. A particular subject should not be treated
as the mere collection of isolated facts or topics. It should be closely integrated into
a whole. Similarly the curriculum should reflect unity and cohesiveness.
3. This theory has brought motivation in the fore-front by assigning purpose and
motive, the central role in learning process. It is goal oriented. Purpose or goals of
learning should be made clear to the students, before the teacher starts teaching.
4. The greater contribution of the insight theory of learning is that it has made
learning an intelligent task requiring mental abilities. It has called a halt to the age
old mechanical memorization, drill and practice work which lack in basic
understanding and use of thinking, reasoning and creative mental powers.

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5. It emphasizes that the learner must be given opportunities for using his mental
abilities. Instead of telling him, how to do a work or solve a problem, he should be
placed in the position of an independent enquirer and discoverer. He should himself
collect the information and discover the knowledge. The teacher should not engage
himself in spoon-feeding but help the children in acquiring knowledge and skill
through their own attempts by using their mental powers. Scientific and progressive
methods like Heuristic method, analytic and problem solving, which advocate the
learning by insight, should be made more popular.
6. If the teacher believes in the theory of insight learning he seeks, to overcome
impatience as the moment of insight is unpredictable and sudden. He must give his
students a chance to fumble and search for the solution. This fumbling and search is
more than trial and error procedure. It is purposeful experimentation. It is a goal
directed activity.

Criticism

Some of the main objections against the gestalt theory are the following;
1. Gestalt is a composite of Psychology and Philosophy of Education.
2. Every kind of learning for example; reading, writing, speaking etc., cannot be
satisfactorily explained by the laws of Gestalt.
3. Some scholars opine that the insight inherent in gestalt cannot be ascribed to
children and animals because they lack power of thought. However it is often
observed in daily life that even very young infants display insight in many of their
activities.
4. Trial and error is an essential element in gestalt at one stage or the other.

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Albert Bandura
The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of
observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of
others. Bandura (1977) states: “Learning would be exceedingly laborious,
not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their
own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is
learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms
an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this
coded information serves as a guide for action.” (p22). Social learning
theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction
between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences. The component
processes underlying observational learning are: (1) Attention, including
modeled events (distinctiveness, affective valence, complexity, prevalence,
functional value) and observer characteristics (sensory capacities, arousal
level, perceptual set, past reinforcement), (2) Retention, including symbolic
coding, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal), (3)
Motor Reproduction, including physical capabilities, self-observation of
reproduction, accuracy of feedback, and (4) Motivation, including external,
vicarious and self reinforcement.

Because it encompasses attention, memory and motivation, social learning


theory spans both cognitive and behavioral frameworks. Bandura’s theory
improves upon the strictly behavioral interpretation of modeling provided by
Miller & Dollard (1941). Bandura’s work is related to the theories
of Vygotsky and Lave which also emphasize the central role of social
learning.

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Application
Social learning theory has been applied extensively to the understanding of
aggression (Bandura, 1973) and psychological disorders, particularly in the
context of behavior modification (Bandura, 1969). It is also the theoretical
foundation for the technique of behavior modeling which is widely used in
training programs. In recent years, Bandura has focused his work on the
concept of self-efficacy in a variety of contexts (e.g., Bandura, 1997).

Example
The most common (and pervasive) examples of social learning situations
are television commercials. Commercials suggest that drinking a certain
beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular and win
the admiration of attractive people. Depending upon the component
processes involved (such as attention or motivation), we may model the
behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised.

Principles
1. The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first
organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then
enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or
images results in better retention than simply observing.
2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in
outcomes they value.
3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is
similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has
functional value.

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HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL
FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION
(BED104)

A study of the role of education in


schools in reproducing
dominance, challenges and
marginalisation with reference to
class, caste, gender and religion.

SUBMITTED TO:
MISS. BHAVYA
(ASST. PROFESSOR)

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Dominance
Dominance is the power to influence over others.

Caste
Caste is the system of dividing people in society
into different social classes

Class
Class is system of ordering society whereby people are divided into sets based on perceived
social and economic status

Gender
Gender is the state of being male or female (typically
used with reference to social and cultural difference
rather than biological ones)

Religion
Religion is the belief in the worship of a superhuman
controlling power especially a personal god and gods

CLASS
Class is a relative social rank in terms of income, wealth,education, status/position, and/or
power.
A class consists of a large group of people who share a similar economic and/or social position
in society based on their income, wealth, property ownership, job status, education, skills, or

102
power in the economic and political sphere. Class is determined not just by “economic capital”
(what you earn or own) but also by “social capital” (who you know) and “cultural capital”
(what you know). Our class identity affects us on the personal and emotional level, not just in
economic terms, since it influences how we feel about ourselves and others.
Classism is when someone is treated differently—better or worse—because of their class (or
perceived class).
Classism is similar in many ways to racism, sexism,
heterosexist and other forms of oppression. Classism
appears individually through attitudes and behaviour’s, institutionally through policies and
practices, and culturally through norms and values. Like other forms of oppression and
prejudice, it is the tendency to make sweeping generalizations or stereotypes about people,
such as “Poor people are lazy.”
There is no precise definition or delineation of class
groups. The most commonly used class identities are:
upper class (or owning class), middle class, working class, and poor. Another way of looking at
class is as a hierarchy of access to money and power. At the “top” are 73 the Haves, or
Dominants, and at the bottom are Have-Nots or Subordinates. Most of us occupy places along
that continuum and experience both domination and subordination in various aspects of our
lives.

Social exclusion and inclusion are two terms that are making inroads in policy discourse,
especially in developing nations including India. They are not part of a binary, although
inclusion should be understood in the context of exclusion. In the Indian context according to
Thorat and Newman (2010, p 6.), exclusion revolves around societal institutions that exclude
on the basis of group identities such as caste, ethnicity, religion and gender.

In India the discourse of inclusion in elementary education is largely in the realm of education
of children with disability and special educational needs. A significant emphasis in policy and
programmes (in India) has been given on hitherto educationally deprived groups such as Dalits
(scheduled castes), Adivasis (scheduled tribes), religious minorities and girls who comprise the
majority of children who are out of school (Nambissan 2006, p. 225). As indicated by Gross
Enrolment Ratio statistics, many parts of the country have achieved near universal enrolment
(Govinda and Bandyopadhyay, 2008, p. 9). While the majority of Dalit (SC) children are now
being included in schools at the point of entry, the terms of their inclusion in relation to
institutional structures and processes are discriminatory (Nambissan 2006, p.226). At the same
103
time it needs to be recognised that institutional interventions in primary/elementary
education also provide opportunities for enabling education among disadvantaged groups and
must be expanded and strengthened. Nambissan argues that she does not view inclusion as
merely in relation to quantitative indices of school entry, attendance and completion rates
that are presently used to assess social parity, or equality of education opportunity as
understood in policy documents. She refers to Kabeer (2000) to stress that inclusion is viewed
in education as a far more complex process that positions social groups differently in relation
to valued resources: knowledge, skills cultural attributes, future opportunities and life
chances, sense of dignity, self worth, and social respect. Referring to the concepts of ‘adverse
incorporation’ or ‘problematic inclusion’ as against ‘privileged inclusion’ Nambissan draws
attention to the importance of interrogating the process of institutional inclusion of hitherto
excluded groups from the perspective of equity — that is, against the criteria of social justice
and fairness.

In India the discourse of inclusion in elementary education is largely in the realm of education
of children with disability and special educational needs. In India the use of term ‘inclusion’ in
various policies targeting poverty has now found way in educational reports such as the Status
of Education in India National Report prepared by the National University of Education
Planning and Administration which focuses on inclusion in education encompassing issues
concerning education of children from Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Muslim community,
girls and children with disability.

This research about social inclusion in schools recognises the fact that the concept of ‘social
inclusion and exclusion’ are not well defined and especially in educational context scholars
have employed them in different ways; some have limited the conceptual boundaries to
encompass only disability while the others have encompassed other categories of
marginalised children who are at a disadvantage due to structures of caste, patriarchy, ethnic
hierarchy and class hierarchies as well.

The research recognises that the current education in schools legitimates and reinforces
through specific sets of practices and discourses class-based, castebased, religion-based, and
patriarchal systems of behaviour and dispositions that reproduce the existing oppressive
structures. The students not only internalise the cultural message of the school through the
official discourse in schools but also through the symbols and the ‘not so significant’ practices
of daily classroom life. The situation can be challenged and in long term transformed by
bringing in new language, qualitatively different relations and new set of values.

104
Inclusion and Exclusion in Elementary Education in India
A significant emphasis in policy and programmes (in India) has been on hitherto educationally
deprived groups such as Dalits, Adivasis and minorities (and girls) who comprise the majority
of children who are out of school (Nambissan 2006, p. 225).

According to data available at the national level, the country has achieved near universal
enrolment in many parts of the country, as indicated by Gross Enrolment Ratio statistics
(Govinda and Bandyopadhyay, 2008, p. 9). A progress in enrolment is observed, however even
in 2009-10 about 28.86% of children drop out at the primary level itself. About 75% of ST
children drop out of schools by the time they reach grade ten, The drop-out rate is highest for
ST girls at all the three level of education that is primary, elementary and secondary. The
likelihood of exclusion is compounded if the children live in rural areas and are female. Tribal
girls in rural areas are in the most disadvantaged position, as only 51% of them are enrolled in
schools, whereas around 80% of all girls in urban areas are enrolled (Sedwal and Kamat, 2008
).

According to Velaskar (1990) the mass entry of children from hitherto excluded communities
represents a structural change in itself it is not one that has been able to overthrow the deep-
rooted structures of inequality. While majority of Dalit children are now being included in
schools at the point of entry, the terms of their inclusion in relation to institutional structures
and processes are discriminatory (Nambissan 2006, p.226). At the same time it needs to be
recognised that institutional interventions in primary/elementary education also provide
opportunities for enabling education among disadvantaged groups and must be expanded and
strengthened.

Nambissan argues that she does not view inclusion as merely in relation to quantitative indices
of school entry, attendance and completion rates that are begin presently used to assess social
parity, or equality of education opportunity as understood in policy documents. She refers to
Kabeer (2000) to stress that inclusion is viewed in education as a far more complex process
that positions social groups differently in relation to valued resources: knowledge, skills
cultural attributes, future opportunities and life chances, sense of dignity, self worth, and
social respect. Referring to the concepts of ‘adverse incorporation’ or ‘problematic inclusion’
as against ‘ privileged inclusion’ Nambissan draws attention to the importance of interrogating
the process of institutional inclusion of hitherto excluded groups from the perspective of
equity— that is, against the criteria of social justice and fairness.

Globally the experiences suggest that even when the excluded do have access, they can be
excluded from good quality learning. Economically poorer communities generally only have
access to poorer quality education. Even if geographical differences are overcome the
105
dominant cultures at schools may continue to alienate certain groups of learners (Sayed et al.
2007).

Nambissan (2010) in her study points out that there are spaces within the school that provide
opportunities for equitable inclusion. The study focuses on classroom processes, day to day
experiences of students and teachers and does not analyse reproduction of discrimination and
oppression from a macro perspective. The approach of study wherein school is considered as a
unit, classroom and school practices are studied; that creates a scope to even put our fingers
at the possibilities of inclusive practices that teachers, students and schools experience and go
through. A study conducted in six states of India recognised certain practices of inclusion in
government schools which at the moment are considered to be aberrations. The study
concludes that ‘despite the fact that larger socio-political environment is becoming more
stratified and divisive, there are islands of hope across this vast and diverse country. It also
presses the need to study inclusion and exclusion in schools and work at all levels to bring
about lasting change on ground.

Observations
The preliminary observations are categorised under the following:

(a) School policy; and

(b) Curriculum and Pedagogy.

According to Kabeer (2000) ‘institutional rules and norms can spell out particular patterns of
inclusion and exclusion, they cannot cause them to happen. It is the social actors who make up
these institutions, the collectivities they form and the interactions between them, which
provide agency behind patterns’. The initial field observations focuses on micro actions that go
into building the larger pattern of school life. The observations indicate that the inclusion of
student from the weaker sections is not to merely mark their representation. The school’s
pedagogy and the student-teacher relationship that are based on schools ethos make the
representation meaningful by extending it to the pedagogy, school environment, co-curricular
activities and teacher behaviour.

106
ASSESSMENT OF
LEARNING
(BED106)

The key point of the


Ist Term
assessment of a
student of class VI

SUBMITTED TO:
MISS. MANVI
(ASST. PROFESSOR)

107
Meaning of assessment
Assessment is the measurement of what students are learning. Student’s
achievements are defined as how well they’ve mastered certain target
skills. Assessment provides educators with both objective and subjective
data in order to ascertain student progress and skill mastery.

Types of assessments

 Diagnosis assessment- Given at the beginning of the school year. It


attempts to quantify what students already know about a topic.

 Formative assessment- Given throughout the learning process, it


seeks to determine how students are progressing through a certain
learning goal.

 Summative assessment- Given at the end of the year, it assesses a


student’s mastery of a topic after instruction.

108
Purpose of assessment

1. The primary purpose of assessment is to improve students’ learning


and teachers’ teaching as both respond to the information it
provides. Assessment for learning is an ongoing process that arises
out of the interaction between teaching and learning.
2. Students and teachers can use the information gained from
assessment to determine their next teaching and learning steps.
3. Parents, families and who now can be kept informed of next plans
for teaching and learning and the progress being made, so they can
play an active role in their children’s learning.
4. School leaders can use the information for school-wide planning, to
support their teachers and determine professional development
needs.
5. Communities and Boards of Trustees can use assessment
information to assist their governance role and their decisions about
staffing and resourcing.
6. The Education Review Office can use assessment information to
inform their advice for school improvement.
7. The Ministry of Education can use assessment information to
undertake policy review and development at a national level, so that
government funding and policy intervention is targeted
appropriately to support improved student outcomes.

109
Criteria of assessment

Once the goal of assessment have been determine it is necessary to


described the criteria that will be used to judges whether the desired
level of performance have been achieved. Learning object consists of
three parts:
1. The student action
2. The content
3. The standard required to meet the objective

Assessment criteria a relates to the third part of the objective, the


standard of performance. Criteria are developed analysing the learning of
term and identifying the specific characteristics that contributes to
overall assignment. These are the standard by which learning is judged.

110
Uniform system of assessment

As you are aware, the CBSE has issued Circular No. Acad-05/2017 dated
31.01.2017 on the restoration of Board Examination for class X and
revised assessment structure and examination for class X from Academic
Year 2017-18 onwards.
1. This new scheme will bring the uniformity in the system of
assessment and examination for classes IX and X in all the CBSE
affiliated schools. To increase the confidence in the students to
start preparing for class X Board examination when they join the
upper primary stage in class VI, the CBSE has decided to implement
the uniform system of assessment, examination pattern and issue
of report cards for classes VI to VIII also on the similar pattern.
While keeping in view the provisions of Right to Education Act,
2009, the scheme for classes VI-VIII has been designed on Term
Assessment basis with gradual increase in the learning assessment
as the students move forward. This would prepare the students to
cover the whole syllabus of the academic year and face the
challenge of class X Board examination, and would thus, ensure the
quality of education’.

111
2. The CBSE affiliated schools currently follow various systems of
assessment and examination for classes VI to IX and issue different
types of report cards to their students. Due to disparities in the
system, the students of classes VI to IX face several problems
whenever they migrate to another school. With the family of CBSE
affiliated schools growing from 309 schools in 1962 to 18,688 at
present, it has become imperative to have a uniform system of
assessment, examination pattern and report cards for classes VI to
IX for ease of students and other stakeholders. This will not only
ensure the easy migration of students within the family of CBSE
affiliated schools but also ease their difficulties while seeking
admission in new schools.

3. With restoration of class X Board examination, the CBSE will issue


the report card for class X based on the Board examination with
effect from Academic Year 2017-18. As the assessment structure
and examination pattern for class IX will be similar to that of class X,
the report card for class IX issued by the schools should also be
similar to that of class X.

4. As the CBSE affiliated schools are required to follow the NCERT


syllabus in the upper primary stage, uniformity in the assessment
structure, examination and issue of report cards across all the
affiliated schools is felt necessary from class VI to VIII. The detail

112
components of the scheme are mentioned below for easy
understanding and implementation.

 Scholastic Area:

The assessment structure and Examination for classes VI to VIII have been
prepared in view of the provisions of RTE-Act 2009 and comprises of two
terms i.e. Term-1 and 2 as explained.
 Periodic Test 10 marks with syllabus covered till announcement of
test dates by school
 Note Book Submission 5 marks at term- end
 Sub Enrichment 5 marks at term-end Half Yearly Exam
 Written exam for 80 marks with syllabus covered till
announcement of Half Yearly exam dates by school.
PA 20 marks

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Yearly Exam

KEY POINT FOR ASSESSMENT

 Subject enrichment activity


There Areas subject specific activities aim at enhancing the
understanding and skill of the students. There activities are to be carry
out, throughout the team. However they should be evaluated at the end
of team.
 Language

114
Aim at equipping to learner to develop effective, listening, and speaking
skill. The language teacher may device their own methods and parameter
for assessment of the language.

 CO-SCHOLASTIC AREA:

For the co-scholastic development of the students, Co-curricular in the


following area, we carried out in school by teacher and will be graded
term wise in a three point grade scale.
A- Outstanding
B- Very Good
C- Fair
The aspect of regularity, sincerity and participation in co-scholastic
activity- work education.
 Art education

 Health and physical education

 Discipline - The students will be also be assist for the discipline


which will be based on the factor like attendance, behaviour, value,
respectfulness for the rule and regulation, attitude toward society,
nation and other.
Grading on the discipline will be done term wise on the three point
grading scale

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A- Outstanding
B - Very good
C - Fair

Details of selected student


Admission no. : 4698
Name : Ujjwal
Date of birth : 28-01-2007
Father’s name : Mr. sunil prasad
Mother’s name : Mrs. Madhu devi

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Residential address : Mangal bazar road Gali no. 04, near lal mandir, Niti
Vihar
Telephone no. : 9818726038

Pictures and description Of 1st term

Teachers need to exercise professional judgement based on the age,


interest and cognitive ability of the learners.

The present system of assessment and evaluation for school education in


India is exam based.

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 The document states that examinations require systemic reforms in
the context of evaluation and assessment.
 The new approach to teaching is learner- centred.
 The process of assessment also aims at enhancing the learning
capabilities of the learner by taking in to cognizance their overall
progress.
 The pattern followed in the school leaving exams known as board
exams.
 Assessment can be Summative, Formative or Diagnostic.
 Summative assessment is usually carried out at the end of a course
or academic session to assign the students grade. It involves judging
overall competence and sometimes assigning grades, levels or
scores to individual pupils.

TEACHING OF
ENGLISH
118
(BED120)

PREPRATION OF AN
ACHIEVEMENT TEST

SUBMITTED TO:
MISS. KANIKA ARORA
(ASST. PROFESSOR)

Introduction
Achievement tests are administered most frequently in language programmes
than any other kind of test. Achievement tests assess what the students have
achieved from their courses within a period of time and provide some information
with regard to their current level of progress or whether they are ready for
subsequent stages of learning. In the view of Gronlund, “An achievement test is
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designed to measure students’ grasp of knowledge or his proficiency in certain
skills. It aids both the teacher and the students in assessing learning readiness,
monitoring learning processes, diagnosing learning difficulties and evaluating
learning outcomes.”
According to Linderman (1967) academic achievement tests are of three types:
 Teacher made Test
 Standardized Test
 Performance Test

 Teacher made test is the test made by teacher for local use. This test is
prepared only to measure the achievement of specific instructional
objectives related to particular unit of work. These are constructed by
teachers for using largely within their classrooms.

 The Standardized test constructed by the test specialists are standardized


in the sense that they have been administered and scored under standard
and uniform testing conditions so that the results obtained from different
samples may legitimately be compared. Items in standardized tests are
fixed and not modifiable. Therefore a standardized test is a test that has
standard procedures for administration, scoring and interpretations.

 Performance tests are those tests that require the examiners to perform a
task rather than answer some questions. Such tests prohibit the use of
language in items.

Planning of the Test

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Planning is essential not only in teaching but in all spheres of life. Planning
stage of the test tries to answer:  To whom, the test was to be
administered?
 What was to be measured?
 When the measurement was to take place?
 How the measurement was to take place?
These questions are important to answer, but too often they are not
answered prior to item writing phase.

Objectives of Constructing Achievement Test


The objectives are quite important as they help us to decide where to start from &
where to end the programme. After the instructions, the learner will be able to:
1. Comprehend the passage in English language.
2. Find the gist of the passage.
3. Enrichment of vocabulary.
4. Appreciate and enjoy the literary genre-poem.
5. Recite the poem effectively with proper rhythm and intonation.
6. Understand the main characters of the lesson.
7. Understand the value of time.
8. Develop knowledge and understanding of grammar.
9. Acquire competence in different linguistic functions.
10. Apply grammatical rules while writing.
11. Familiar with modals and its use.
12. Correct usage of determiners in sentences.
13. Familiar with prepositions and its appropriate use.
14. To differentiate between coordinate and subordinate conjunctions’ use.
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15. Correct usage of non-finite in English.
16. Understand that verb change form depending on their relationship to time.
17. Be familiar with clauses.
18. Remove confusion in the minds of the students regarding parts of speech.

Preparation of Test Items


The items were written in view of objectives and content to be tested. Seventy-
Five items were included in the first draft of test covering the entire content and
objectives.
 While constructing the items, it was ensured that no objective remains
untested.
 Language of the test items was understandable and unambiguous.
 It was also ensured that the instructions were clear or not.
 The test items were arranged properly and assembled into the test.
 The number of items was more than required finally.
 Irrelevant clauses were avoided.
 Adjectives like always, never, sometimes were avoided.
 The arrangement of test items was based on the finding of Sax and Cromack
(1966) who recommended the item arrangement in order of ascending
difficulty. Easy items were given a place in the beginning and difficult items
towards the end.

 Individual Try Out of the Test


Seventy-Five items were included in the first draft of test. The test was given
to six students: two above intelligent, two averages and two below average
intelligent. The time taken by the students and problems faced while giving
test were noted.
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 Selection of Items on the Basis of Responses
The answers of the students were evaluated with the help of Z-scores. With
the experts of English language, many discussions were held on the basis of
performance of the test. Also discussions were held with students’
individually. In the light of the views of the experts, the achievement test was
reviewed properly.After the discussion the investigator dropped 26 items
and 17 new items were added. A few were modified and finally the second
draft of the achievement test contained 66 items.
 Second Draft of the Test (Small Group Try Out)
The second test was administered on 20 students of 9th of Government High
School, Bhagsar, Punjab those had already covered the content on which test
was made.

Analysis of the Test Item


Analysis is a technique through which those items which are valid and suited to the
purpose are selected and the other ones are either modified or eliminated to suit
the purpose. Item analysis provides important information with regard to the
quality of a written test administered to examinees. There are three assessment
devices used to analyze the items of the achievement test constructed by the
investigator.
1) Item Difficulty
2) Item Discrimination
3) Distractor Analysis
These three devices can be described as following:

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1) Item Difficulty is an index which represents proportion of students who got the
item right and shows how easy or difficult an item was for the test takers. It is
calculated as: the number of scorers given the answer correct divided by total
number of test takers in upper and lower groups.
2) Item Discrimination indices distinguish between how top scorers and low
scorers perform on each item. Item discrimination is calculated by Top (correct) -
Low (correct) divided by 1/2N (half the number of top plus low scores).
3) Distractor Analysis is a procedure related to only multiple choice formats. The
purpose of distractor analysis is to investigate the distractors that are functioning
well as they should do and that are not.

Final Draft of the Test


The achievement test was finally prepared on the basis of item analysis for
difficulty value and discriminating power in second draft of achievement test. Only
those items which had item difficulty value ranging from 0.20 to 0.80, were
retained. If the difficulty value is higher than 0.80, the item is too easy, if the
difficulty value is lower than 0.20 then the item is probably too difficult to attempt.
Such items were rejected. Item difficulty indices range from +1 to -1, with positive
1 showing a perfect discrimination between top and low scores, with minus 1
showing wrong discrimination and I.D. indices zero show no discrimination . The
items which ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 on the discriminating power were retained.
On the basis of this criterion, the items at Sr. no. 6,9,10,14,16,25,27,29,39, 43, 47,
49,51,59,61 and 63 were rejected from the achievement test and remaining 50
items were retained. So it can be said to be a normal achievement test. Analysis of
distractor does not require application of any complex formula. It is the
examination of the alternatives selected by both groups. The item analysis makes
it obvious how the distractors work. Ordinarily any distractor to be called a good
distractor must be answered by more examinees in lower group. But if distractor is
answered by more examinees of the higher group, than the examinees of the
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lower group, the distractor is regarded to be of poor form. The investigator found
six items of the test were chosen by none of the examinees of either the upper
group or the lower group. Then the investigator modified them to suit the
purpose.

Reliability of the Test:


The test-retest method was used to calculate reliability. The test was administered
to the 40 students of IX class of Government Senior Secondary School, Khuban.
After the gap of a month the test was again administered to the same group. The
co-efficient of reliability was found to be 98%.
Validity of the Test:
Validity of test means whether the test actually measures for what it is prepared
for. In the present study, firstly a blue print was prepared and then a test was
developed to match the blue print. The responses of the questionnaire were
validated against competencies. Content validity was found by relating each item
carefully against the competencies. To confirm content validity, the test items
along with a list of competencies to be developed in the learners were given a
panel of six subject experts. The panel observed each item carefully against the
competencies to be developed out of these items. All those items for which there
was complete agreement among the experts were kept. The content validity was
ascertained by preparing a blue print of the test items indicating the weightage
given for the objectives and competencies reflected by these items.

Conclusion

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The study was carried out to construct and produce a valid and reliable
achievement test in English mainly for teachers and students. The test should be
used to assess senior secondary school students’ achievement in English when
they have covered the selected content of their curriculum. The difficulty value,
discriminating power and distractor analysis was done thoroughly. Also the
constructed achievement test has high validity and reliability.

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TEACHING OF SOCIAL
SCIENCES
(BED128)

IDENTIFYING AND
EVALUATING ICT
RESOURCES SUITABLE
FOR TEACHING
SOCIAL SCIENCES

SUBMITTED TO:
MRS.

127
Education has a great importance in everybody‟s life. It is old as human race. It is
never ending process of inner growth and development, and its period stretches
from birth till death i.e. from cradle to grave. Education in real sense is to
humanize humanity and to make life progressive, cultured and civilized. It is the
education that develops man‟s thinking and reasoning, positive sentiments,
intelligence, skill and good values. Teaching and learning are the two fundamental
aspects of education process. Teaching means to cause the pupils to learn and
acquire knowledge and skills. Learning involves acquisition of habits, knowledge
and attitudes. Since teaching and learning are integrally related to each other ,
good teaching means maximum learning. India faces today challenges both
internal and external. Education is most effective instrument to meet these
challenges. Only a purposive, appropriate, need based, time bound education can
endow people with the knowledge, the sense of purpose and confidence essential
for building a dynamic, vibrant and cohesive nation capable of facing challenges
and providing its people with the wherewithal for creating better, fuller and more
purposeful life and the answer to such types of education is use of information and
communication technology (ICT). The country is marching towards the 21st
century with the lost of optimism. The present generation needs to be well
equipped to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Globalization and
technological change processes that have accelerated in tandem over the past
fifteen years have created a new global economy “powered by technology, fueled
by information and driven by knowledge” The national policy of education (1986)
has emphasized that educational technology should play an important role in
educational sector. Research findings several that the proper use of science and
technology in the fields of education can help in achieving desired results ,thus
facilitating the whole teaching-learning process with information growing at a
mind boggling pace, technology provides the necessary help and technical support
required to keep pace with the information growth.
In the field of education, ICT(information and communication technology) provides
the teacher with variety of tools, which help in transforming the teacher-centered
classroom into a rich, Learner-centered and knowledge–rich environment

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Information and communication technology-which includes ratio and television as
well as newer digital technologies such as compilers and the internet-have been
treated as potentially powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform
when used appropriately different. ICTs are said to help expand access to
education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital
workplace, and raise educational quality by among others, helping make teaching
and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. However, the
experience of introducing different ICTs in the classroom and other educational
settings all over the world over the fast several decades suggests that the full
realization of the potential educational benefits of ICTs is not automatic. The
affective integration of ICTs into the educational system is complex, multifaceted
process that involves not just technology- indeed, given enough initial capital,
getting the technology is the easiest part, but also curriculum and pedagogy,
institutional readiness, teachers competencies, and long-term financing, among
others.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY


ICT constitutes “Information Technology” and “Communication technology” both
of which are developing at a very high speed.

 Information Technology (IT):


Oxford‟s Advanced Learners Dictionary defined IT as the study or use of electronic
equipment, especially computers for storing analyzing and sending out
information. It deals with the use of computer and its software to convert, store,
protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. In the United Kingdom‟s
education system, IT was formally integrated into the school curriculum.
It was quickly realized that the work covered was useful in all subject. With the
arrival of Internet and Broadband connections to schools, the application of IT
knowledge, skills and understanding in all subjects become a reality. This change in
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emphasis has resulted in a change of name from IT to ICT i.e Information and
communication Technology. Thus information Technology (IT) comprises the
knowledge, skills and understanding needed to employ information and
communication technologies appropriately, securely and fruitfully in learning,
employment and every day life.
IT capability at school age includes:
 Understanding of how information is structured in a database.
 Skills in carrying out a search on the World Wide Web with sensitivity to
meeting, accuracy of data and reliability of sources.
 Understanding of how computers can simulate real processes e.g. predator-
prey relationships.
 Skills in using software e.g. word processing or e-mail to communicate
effectively.
 Understanding that ICT can be used to control things.
 Knowledge of how to use ICT securely, with consideration of the feelings of
other people, their rights to privacy and ownership of material. Not all IT
learning will involve the use of computers. For example, teachers might ask
pupil to:
 Sort real objects into different categories as an introduction to database.
 Read a piece of printed text in order to identify the key words that might
characterize it and help to retrieve it electronically if necessary.
 Develop paper-based models and simulations.
 Consider the use of font sizes and print effect in newspapers and magazines
as part of their work with word processors.
 Give each other instructions as a way of teaching about precision and
control.

 Communication Technology:
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Communication is the process of sending, receiving and exchange is possible
through a series of interconnected local networks expanding and connecting
to other networks globally. Multimedia information can be transferred and
exchanged taking high quality real time interaction.

 ICT: (Information and Communication Technology):


ICT stand for information and communication technologies are defined, as a
“diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and
to create, disseminate, store and manage information”. These technologies
includes computers, computer works stations, display facilities, hardware,
software recording and processing system for sound, still and moving
pictures, graphical calculator, the internet, broad casting technologies (Radio
and Television) and other vide range of communication facilities. It may also
be defined as use of hardware and software i.e. storage, retrieval,
processing, communication and sharing cultural upliftment. ICT makes the
classroom learning interesting and effective, self-learning easy and successful
and life long learning possible for all.
By 1990, the choice of technologies for education was limited because these
were expensive and required high skilled technicians to create and use them.
At that time Radio, TV., Overhead Projector, Slides Projector etc. were the
best example of technology for use in teaching- learning process. But
recently technology applications in education no longer are limited by
convenience, cost and their potential. In recent years there has been a
groundswell of interest in how computers and the internet can best be
harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all
levels and in both formal and non-formal settings. With the arrival of internet
and broadband connections to schools, the applications of IT knowledge, skill
and understanding in all subjects become a reality. This change in emphasis
has resulted in a change of name for IT to ICT i.e. Information and
Communication Technology. Thus Information Technology (IT) comprises the
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knowledge, skills and understanding needed to employ information and
communication technologies appropriately, securely and fruitfully in
learning, employment and every life.

EDUCATION AND ICT


Educational system all around the world are under tremendous pressure to use ICT
to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the 21st century. With the
infusion of ICT in teaching- learning process, the role and responsibilities of both
teachers and learners is transformed. The 21st century teachers and students
require the vision of learning- From ICT-With ICTThrough ICT-Around ICT, with the
skills of digital age literacy inventive thinking and effective communication.

ICT AND TEACHER EDUCATION


Success of any educational reform depends on the effective learning process
which in turn depends on the quality of teachers. The government and community
endeavor to create condition. Which will help motives and inspire teachers on the
constructive and creative lines. Teachers should have freedom to innovate and
device appropriate methods of communication and activities relevant to the needs
and capabilities of the communities.
To effectively harness the power of new information and communication
technologies( ICTs) to improve learning, teachers must have the knowledge and
skills to use the new digital tools and resources to help all students to achieve high
academic standards. A teacher will be able to integrate the use of ICTs into
training/teaching effectively if he develops various competencies like creatively,
flexibility, logistic skills and collaboration skills. ICTs can help educators/teachers in
the different ways. It enables them:
1- To enhance the initial preparation by giving good teaching materials.
132
2- To have access with colleagues, institution and universities and national
organization like UGC, NCERT, NCTE and NAAC etc.
3- To interact with students over a physical distance
4- To access online libraries, journals and researches to enable individual
learning.

ICT AND SCHOOL CURRICULUM


ICT is being accorded increasing importance within the school curriculum. Not only
does it support teaching and learning within other curriculum subjects, but it is
also a subject in its own right. Developing skills, knowledge and understanding in
the use of ICT, prepares pupils to use such technologies in their everyday lives. ICT
tools enable pupils to access, share, analyze and present information gained form
a variety of sources and in many different ways. The use of ICT provides
opportunity for pupils to work both collaboratively and independently. As such,
the role of ICT within the curriculum is not only to enhance the learning experience
of pupils but also to help them in developing the skills essential to participate
effectively in the world of affairs. Recognizing the growing importance of ICT in
education area, policy makers in school education sector has taken proper care to
integrate computer education at school level .

133
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOLS
Computers are revolutionizing all fields of actively nowadays. With quest for
knowledge growing at a very rapid pace and with the human intellect becoming
more and more inquisitive, the need for data warehousing, data analysis, decision
making and presentation has become the most pointed aspect of modern living.
Some of the most sophisticated applications of computer arise in computer- added
design, computer-added manufacture, computer-added teaching and so on.
Educators are interested in computers as “interactivelearning tools”. In the
classroom, students can use computers to develop science projects, prepare
reports and gather information from electronic sources around the world.
Computers can provide better learning results and can be made adaptive to the
individual learner. This is called “computer-supported” collaborative learning. Thus
it is possible to use computers to teach new skills, to develop better understanding
more clarity of concepts, to provide remedial teaching and to facilitate
development of creativity and problem solving approach etc.

COMMONLY USED ICTs IN EDUCATION


The new digital technologies are no single technologies. They are combination of
hardware and software media and delivery systems. Following are the types of
ICTs commonly used in education:
 Digital video/Still Camera
 Multimedia PC, Laptop Notebook
 LAN and other Networks/Mobile Phone
 www (World Wide Web)
 CD ROM & DVD
 E-mail & Chat
 Digital Libraries
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 Computer Conference (Video/Audio)
 Application S/W such as work processing spread sheets, power point and
stimulation and speech recognition.
 Integrated Based Research ○ Integrated Learning System (ILS)

DRILL AND PRACTICE, TUTORIALS, AND


STUDY GUIDES
One of the aspects of social studies education involves the learning of facts,
important dates of history, geographic names and so forth. Therefore, drill-
and-practice, tutorial, and study guides have been among the most frequently
used programs in the social studies classroom. One of the first national surveys
in the United States about social studies teachers computer use indicated the
significant use of drill and practice and tutorials among social studies
teachers. The data which were collected from the randomly selected members
of the National Council for Social Studies showed that approximately 24% of
social studies teachers listed these applications as main teaching strategies. In
addition, the data indicated that drill and practice was the third common used
strategy among the participants whereas tutorials ranked fifth. Likewise, Pye
and Sullivan (2001) in a study among middle school social studies teachers
found that almost 22% of social studies teachers used drill and practice and
tutorials in their classroom. Although the study indicated that other computer
software and the Internet became more frequently used teaching tools in social
studies as opposed to drill, practice, and tutorials, it seems that these
applications are still important teaching tools for social studies teachers.

135
SOFTWARE/CD-ROMS, GAMES, AND
SIMULATIONS
In recent years, there have been dramatic changes in the computer-supported
technology. More powerful computers and sophisticated programs are used in
the schools. According to White (1997), these changes in technology have
increased the capability of using more visual aids in the classroom that attract
young users.
Therefore, many social studies software/CD-ROM programs now available to
support teaching strategies in the social studies classroom. Rice and Wilson
(1996) state that “those programs allow students to engage in activities, such
as simulations and problem solving, that encourage them to construct their
own knowledge and conduct their own research”. Likewise, Berson (1996)
points out how simulations and games can reinforce constructivist learning in
the social studies classroom. According to Berson (1996), simulations
facilitate the development of students' problem-solving skills and place
students in the role of decision maker.
Also he points out the practicality of simulations which allow students to
engage in activities that would otherwise be too expensive, dangerous, or
impractical to conduct in the classroom (Berson, 1996).

DEVELOPING DATABASE

Another common instructional strategy used among social studies teachers is


database development. According to Berson (1996), databases are especially
useful for managing the extensive knowledge base in the social studies; they
also foster students' development of inquiry strategies through the
manipulation and analysis of information. Likewise, Rice and Wilson (1999)
states that “Database development aids constructivism by encouraging
collaboration in problem solving, the use of higher-order thinking skills to
develop and test hypotheses, the construction of knowledge by the students
who relate learning to their own experiences” .

136
As Garcia & Michaekis (2001) assert, making databases help to build skills in
locating, organizing, indexing, retrieving, and analyzing information.
Databases can be made to organize information on students and their
families, the community, states, regions, countries, careers, notable people and
any other topics.
For example,
children in primary grades can make mini databases that include drawing,
pictures, charts, and local maps related to topics of study. Similarly, students
in the middle grades can create more detailed databases with card file and
cross-reference systems.

MULTIMEDIA / HYPERMEDIA

Multimedia/hypermedia provides students with visual support in order to


develop mental models of the problems they are trying to solve.
Multimedia/hypermedia refers to the combination of sounds, graphics, texts,
and images with a single information delivery system . The origin of the word
hypermedia comes from the term “hypertext” which was used first by Ted
Nelson in the early 1960s. Nelson, later, defined the term and began using the
word hypermedia . With multimedia/hypermedia, students can create
individual or group presentations to develop skills in information retrieval
and communication, or they can create presentations that promote evidence
of understanding of social studies content and their own perspectives. There
are a number of multimedia software programs such as Authorware,
Hypercard, Hyperstudio, or Linkway which help students to create
productions that include video and audio clips of various social studies topics.
Likewise, concept mapping, clustering, mind maps, and other types of graphic
organizers can be used effectively in social studies classes today. These visual
learning symbols, pictures, and other representative techniques allow
students to go deeper into ideas and concepts .

137
THE INTERNET
The tremendous growth in telecommunication has brought online services,
specialized electronic networks, WebPages, E-mail, software and global
information resources to our homes as well as to school. The Internet provides
an environment in which millions of people participate and engage in the
creation and exchange of information. Internet use has become very popular
in many areas as well as in education in recent years. Accordingly, Internet
access in schools has increased greatly over the last 20 years . According to a
national survey, conducted in the United States, over 90% of schools now have
some sort of access to the Internet, someplace in their building. On the other
hand, “when it is compared with other developed countries, the educational
use of the Internet in Turkey is stillin the infancy period . Yet, it seems that
there are more efforts to integrate the Internet into the Turkish higher
educational context than the primary and secondary education .

Since computer and Internet integration in the Turkish educational system are
at the beginning stages, it might be a possible reason that the research studies
in Turkey mostly have focused on the level of the internet use among
teachers, students, and school administrators and their attitudes toward
computer integration into education rather than focused on the effectiveness
of computer technologies in learning and teaching process.

WEBQUEST
Webquest is one of Internet-supported instructional strategies used in the
social studies classroom. “A webquest is a structured exercise is created by
teacher that asks students to solve a problem or find an answer to a question
or questions by finding information on the web” . Webquest, developed in the
mid-1990s by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University, has become one of
the most popular form of internet use in the classroom. Webquest is defined
as “inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by
learners is drawn from the web… designed to learners time well, focus on
using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners thinking
at the levels of analysis, synthesis and evaluation” . Thus, webquest is an
138
inquiry and problem solving oriented instructional strategy in which students
can construct their own knowledge and truths.

TELECOLLABORATION
Telecollaboration can be used efficiently in communication process between
students, teachers and faculty members in a distant place. Telecollaboration
allows students from one classroom interacting with other students
in a distant class and has the potential to offer effective communication and
educational experiences for students.
According to Driscoll, collaborate technologies are now finding their way into
instruction to support learning of students engaged in a learning task as
members of a group. Collaborate technologies can be designed
for use within a classroom, across classrooms, and outside of classrooms. In
this way, students can communicate to others within and outside the
immediate learning community.

CONCLUSION
As Berson asserts, one of the major purposes of social studies is to promote
effective citizens who posses the critical thinking and decision making skills to
function in a democratic society. Thus, reflective inquiry, problem solving and
decision making skills are considered essential for the contemporary social
studies education. Research shows that computer- and Internet-supported
teaching strategies have crucial roles in facilitating the development of
students’ critical thinking, problem solving and decision making skills.

In this paper, a number of computer-based instructional strategies used in the


social studies education are reviewed. It seems that the Internet has become
the most popular one among all computer-based instructional strategies in the
social studies classroom. It is clear that the current development in

139
telecommunication technology makes the Internet more accessible to
anybody. Furthermore, Internet use is not a difficult task when
compared to other software programs. Therefore, it is not surprising why
teachers use the Internet.

In addition, social studies content requires substantive content knowledge and


the Internet is a great source for this. The Internet provides a wide variety of
sources, which represent different points of view. Using sources, which
represent different worldviews is one of the best ways to foster students’
critical thinking, creative thinking, problem solving and decision making skills.
However, literature review shows that teachers use the Internet basically for
personal purposes such as to find information and other resources, and to
gather background information for planning rather than a teaching and
learning activities in the classroom.

On the other hand, other strategies such as database development, games,


multimedia, hypermedia, webquest and telecollaboration also significantly
contribute to students’ critical thinking, problem solving and decision
making skills. Moreover, these kinds of strategies might foster students’
creativity because these strategies require creation and construction abilities
and ideas from students.
In our opinion, all computer-based instructional strategies somehow reinforce
the constructivist classroom environment. However, social studies teachers
still are not comfortable with applying all or some computer-based
instructional strategies. We believe that a follow up study can be done to
review the beliefs and attitudes of social studies teachers toward these
strategies. The results of the study might reveal the reasons for the lack of
using computer-based instructional strategies among social studies teachers.

In addition, there is still need for research in the field of technology and social
studies, particularly how the usage of new and innovative ways of integrating
technology into the classroom impacts outcomes of learning.

140