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2018 IMO Problems/Problem 1

Let be the circumcircle of acute triangle . Points and are on
segments and respectively such that . The perpendicular bisectors
of and intersect minor arcs and of at points and
respectively. Prove that lines and are either parallel or they are the same line.
-- solution –
The diagram is certainly not to scale, but the argument is sound (I believe) and involves
re-ordering the construction as specified in the original problem so that an identical state
of affairs results, yet in so doing differently it is made clear that the line segments in
question are parallel.
Construct a right-angled triangle ABC'. Select an arbitrary point H along the segment
BC', and from point H select an arbitrary point F such that the segment HF is
perpendicular to the segment AB. Mark the distance from the intersection of HF and AB
to B at B" (i.e., HF is a perpendicular bisector). It follows that the triangle B"FB is
isosceles. Construct an isosceles triangle FHG. Mark the distance of AB" along AC' at
C". (From here, a circle can be constructed according to the sets of points A, B, F, and
A, B, G. Points F and G may be repositioned to allow for these circles to coincide; also,
point H may be repositioned so that point C falls on the coinciding circle, understood that
HG is the other perpendicular bisector.)
Assign the angle BAC the value α. Hence, the angle FHG has the value 180°-α, and the
angle HFG (also, HGF) has the value α/2. Assign the angle BFH the value β. Hence, the
angle B'FB" has the value β-α/2. Consequently, the angle FB'B" has the value 180°-(β-
α/2)-(90°-β) = 90°+α/2, and so too its vertical angle BB'G. As the triangle B"AC" is
isosceles, and its subtended angle has the value α, the angles BB"C" and CC"B" both
have the value 90°+α/2. It follows therefore that segments B"C" and FG are parallel.
(N.B. Points D and E, as given in the wording of the original problem, have been
renamed B" and C" here.)

2018 IMO Problems/Problem 2

Find all numbers for which there exists real numbers
satisfying and for

2018 IMO Problems/Problem 3

An anti-Pascal triangle is an equilateral triangular array of numbers such that, except for
the numbers in the bottom row, each number is the absolute value of the difference of
the two numbers immediately below it. For example, the following is an anti-Pascal
triangle with four rows which contains every integer from to

Does there exist an anti-Pascal triangle with rows which contains every integer
from to ?
Trivially it is required that every positive integer from to
appears exactly once.
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Let denote the maximum number in the th row and let denote the minimum
number in the th row.
Now assume and consider the numbers directly below . Call these
and where w.l.o.g. . Then . Since and , we
obtain that .

Thus, for ,

In particular, since ,
Thus is a sum of 2018 distinct positive integers.
However, .
Thus and is a
permutation of . Also, this implies that the other inequalities are also

equalities and, for any ,

Now let any positive integer be "small" and let any positive
integer be "large".
Since is a permutation of , there is
exactly one small number in each row.

If , we have

so the th row
cannot contain any large numbers.
If , let be a large number in the th row. Let the numbers directly
below be and where w.l.o.g. . We have
and so, because is large, so is small.
Thus so is directly above . Thus there are at most 2 large numbers in
the th row.
Thus there are at most 126 large numbers outside the bottom row. Since there are 2019
large numbers, there are at least 1893 large numbers in the bottom row so at most 125
non-large numbers in the bottom row. Now there are 2017 pairs of adjacent large
numbers in the bottom row. We remove the pair directly beneath and at most 250
other pairs containing a non-large number. Thus we can find a pair of adjacent large
numbers in the bottom row, not directly beneath . However, their difference is
small and in the 2017th row but not , which is a contradiction. Thus there is no
such anti-Pascal triangle.

2018 IMO Problems/Problem 4

Problem 4. A site is any point in the plane such that and are both positive
integers less than or equal to 20. Initially, each of the 400 sites is unoccupied. Amy and
Ben take turns placing stones with Amy going first. On her turn, Amy places a new red
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stone on an unoccupied site such that the distance between any two sites occupied by
red stones is not equal to . On his turn, Ben places a new blue stone on any
unoccupied site. (A site occupied by a blue stone is allowed to be at any distance from
any other occupied site.) They stop as soon as a player cannot place a stone. Find the
greatest such that Amy can ensure that she places at least red stones, no matter
how Ben places his blue stones.
The maximal K is 100. Amy can reach at least 100 by playing only on sites for which x+y
is even. There are 200 such sites, none are of distance from each other and Ben
can occupy at most half of them. On the other hand Ben can prevent Amy from reaching
more than 100 using the following strategy: Picture the sites as a 20 by 20 board and
divide it into 25 non overlapping 4-by-4 squares. We label each site in the square as
Whenever Amy plays in a square Ben plays in the same square and in the site with the
same label. In each square Amy can place at most 2 stones in sites labeled 1,4,6,7 (no
three sites with labels from this set are free from distance and Amy can play one
stone on each label since Ben plays the other). Likewise for the sites labeled 2,3,5,8. So
in total Amy can place at most 4 stones in each of the 25 squares for a total of 100

2018 IMO Problems/Problem 5

Let be an infinite sequence of positive integers. Suppose that there is an

integer such that, for each , the number

is an integer. Prove that there is a positive integer such that for

2018 IMO Problems/Problem 6

A convex quadrilateral satisfies Point lies
inside so that and Prove
that .