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Yunit III.

The Instructional Roles and Functions of Computer

1. Computer as ICT

The instructional materials consist of audio-visual aids that served to enhanced and
enrich the teaching-learning process. Educational communication media comprise the
media of communication to audiences including learners. Until the nineties was still
possibe to distinguish between instructional media and the educational communication

In the turn of 21st century such a distinction merged owing to the advent of
microprocessor, also known as the personal computer (PC). This is due to the fact that the
PC user has before a him/her a tool for audio-visual creations and media communication.

To illustrate, let’s examine the programs (capabilities) normally installed in an ordinary

modern PC.

 Microsoft Word - program for composing text, graphics, photos in letters,

articles, reports, etc.
 Microsof Power-point - stand – alone application for creating professional
multimedia presentations. Used for lecture presentations.
 Microsof Excel – creates simple to complex data/ numerical spreadsheets.
 Internet expolorer- acccess to the internet.
 Yahoo or Google - website, email, chat rooms, blog sites, news service
(print/video) edducational softwares etc.
 Adobe Reader - graphs/photo compositions and editing.
 MSN - mail/chat messaging.
 Windows media player - CD, VCD player and editing film/video.
 Cyberlink Power - DVD player.
 Gamehouse - Video games.

2. The Computer as a Tutor

 The computer is one of the wonders of human ingenuity.

 With the invention of the microcomputer (now also commonly referred to as PCs or
personal computers) the PC has become the tool for programmed instruction.
 Computer assisted instruction (CAI) the computer can be a tutor in effect, relieving
the teacher of many activities in his personal role as classroom teacher. The
computer cannot totally replace the teacher since the teacher shall continue to play
the major roles of information deliverer and learning environment controller.

The teacher must:

 ensure that the students have the needed knowledge and skill for any computer
 decide the appropriate learning objectives.
 plan the sequential and instruction activities to achieve the objectives.
 evaluate the students achievement by ways that tests specific expected outcomes.

Students in CAI play their own roles as learners as they:

 received information.
 they understand information for the computer activity.
 retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity.
 apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning.

The computer plays its roles as it:

 acts as a sort of tutor (the role traditionally played by the teachers)

 provides a learning environment.
 delivers learning instruction
 reinforces learning through drill and practice
 provides feedback

3. CAI integrated with lesson :

 computer learning should not stop with the drill and practice activities of students.
 CAI works best in reinforcing learning through repetitive exercises such that
students can practice basic skills or knowledge in various subject areas.
 In these programs, the computer presents a question / problem first and the student
is asked to answer the question / problem. Immediate feedback is given to the
students’ answer.

When and how can teachers integrate drill and practice programs with their lessons?

 Use drill and practice programs for basic skills and knowledge that require rapid or
automatic response by students.
 ensure that drill and practice activities conform to the lesson plan / curriculum.
 limit drill and practice to 20-30 minutes to avoid boredom.
 use drill and practice to assist students in particular weakness and basic skills.

The tutorial software should be able to:

 teach new content/information to students.

 Provide comprehensive information on concepts in addition to practice exercises.
 effectively use for remediation, reviewing or enrichment.
 allow the teacher to introduce follow-up questions to stimulate students’ learning .
permits group activity for cooperative learning.


These are another kind of software that is constructivist in nature.

These simulation software:

 teaches strategies and rules applied to real-life problems/situations . asks students

to make decision on models or scenarios.
 allows students to manipulate elements of a model and get the experience of the
effects of their decisions.


While relating to low-level learning objectives, instructional computer games and the
elements of competition and challenge.


These are more sophisticated than the drill and practice exercises and allow students to
learn and improve on their problem-solving ability. Since problems cannot be solved
simply by memorizing facts, the students have to employ higher thinking skills such as
logic, recognition, reflection and strategy-making.


MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA can store a huge database with texts, images, animation,
audio and video. Students can access any desired information, search its vast contents and
even download/print relevant portions of the data for their composition or representation.

ELECTRONIC BOOKS provide textual information for reading, supplemented by other

types of multimedia information (sound, spoken words, pictures, animation), these are
useful for learning reading, spelling and word skills.

The computer is a tutor in this new age of learning. It does not replace the teacher,
although it assumes certain roles previously assigned to teacher who now has to take the
new role of facilitator and guide.

Integrating computer exercises is the new task of the teacher who can find in the computer
and computer software an alternative medium to the traditional classroom practice of
delivering information and supporting learning activities.

In the years ahead, we shall the computer in schools as a common tool for the enhancement
of the students’ learning thinking, communication and collaboration skills. Computer will
become an integral component of the future classroom and not a mere machine that can
deliver routine drills and exercises.


Cruz, Jocel

Cunanan, Jhesica

Flores, Kristine Joy

Manalus, Trisha

Manlangit, Aira

Tugon, Christian Dave