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AP Human Geography

Unit 7: Cities and Urban Land Use

Chapter 9 (pages 257-299)

a. Analyze the origin and evolution of cities including:
1. Historical patterns of urbanization
2. Rural-urban migration and urban growth
3. Global cities and megacities
4. Models of urban systems
b. Evaluate the functional character of contemporary cities including
1. Changing employment mix
2. Changing demographic and social structures
c. Assess built environment and social space including:
1. Models of internal city structure in North America and around the world
2. Transportation and infrastructure
3. Political organization of urban areas
4. Urban planning and design
5. Patterns of race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status
6. Uneven development, ghettoization, and gentrification

Vocabulary and Concepts

1. urban morphology (258): 23.hamlets:

2. city (259): 24.villages:
3. urbanization (259): 25.towns:
4. urbanized population: 26.hinterland:
5. social stratification/structure (261): 27.metropolises:
6. nucleated form of settlement: 28.megalopolis/conurbation:
7. dispersed form of settlement: 29.emerging cities:
8. threshold: 30.gateway cities:
9. site (267): 31.shock city:
10.hydraulic civilization: 32.festival landscape:
11.situation (270): 33.cityscape: area (273): 34.symbolic landscapes:
13.rank-size rule (273): 35.central place theory (274):
14.primate city (274): 36.census tracts:
15.basic industry: (276):
16.nonbasic industries: 38.central business district (CBD) (276):
17.economic base: theory:
18.employment structure: 40.central city (276): city: 41.suburb (276):
20.underemployment: 42.suburbanization/counterurbanization
21.urban hierarchy: (276):
22.unincorporated areas: 43.concentric zone model (277):
44.the peak land value intersection: 67.megacities: of transition (277): 68.high-tech corridors:
46.slums: 69.shantytowns (283):
47.tenements: 70.redlining (284):
48.commuter zone: 71.underclass:
49.invasion and succession: 72.blockbusting (285):
50.sector model (277): 73.racial steering:
51.multiple nuclei model (278): 74.commercialization (285):
52.edge cities (278): architecture:
53.alien commercial zone: 76.restrictive covenants:
54.multiplier effect: 77.tear-downs (286): 78.decentralization:
56.urban realm model (278): 79.centralization:
57.dendritic: 80.urban hydrology:
58.colonial city (278): 81.urban heat island:
59.indigenous city (278): 82.urban sprawl (286):
60.fall line city: urbanism/planned communities
61.urban growth rates: (287):
62.squatter settlements/barriadas: 84.ethnic neighborhood (291):
63.favelas (280): 85.globalization (295):
64.gentrification (280): cities/great cities (295): parks: 87.greenbelts

Unit 7 Reading Guide Questions

Urban Geography (pages 257-273)

1. The global population is predominately urban. Is the previous statement true or

false? Defend your answer.
2. Use the three terms in a sentence: agricultural surplus, social stratification and cities.
3. What is the relationship between hearths of agriculture and the first urban revolution?
4. Name the five hearths of urbanization.
5. After European exploration took off, the dominance of interior cities declined. Is the
statement true or false? Explain.
6. What are 2 negative and 2 positive effects of a primate city on a country’s economic
7. Compare and Contrast the socioeconomic structure of suburbs in the United States
and Europe.
8. The Second Urban Revolution occurred after the Second Agricultural Revolution. Is
the statement true or false? Explain.