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Decanter

Decanters are used to separate liquids where there is a sufficient difference in density between
the liquids for the droplets to settle readily. Decanters are essentially tanks which give sufficient
residence time for the droplets of the dispersed phase to rise (or settle) to the interface between
the phases and coalesce. In an operating decanter, there will be three distinct zones or bands:
clear heavy liquid; separating dispersed liquid (the dispersion zone); and clear light liquid. The
decanter in this design will separate the glucose and xylose (heavy phase) from the mixture (light
phase). The sizing and costing summary for decanter is shown in Table 7.3.

Table 7.3: Sizing and costing summary for decanter

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


Item no D-101
Identification Decanter
Function To separate Glucose & Xylose from mixture
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 50
Pressure (bar) 2.5
Residence Time,𝜏 (seconds) 1884.55
Specifications
Design Type Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Stainless Steel 316
Vessel
Diameter (m) 0.75
Height (m) 1.508
Z1 (m) 1.357
Z2 (m) 1.130
Z3 (m) 0.754
Wall Thickness (in) 0.4375
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = 𝑹𝑴 𝟓𝟎𝟏, 𝟐𝟒𝟏. 𝟒𝟔
Figure 7.1: Vertical Decanter
Pump

In the design, three pumps are used to increase the pressure of streams 18, 22 and 40 to desired
pressure conditions. Pump, P-101 basically is used to pump liquid solvent from 1 bar to 1.2 bar
before entering flash drum, FD-101. Pump, P-102 is used to pump liquid solvent from 1 bar to
1.3 bar before entering splitter, S-101. Pump, P-103 is used to pump liquid solvent from 1.1 bar
to 18 bar before entering reactor, R-101.The sizing and costing summary for pumps are shown in
Table 7.4.

Table 7.4: Sizing and costing summary for pumps

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


Item no Pump, P-101 Pump, P-102 Pump, P-103
Function To increase the pressure of the streams
Operating Condition
Inlet Pressure (bar) 1 1 1.1
Outlet Pressure (bar) 1.2 1.3 18
Volume Flow Rate (gpm) 118.52 112.52 255.69
Liquid Density (Pound per Gallon) 8.13 8.04 7.79
Specifications
Type of Pump Centrifugal Pump Centrifugal Pump Centrifugal Pump
Material of Construction Cast Steel Cast Steel Stainless Steel 316
Pump Head (feet) 6.42 9.96 605.52
Shaft rpm 3600 rpm 3600 rpm 3600 rpm
Electric Motor Enclosure Totally enclosed, Totally enclosed, Totally enclosed,
Fan-Cooled Fan-Cooled Fan-Cooled
Case Split Orientation Vertical (VSC) Vertical (VSC) Horizontal (HSC)
Brake Horsepower (hp) 6719.32 9008.14 1,206,452.84
Power Consumption (hp) 0.36 0.53 63.52
Equipment Cost 𝑹𝑴 𝟔𝟒, 𝟗𝟗𝟒. 𝟐𝟕 𝑹𝑴 𝟔𝟓, 𝟐𝟔𝟔. 𝟔𝟏 𝑹𝑴 𝟒𝟓𝟏, 𝟎𝟑𝟏. 𝟑𝟔
Item no Pump, P-104 Pump, P-105 Pump, P-106
Function To increase the pressure of the streams
Operating Condition
Inlet Pressure (bar) 1 1 1
Outlet Pressure (bar) 1.4 1.4 1.4
Volume Flow Rate (gpm) 61.07 57.77 6.53
Liquid Density (Pound per Gallon) 8.16 8.20 8.40
Specifications
Type of Pump Centrifugal Pump Centrifugal Pump Centrifugal Pump
Material of Construction Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316
Pump Head (feet) 13.23 13.16 12.85
Shaft rpm 3600 rpm 3600 rpm 3600 rpm
Electric Motor Enclosure Totally enclosed, Totally enclosed, Totally enclosed,
Fan-Cooled Fan-Cooled Fan-Cooled
Case Split Orientation Vertical (VSC) Vertical (VSC) Vertical (VSC)
Brake Horsepower (hp) 6594.06 6236.59 705.02
Power Consumption (hp) 0.45 0.44 0.25
Equipment Cost 𝑹𝑴 𝟗𝟒, 𝟎𝟖𝟎. 𝟏𝟐 𝑹𝑴 𝟗𝟒, 𝟐𝟐𝟕. 𝟔𝟒 𝑹𝑴 𝟏𝟑𝟎, 𝟖𝟖𝟖. 𝟎𝟐
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = 𝑹𝑴 𝟗𝟎𝟎, 𝟓𝟑𝟖. 𝟎𝟏
Filter

In the design, continuous filter, F-101 is used to separate lignin, unreacted hemicellulose and
cellulose from water, xylose and sulfuric acid. In filter, F-102 the unreacted cellulose and lignin
are removed. Filter, F-103 and F-104 are used to filter out calcium sulfate from reactor PR-103
and PR-104. The sizing and costing summary for filters are shown in Table 7.5.

Table 7.5: Sizing and costing summary for continuous filters

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


CONTINUOUS FILTER, F-101
Function Separate lignin, unreacted hemicellulose and
cellulose from stream
Operating Condition
Mass Flow Rate 15072.5 kg/hr
Stream Density 1079.11 kg/m3
Residence Time,𝜏 10 minutes
Specifications
Type of Filter Press Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter
Material of Construction Carbon Steel
Filtration Area 10.99 ft
Equipment Cost RM 1,073,147.47
CONTINUOUS FILTER, F-102
Function Separate unreacted cellulose and lignin from
stream
Operating Condition
Mass Flow Rate 13579.8 kg/hr
Stream Density 1031.29 kg/m3
Residence Time,𝜏 10 minutes
Specifications
Type of Filter Press Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter
Material of Construction Carbon Steel
Filtration Area 10.57 ft
Equipment Cost RM 1,070,076.87
CONTINUOUS FILTER, F-103
Function Filter out calcium sulfate from stream
Operating Condition
Mass Flow Rate 13174.1 kg/hr
Stream Density 996.046 kg/m3
Residence Time,𝜏 10 minutes
Specifications
Type of Filter Press Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter
Material of Construction Carbon Steel
Filtration Area 10.60 ft
Equipment Cost RM 1,070,301.50
CONTINUOUS FILTER, F-104
Function Filter out calcium sulfate from stream
Operating Condition
Mass Flow Rate 13593 kg/hr
Stream Density 979.345 kg/m3
Residence Time,𝜏 10 minutes
Specifications
Type of Filter Press Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter
Material of Construction Carbon Steel
Filtration Area 10.94 ft
Equipment Cost RM 1,072,809.72
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 4,286,335.56
Crusher

Crusher, CR-101 is used to reduce the size of shredded empty fruit bunch (EFB) from mill to 1-
3mm so that it can be fed into the reactor for pre-treatment process. The sizing and costing
summary for crusher is shown in Table 7.6.

Table 7.6: Sizing and costing summary for crusher

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


CRUSHER CR-,101
Function Reduce the size of EFB
Operating Condition
Mass Flow Rate 1.88 ton/hr
Specifications
Crusher Type Gyratory Crusher
Material of Construction Carbon Steel
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 161,748.53
Flash Drum

In equilibrium flash process, a feed stream is separated into liquid and vapor streams. Flash
drum, FD-101 is to reduce the water content in sugar solution which is stream 20 and similarly
flash drum, FD-102 is used to reduce water content of the stream before it enters new vessel so
that the size of the vessel can be smaller. The sizing and costing summary for flash drums is
shown in Table 7.7.

Table 7.7: Sizing and costing summary for flash drums

Equipment Specification Sheet


Item no Flash Drum, FD-101 Flash Drum, FD-102
Function Separate water content in stream
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 100 117.5
Pressure (bar) 1 1.17
Residence Time,𝜏 (min) 10 10
Specifications
Design Type Vertical Cylindrical Tank Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Carbon Steel Stainless Steel 316
Vessel
Diameter (m) 5.95 1.11
Height (m) 9.23 3.14
Thickness (in) 0.75 0.4375
Equipment Cost RM 3,939,664.57 RM 880,392.62
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 4,820,057.18
Mixer

Mixer is used to combine two streams from different equipment to the next equipment. In this
plant, mixer is used to mix between the butanol, water, hydrochloric acid, xylose and glucose.
The sizing and costing summary for mixer is shown in Table 7.8.

Table 7.8: Sizing and costing summary for mixer

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


Mixer, M-101
Function To combine streams
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 40
Pressure (bar) 1
Residence Time,𝜏 (min) 10
Specifications
Design Type Agitator Mixer
Design Configuration Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Stainless Steel 316
Agitator rpm Propeller (1750 rpm)
Vessel
Impeller Diameter (m) 0.28
Blade Pitch (m) 0.5
Power Required (hp) 57.94
Vessel Diameter (m) 0.93
Vessel Height (m) 1.24
Vessel Thickness (in) 0.4375
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 534,742.16
Splitter

To separate into two streams with equal composition.

Splitter, is a type of equipment which splits one chemical stream into two streams in a chemical
plant. In this plant, splitters are used to split water with equal composition. The sizing and
costing summary for splitter is shown in Table 7.9.

Table 7.9: Sizing and costing summary for splitter

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


Item no Splitter, S-101 Splitter, S-102
Function To separate into two streams with equal composition.
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 90 90
Pressure (bar) 1.3 1.3
Residence Time,𝜏 (min) 30 30
Specifications
Design Type Horizontal Cylindrical Tank Horizontal Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Carbon Steel Carbon Steel
Vessel
Vessel Diameter (m) 2.01 1.98
Vessel Height (m) 4.02 3.95
Vessel Thickness (in) 0.5 0.5
Equipment Cost RM 628168.22 RM 615028.53
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 1,243,196.75
Storage Tank

Storage tank is used to store the chemicals supply as well as the products before delivering to the
market. In this design, it is required to install storage tanks for Furfural, Levulinic Acid and
DMF product. The sizing and costing summary for storage tank is shown in Table 7.10.

Table 7.10: Sizing and costing summary for storage tanks

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


Item no Storage Tank T-101 Storage Tank T-102 Storage Tank T-103
Function To store Furfural To store Levulinic Acid To store DMF
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 30 30 30
Pressure (bar) 1 1 1
Inventory (Day) 7 7 7
Specifications
Design Type Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal
Cylindrical Tank Cylindrical Tank Cylindrical Tank
Material of Carbon Steel Stainless Steel 316 Carbon Steel
Construction
Type of Roof Fixed-cone roof Fixed-cone roof Fixed-cone roof
Vessel
Diameter (m) 3.459 2.69 4.15
Height (m) 1.729 1.35 2.07
Volume (m3) 48.74 23.03 84.05
Thickness (mm) 54.79 43.78 64.71
Equipment Cost RM 457,656.32 RM 312,227.85 RM 604,309.86
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 1,374,194.03
Reactor

Reactor is the heart of a chemical plant where the reactions take place to convert the raw
materials to the desired products. Several parameters shall be taken into account while designing
a reactor, including the reactor type, temperature, pressure and reactor size. The sizing and
costing summary for storage tank is shown in Table 7.11.

Table 7.11: Sizing and costing summary for reactors

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET


Item no Hydrolysis Reactor, PR-101 Hydrolysis Reactor, PR-102
Function
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 140 140
Pressure (bar) 1 1
Residence Time,𝜏 (min) 30 30
Specifications
Design Type Vertical Cylindrical Tank Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316
Vessel
Diameter (m) 19.86 19.06
Height (m) 39.72 38.12
Volume (m3) 12304.72 10879.51
Thickness (mm) 0.875 0.875
Equipment Cost RM 60,620,672.91 RM 56,674,955.16
Item no Neutralization Reactor, PR-103 Neutralization Reactor, PR-104

Function
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 70 70
Pressure (bar) 1 1
Residence Time,𝜏 (hr) 1 1
Specifications
Design Type Vertical Cylindrical Tank Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Carbon Steel Carbon Steel
Vessel
Diameter (m) 2.034 2.07
Height (m) 4.069 4.13
Volume (m3) 13.23 13.88
Thickness (mm) 0.625 0.625
Equipment Cost RM 969,595.03 RM 989,295.22
Item no Biphasic Reactor, R-101 Trickle Bed Reactor, R-102
Function
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 120 60
Pressure (bar) 18 1.4
Residence Time,𝜏 (hr) 6 6
Specifications
Design Type Vertical Cylindrical Tank Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel 316
Vessel
Diameter (m) 6.11 1.28
Height (m) 12.22 2.55
Volume (m3) 357.95 3.27
Thickness (mm) 3.25 0.5
Equipment Cost RM 25,141,120.45 RM 944,985.66
Item no Tubular Reactor, R-103
Function
Operating Condition
Temperature (°C) 105.945
Pressure (bar) 1.7
Residence Time,𝜏 (hr) 1
Specifications
Design Type Vertical Cylindrical Tank
Material of Construction Stainless Steel 316
Vessel
Diameter (m) 12.13
Height (m) 24.27
Volume (m3) 2806.28
Thickness (mm) 0.875
Equipment Cost RM 27,541,004.67
Total Estimated Equipment Cost = RM 172,881,629.10