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Date: Thursday 28 February 2019
Subject: Materials and Construction Tools

Therearedifferentmaterialsthatwecome acrossondailybasis.Materialissynonymouswith
substance,andisanything madeofmatter-hydrogen,airandwaterareallexamplesof
materials.Sometimesitisusedmorenarrowly torefertosubstancesorcomponentswith
certainphysicalpropertieswhichare used asinputstoproductionormanufacturing buildingsandartto
everyday products,suchascomputers.Amaterialcan beanything:afinishedproductinits own right oran
unprocessedraw material.


Rawmaterialsare firstextractedorharvestedfromtheearthanddividedintoa formthat can

beeasilytransportedandstored,thenprocessedtoproducesemi-finishedmaterials.These can be
inputintoa new cycle ofproductionandfinishing processestocreatefinishedmaterials, readyfor
distribution,construction, and consumption.
They aredividedindifferentways:nature,artificial,solidsandliquidsorfluids,eachofthem having certain

I. Which ofthese materials do you know? Do youknow the meaning of the properties listed?
Iron: heavy, stiff, hard, rigid, rough, non-combustible, brittle, not verycorrosion-resistant
Steel:light, stiff, tough,malleable
Aluminium: light, soft, ductile, conductive, highlycorrosion resistant
Rubber: flexible, soft
Concrete: rough, hard, non-combustible
Oil:oily, thick,combustible, viscous
Wood: soft, combustible,rigid
Glass:brittle, breakable,transparent,clear
Plastics: tough, good insulator, durable, wear-resistant, stiff

II.Work in pairs: write alist of somethings that can bemadeof:

steel: products for big kitchens(for cooking), doors, vaults…
silk: gold:
cardboard: cotton:
wax: glas:
III.Match these adjectives to their meaning:

1 transparent A) able to last a longtime

2 porous B)hard, but easilybroken
3 durable C) easyto bend without breaking, flexible
4 brittle D)lightcan pass through
5 dense E)has manysmall holesthat allow waterand air to pass through
6 pliable F)hasahigh mass to volume ratio
7 translucent G) clear, allows to seethrough it

1G 2 3 4 5
6 7

resistant, durable,elastic,natural, rigid, flammable, malleable, heat-resistant

Wood is veryoften usedin interiors becauseitlooksnaturaland warm.

Aluminiumand magnesium are important for car makers because they are
and therefore good for weight-saving.
Safetyregulations requirethat the foam used incar seats shouldn’t be .
Rubber should be able to withstand great temperature differences while staying
.In other words, itshouldn’t become brittle.
Windscreens aremadeofaspecial glass to protect drivers in accidents

V. Indicate the definition for each vocabulary term by writing its letter in the answer box.

VocabularyTerm Answer DEFINITION

Tensile strength A The amount of compressive stress that
a material can resist before failing.
Ductile B The elongation or contraction of a
material per unit length of the material
Strain C Rock that contains a high
concentration of iron
Modulus of elasticity D Iron that is refined to contain virtually
no impurities.
Compressive strength E A concrete member with steel
embedded inside it to resist tensile
Brittle F The amount of tensile stress that a
material can resist before failing
Stress G A combination of cement and
aggregate into one solid mass.
Steel H Indicates the stiffness of a material.
Cement I The ability of a material to be
subjected to large strains before it
ruptures or fails.
Iron ore J Applied load divided by the material
area it is acting on.
Concrete K The ability of a material to show little
or no yielding before failure
Reinforced concrete L A powder made of a variety of
materials that hardens when mixed
with water

Inyour work lifeyouwillcome acrossmanydifferenttools,fromhandtools(suchas:a
hammer,screwdriver,pliers,vices,wrenches;measuring tools:squares,callipers,levels;
cuttingtools:saws,chisels,punches,snips;finishingand repairingtools:files,scrapers;
boringanddrilling tools;fastening tools:bolts,rivets;cutters…)tovariousmachinetools (lathe,
drilling and boringmachines, planningandshapingmachines …).
I.Matchthedescriptionswiththetools/instruments/machines(ortheirparts)and decide which
professionals might use them:
lathemicrometer pencil
file bulldozer jack
computer mouse knife

Part ofthe machine that helpsyou search theInternet. Computer mouse

A machine usedfor excavation work.
A metal toolwith a rough surface.
An instrument consisting of athin stick ofgraphite enclosed in apieceofwood. A
device for liftingheavyweights of theground.
A smallhand toolthat is usedfor cuts.
A measuringinstrumentusedto measureverysmalldistances in metal. A
tool or amachineformakingholes.
A tool formeasuring, madeof wood orplastic. A
machine that shapes pieces ofwood ormetal.

II.Completeeachsentencewiththeappropriatetool,choosebetween:axe,file,scissors, spade,
hammer, saw, screwdriver, spanner, drill, knife, pliers:

You can makethese edges smootherwith afile.

I can’t open the back of television withoutaspecial .
You can cut that woodenplank in pieces with this .
Fortwisting electrical wiresyou willneed .
Thegoodthingabout this is that it has averysharp blade. We could chop
thewoodforthe fireplaceif wehad an .
I am goingto burrythatdead bird. Whereis the_?
Oh dear?I’vehitmyfinger with the .It reallyhurts.
You will notbe able to makeaholewithoutaspecial .

If you want to wrap that present, you will need the cut the wrapping

These nuts are very difficult to undo. I might need a larger .

1. Construction Tools List and their Uses

Exercise: memorize all of the name in construction tools!


Hoe This tool is used to digging and to place

concrete, cement mortar in head pan

Head Pan This one is used to transport materials

Masonry trowel This tool is used to place cement mortar

Measurement Tape This is used to measure

Plumb Bob This tool is used to check the vertical

alignment of civil works

Wheel Barrow This tool is used to transport cement

mortar or any materials. Sometimes it also
be used to measure the quantites of
materials for site level concrete mixing

Concrete Mixer This tool is used to thoroughly mix the

concrete at site.

Rubber Boots This one is used to prevent skin from

chemical contact

Sand screening This tool is used to sieve sand at site.


Gloves This is used to avoid direct contact with

dangerous tools, machines or to avoid any
direct chemical material contact

Safety Glass Used for safety purpose while drilling,

hacking/roughening, grinding

Bump This tool is used to level fresh concrete

Cutter/Screed surface especially in slab concrete

Wooden This tool is used to give a smooth finish to

Float/wooden the plastered area
rendering float

Chisel This tool is used to remove excess or

waste hard concrete

Crow Bar This tool is used in fomwork to remove

nails from boards

Framing Square This tool is used in Brickwork, Plastering

to check right angle

Framing Hammer This tool is used to drive and remove nails

Line Level This tool is used to check horizontal level

in brickwork, plastering , flooring and tile

Torpedo Level Combination of line level and framing


Cordless Drill This tool is used to make pilot holes,

replacing jumper (special type of drill
should be used while drilling concrete)

Circular Saw This tool is used to cut woods in


Hand Saw This tool is used in wood works and


Block Plane / Jack This tool is used in Door and window

Plane wood works

Flat Pry Bar This tool is used in shuttering sometimes

used to adjust the column formwork to

Earth Rammer This tool is used to level the ground

Ladder .........................

Digging bar This tool is used to breakup and loosen

the compacted / hard surface area

Polishers This tool is used to smoothen the surface

(wood or marble flooring)

Measuring Wheel This tool is used to measure lengths. It

varies by length

Measuring Box This tool is used to measure the cement

and sand while site mix

Tile Cutter This tool is used to cut the tiles

Putty Knife This tool is used in putty finishing to limit

the thickness of the putty.

Vacuum Blower This tools is used to clean the surface area

from impurities (In flooring, Slab concrete