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4/25/2019 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit - Engineering Projects

12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit

December 11, 2018 Engineeering Projects

There are lots of 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit available over internet but does not include battery status
indicator. If you wish to know the status of battery like dead, charged or charging you need extra circuit. In order to
solve these problems, we had combined three different circuit and hence do three different dedicated jobs like charging
the battery, indicate the status of battery and also have dedicated port for variable power supply connector of bench
power supply in case you need. This circuit can charge the battery of 50 Ah to 100 Ah with proper visual and audio

Specifications and Advantage

of 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger
1. Can charge the 12V Lead-Acid battery of 50Ah to 100Ah.

2. Dedicated variable power supply port up to 18V DC at

maximum 5A.

3. Automatic detect the battery and charge it with appropriate


4. No output available at variable power supply connector

when battery is connected.

5. Dedicated LED and alarm for reverse polarity connection of battery.

6. Dedicated LED for indication of different status of battery. (dead battery, healthy battery, charging, full charge).

7. Charge the battery at 14.2V and maintain 13.4V when it is fully charged.

Circuit Description of 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit

The circuit diagram of 12V lead acid battery charger is shown in figure 1. This circuit is built around fixed voltage
regulator, variable voltage regulator, dual operational amplifier IC, Transistor, Relay, Transformer and few other
electronic components. 1/4
4/25/2019 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit - Engineering Projects

Rectifier Section:
220V AC mains supply is given to primary winding of stepdown center-tap transformer X1which lower the voltage to
15V-0-15V AC. This 15V-0-15V AC is rectified by full wave rectifier designed using two diodes (D1 and D2) and
filtered using one 4700uF electrolytic capacitor (C1). LED1 indicate the presence of mains supply where resistor
R1 limit the current and dropout the extra voltage.

Fixed Voltage regulator Section:

Fixed voltage regulator is designed around 12V fixed voltage regulator LM7812. Unregulated DC volt is given to
voltage input pin (pin 1) of IC1 and 12V regulated power supply is available at pin voltage output pin (pin 3). Capacitor
C2 connected at output filter the unregulated part if available. This 12V fixed DC voltage is used to operate the cooling
fan and both relay (RL1 and RL2). Diode D3 protect the voltage regulator from reverse voltage.

Variable voltage regulator Section

Variable voltage regulator is designed using two LM138 IC connected in parallel in order to handle high current.
Unregulated DC volts is given to the voltage input pin (Pin 3) of IC2and IC3. Output voltage is adjusted by two different
variable resistor VR1 and VR2. Output voltage at variable power supply is controlled by variable resistor VR2 where
voltage at battery charger port is adjusted by variable resistor VR1. Diode D5 to D7 is used here for protecting the
variable voltage regulator IC (IC2 and IC2) where diodes D8 and D9 block the flow of voltage from the battery back to
voltage regulator. Selection of variable resistor is done by relay RL2.

Other battery charger circuit available in are:

1. Arduino Controlled 12V battery charger circuit

2. 12 V Battery Charger with overcharge and deep-discharge protecting 2/4
4/25/2019 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit - Engineering Projects

3. Microcontroller Based Solar Charger

4. 12v, 7Ah Smart Battery Charger with PCB Diagram

5. Automatic battery float charger circuit

Case 1: Battery Charging Section

When battery is connected to connector CON3 operational amplifier IC4 get power supply. Op-amp LM358 is dual op-
amp (IC4:A and IC4:B) and is configured in voltage comparator mode. A fixed voltage is given to inverting pin of both
the amplifier (pin 2 and pin 6) where non-inverting pin get variable voltage according to battery voltage. OP-AMP2
(IC4:B) is set in order to determine whether battery is dead or healthy. If the battery is dead i.e. output voltage is less
than 9V. When battery voltage is less then 9V output of comparator (IC4:B) at pin 7 become low as a result LED3 start
to glow. Glowing LED3 indicate battery is dead. When battery voltage is greater then 9V then output of comparator
(IC4:B) is high as result LED4 start to glow. Glowing LED4 indicate battery is healthy. When output of IC4:B is high,
transistor T1 (2N2222) get operating voltage at its base and thus start to conduct as a result both the relay (RL1 and
RL2) is energized. When relay get energized its common pin start to connect with N/O pin as a result output is available
at battery charger connector (CON4) and battery start to charge.

When battery is fully charged voltage available at non-inverting pin (pin 3) become higher then voltage at inverting pin
(pin 2) as a result output at pin 1 become high and LED7 start to glow indicating battery is fully charged. This high
output at pin 1 activate transistor T2 (BC547) and some voltage flow to ground which lower some voltage (approx 0.8)
at output pin of variable voltage regulator (IC2 and IC3). Thus, it maintains 13.4V at CON3 when battery is fully

Case 2: Variable Power Supply Section

When battery is not connected for charging operational amplifier IC does not get power supply as a result transistor
T1 does not conduct and both the relay (RL1 and RL2) are in de-energized state. At this time voltage is available at
variable power supply connector (CON4). Variable resistor VR2 is used to adjust output voltage at this connector.

When battery is connected in reverse polarity diode D13 start to connect as result LED5 start to conduct with sound.
Thus, glowing LED5 with alarm indicates battery is connected in opposite polarity.

LED6 is used to indicate the power supply available at variable power supply connector CON4. Brightness of LED6
varies according to output voltage at CON4. 3/4
4/25/2019 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit - Engineering Projects

Configuration of 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit

1. Connect all the component as shown in circuit diagram.

2. Remove the jumper JP2 and JP3 while connecting jumper JP1 and switch SW1 ON.

3. Adjust variable resistor VR5 such a way LED2 and LED3 ON and OFF alternately while changing the state of both
the relay (energized and de-energized).

4. Adjust variable resistor VR1 in such a way that voltage available at VCC pin of IC4 (pin 8) with respect to ground
must be battery full charged voltage (13.4V DC).

5. Connect Jumper JP3 and adjust VR4 in such a way that LED7 start to glow.

6. Again, adjust VR1 in such way that the voltage available at VCC pin of IC4 (pin 8) with respect to ground must be

7. Now Connect jumper JP2 and adjust variable resistor VR3 till voltage at VCC pin of IC4 (pin 8) with respect to
ground is 13.4V DC.

8. Now, remove the jumper JP1 and your charger circuit is ready to use.

Component Required for 12V Lead Acid Battery Charger Circuit 4/4