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3, JULY-SEPTEMBER 2017 275

Challenges and Opportunities of

Waste Management in IoT-Enabled Smart
Cities: A Survey
Theodoros Anagnostopoulos, Member, IEEE, Arkady Zaslavsky, Senior Member, IEEE,
Kostas Kolomvatsos, Alexey Medvedev, Pouria Amirian, Jeremy Morley, and Stathes Hadjieftymiades

Abstract—The new era of Web and Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm is being enabled by the proliferation of various devices like
RFIDs, sensors, and actuators. Smart devices (devices having significant computational capabilities, transforming them to ‘smart
things’) are embedded in the environment to monitor and collect ambient information. In a city, this leads to Smart City frameworks.
Intelligent services could be offered on top of such information related to any aspect of humans’ activities. A typical example of services
offered in the framework of Smart Cities is IoT-enabled waste management. Waste management involves not only the collection of the
waste in the field but also the transport and disposal to the appropriate locations. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and
thorough survey of ICT-enabled waste management models. Specifically, we focus on the adoption of smart devices as a key enabling
technology in contemporary waste management. We report on the strengths and weaknesses of various models to reveal their
characteristics. This survey sets up the basis for delivering new models in the domain as it reveals the needs for defining novel
frameworks for waste management.

Index Terms—Internet of things, smart cities, waste management


B Y 2050, the vast amount of earth population (i.e., 70

percent) will move to urban areas, thus, forming vast cit-
ies [1]. Such cities require a smart sustainable infrastructure
definition of the concept of SC is provided in [6]: “A Smart
City is a city well performing in a forward-looking way in the
following fundamental components (i.e., Smart Economy,
to manage citizens’ needs and offer fundamental and more Smart Mobility, Smart Environment, Smart People, Smart Liv-
advanced services [2]. The adoption of Future Internet tech- ing, and Smart Governance), built on the ‘smart’ combination
nologies enhanced by the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) on of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent
numerous wireless sensors enables the Internet of Things and aware citizens”. This definition incorporates the funda-
(IoT) paradigm. Numerous sensors have the opportunity to mental component of a smart environment which is mainly
be part of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). When WSNs adopted for systems dealing with environmental pollution.
are applied in a city, they are responsible for collecting and The concept of smart environments depicts the ambient intelli-
processing ambient information and, thus, to upgrade legacy gence found in a SC through the adoption of smart devices
city infrastructure to the so-called Smart Cities (SCs). A and wireless networks. This way, intelligent applications could
be delivered on top of such infrastructures. WSNs are capable
of reforming activities in a SC in every aspect of daily life [3]. In
 T. Anagnostopoulos is with the Department of Infocommunication Tech- this paper, we focus on a specific application domain, waste
nologies, ITMO University, Birzhevaya liniya, 16, Sankt-Peterburg, Rus- management. The efficient management of waste has a signifi-
sia, 199034, and the Research & Education, Ordnance Survey: Britain’s
Mapping Agency, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 0AS, United Kingdom.
cant impact on the quality of life of citizens. The reason is that
E-mail: waste disposal has a clear connection with negative impacts in
 A. Zaslavsky is with Semantic Data Management, CSIRO, Canberra ACT the environment and thus on citizens’ health.
2601, Australia. E-mail: In this paper, we take advantage of our study of the
 K. Kolomvatsos and S. Hadjieftymiades are with the Department of Infor-
matics and Telecommunications, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, waste management problem in the city of St. Petersburg,
Athens 15784, Greece. E-mail: {kostasks, shadj} Russia. St. Petersburg is a city of 5 million citizens covering
 A. Medvedev is with Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800, Australia. a total area of 1,439 square kilometers, a density of 3,391 citi-
 P. Amirian and J. Morley are with the Research & Education, Ordnance
zens per square kilometer. On average, solid waste pro-
Survey: Britain’s Mapping Agency, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 0AS, duced in the city is 1.7 million tonnes per year. The daily
United Kingdom. E-mail: {Pouria.Amirian, Jeremy.Morley} amount of municipal solid waste generated is 0.93 kilograms
Manuscript received 24 Aug. 2016; revised 13 Feb. 2017; accepted 2 Apr. per citizen. On a daily basis, the municipality of St. Peters-
2017. Date of publication 5 Apr. 2017; date of current version 6 Sept. 2017. burg uses 476 waste collection trucks with a capacity of 5
Recommended for acceptance by P. Bouvry. tons per truck. The fuel consumed in one year is, on aver-
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to:, and reference the Digital Object Identifier below. age, 1.8 million liters. The average costs spent for fuel in one
Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TSUSC.2017.2691049 year for waste collection is more than 1 million US dollars.
2377-3782 ß 2017 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See for more information.

Specifically, we present a comprehensive survey on the

adoption of Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT) in waste management models focusing on the modern
ICT tools and technologies. We survey a substantial body of
knowledge, thirty-two case studies. Among them, only six
models involve an IoT-enabled technology. We argue that
waste management solutions should be adopted as the
back-end middleware to support further inference and rea-
soning on top of the data coming from sensors. We also dis-
cuss a taxonomy of the studied models and, thus, we are
able to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each one.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. Section 2
discusses the intelligent waste management and proposes a
taxonomy adopted to compare waste management models.
Section 3 reports on the survey of relevant models and the
comparative assessment. Section 4 concludes the paper and
discusses future work.


2.1 The WSN/IoT Oriented Approach
A SC could incorporate various models to enable new serv-
ices or efficient redesign of the existing services [8]. For
instance, in the waste collection process, static models could
be transformed to Waste Collection as a Service (WCaaS)
which enables online dynamic scheduling and routing of the
collection trucks [9]. Fig. 1 presents an example for both a
Fig. 1. (a) Static routing versus (b) Dynamic routing. Dynamic routing
adapts to real time emergency situations while static routing fails. Note: static and a dynamic routing scenario for waste collection.
Green bins have already been collected while yellow ones are going to The dynamic waste collection could be described as an
be collected. online decision process for defining: (i) when to collect waste
from bins (i.e., scheduling), and (ii) which routes the collec-
Finally, the traffic congestion caused by the fleet of waste tion trucks should follow (i.e., routing). Many technologies
collection trucks at rush hours is significant due to the nar- and hardware are already used in waste management adopt-
row roads and small backyards, causing indirect problems ing different approaches in the management of the physical
in citizens’ activities. Obviously, it is critical to efficiently infrastructure as well as the data collected in the field. For
manage the waste disposed in every location of a SC not instance, the IoT hardware and technology could identify
only focusing on the collection activities but also on its real objects and transforms them to ‘smart things’ [10]. RFID
transport and recycling. can be used for tagging an object, and so gives a unique iden-
We model the waste management as a set of services on tifier to each smart thing [11]. Sensors and WSNs enable the
top of an IoT infrastructure in a SC. These services cover the measurement of physical quantities and the transformation
following parts of a waste management scheme: (i) waste to digital signals, which are processed wirelessly by an ad-
collection planning and implementation (e.g., routing solu- hoc network infrastructure [12]. Low-power radio communi-
tions for collection trucks, dynamic adaptation of routes); cations and low-cost embedded devices enable sensors to
(ii) transport of waste to specific locations (e.g., routing incorporate RFID tags [13]. Actuators are adopted to stimu-
according to the type of waste); (iii) recycling and prepara- late and give feedback to digital systems by interacting,
tion for re-use. In this paper, we focus on the first type of in the physical layer, with the infrastructure [14]. Future
services i.e., efficient planning of waste collection activities. Internet provides interconnection to smart things with IPv6
We also focus on dynamic models on contemporary waste over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoW-
collection with the proliferation of Radio Frequency Identifi- PAN) protocol, which is a modified version of IPv6 for low-
cation (RFID), sensors and actuators [4]. Several devices power embedded devices [15]. In addition, many IoT archi-
have been adopted for enabling the efficient implementa- tectures are built on Cloud Infrastructure (i.e., OpenIoT) [16],
tion of the dynamic waste collection e.g., RFID tags, sensors enabling the concept of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) [17].
and actuators. With the term dynamic, we denote the ability Furthermore, the interconnected smart phones [18], form
of a system to change, in real time, the parameters and the networks which serve as WSN gateways for IoT systems
plans that affect the collection of waste during the collection [19]. For instance, in the waste collection example, collection
activity. Such functionalities could be incorporated into an truck drivers can use a smart phone network enabling mes-
intelligent transportation framework that results in real saging with the waste management infrastructure and thus
time directions provided to the collection trucks. Intelligent realize dynamic scheduling and routing [20]. Finally, the
transportation contributes to dynamic waste collection since WSN/IoT’s strength is that it can combine diverse technolo-
it uses smart vehicle infrastructure, which is incorporated gies to support dynamic models for the efficient waste man-
in this survey [5]. agement in SCs.

In this paper, we review a high number of models in the view, depots are important to serve as intermediate points in
waste management domain to reveal their pros and cons. the waste collection process that will facilitate efficient waste
The aim is to setup the basis for delivering novel models that management e.g., recycling. In the literature, recycling is
will outperform the existing ones. However, before we are widely studied as the efficient ‘connection’ of the collection
ready to propose and discuss any novel reference model for process with the disposal at the recycling centers will maxi-
waste management, it is essential to compare the research mize the positive effects of recycling in the economy and the
related to the adoption of dynamic models for waste collec- society. Recycling centers or dumps, where waste is finally
tion. For realizing a comparative assessment, we proceed disposed, are usually located outside of the city and their
with the definition of a concrete taxonomy that ‘covers’ the number is related to the population. Waste collection can
available models. The provided taxonomy will become the incorporate either a single or multiple depots.
basis for mapping any waste management model, thus, to be The second category of the waste management context,
compared with any other model found in the respective liter- i.e., the IoT Technology, focuses on the devices adopted
ature. Through the proposed taxonomy, the interested read- to record and transfer ambient information, like: (i) RFID
ers/researchers will be capable of identifying any ‘gaps’ in tags, (ii) Near Field Communications (NFC); (iii) sensors,
the respective research and propose efficient methods for (iii) WSNs (adopted for ‘large-scale’ communications), (iv)
dealing with new frameworks in the domain. actuators, (v) cameras, and (vi) GPS. RFID tags are used for
bin tagging and identification. Sensors are the fundamental
2.2 The Proposed Taxonomy component of IoT-enabled waste management and they are
The current survey focuses on research approaches that incorporated in the vast majority of the research efforts.
incorporate modern ICT techniques and tools in SCs. The They are specialized to measure a set of physical quantities
adoption of ICT technologies is depicted in our taxonomy. like: (i) capacity, (ii) weight, (iii) temperature, (iv) humidity,
We report on the proposed taxonomy before we survey the (v) chemical reactions, and (vi) pressure. NFC and WSNs
existing research efforts to give the readers the necessary are adopted for transferring the data in the infrastructure.
overview of the domain. Hence, the interested readers will They are applied on top of sensors that interact wirelessly
be capable of easily identify the main characteristics of each either with each other or with the backbone network infra-
model and their place in the respective literature. structure. Actuators are used by the system to interact with
We define the concept of waste management context that the waste bins, e.g., an actuator can lock the bin’s lid when
aims to setup the basis for classifying waste management the bin gets full. Cameras can be treated as a special sensor
models. The waste management context incorporates the for measuring the volume of a bin. Since cameras do not
hardware, tools, data and software that a waste management constitute an ordinary sensor but are part of a sensing utility
model adopts to become the basis for realizing a waste man- they are examined separately. The last component IoT Tech-
agement solution. In general, the waste management context nology is GPS; in contrast to the other equipment, it is incor-
could be categorized in three main categories: (i) the physical porated on the collection trucks and not on bins. GPS is
infrastructure, (ii) the IoT Technology, and (iii) the software essential for location tracking during dynamic routing.
analytics. These categories are discrete which means that the The last category of waste management context, i.e., soft-
relevant context of each model belongs only to one of the ware analytics, focuses on the following components: (i) the
aforementioned categories. Our taxonomy is organized con- Decision Support System (DSS), which depicts the inference
cretely (i.e., we pay attention not only to the infrastructure process to the stakeholders; (ii) the GIS, which focuses on
but also to the data and the required software) to cover a the processing of the spatiotemporal context as a decision
range of diverse components and features. Each contextual process criterion; (iii) the dynamic scheduling, which is
component and feature is assigned specific values denoting responsible for deriving the exact time where the routing
its rational existence in the proposed taxonomy. Compo- process will be initiated; (iv) the dynamic routing, which
nents are related to the tools / hardware adopted in each involves real-time changes in the pre-defined route to better
category while features are related to the contextual informa- serve the needs of on-going waste management to any
tion (e.g., data) adopted in each category / model. change in the context. The algorithms adopted in the soft-
The physical infrastructure involves the following compo- ware analytics part of the contextual aspect of waste man-
nents: (i) waste bins, (ii) pneumatic pipes, (iii) the fleet of agement are strictly dynamic which means that the
trucks, (iv) depots, (v) dumps; and the following features: (i) proposed waste collection systems are comprised of pure
bins location, (ii) recycling of inorganic waste and (iii) proc- ICT functionality. This means that a set of intelligent algo-
essing of organic waste. Bins can be further categorized rithms are proposed to facilitate the whole process from the
according to the type of waste that they stock to: (i) organic, collection to the final disposal taking into consideration var-
(ii) glass, (iii) paper, (iv) plastic, (v) metal, and (vi) toxic. The ious types of information to increase the performance. In
location of each bin differs according to their presence out- addition, the software analytics part involves the following
doors or underground. The fleet of the available trucks is features: (i) the architecture, (ii) the social context and (iii)
characterized as homogeneous or heterogeneous according the experimental data. The architecture of a waste manage-
to the capacity the trucks can store. For instance, when the ment system is either defined explicitly or implied as a part
fleet of trucks has similar the same capacity, it is character- of the overall system design. The social context best
ized as a homogenous fleet. On the contrary, when the fleet describes the dynamics and social impacts of waste man-
of trucks has different technical characteristics with variable agement on citizens. The last feature of software analytics is
capacity, it is characterized as a heterogeneous fleet. Depots the experimental data used for evaluation of the proposed
are intermediate waste storage areas within the city. In our approaches. Data incorporated are either synthetic, created

Taxonomy of Waste Management

Categories Components Features

/ Hardware
Bins Recycling of
Inorganic Waste
Physical Fleet of Trucks Processing of
Infrastructure Organic Waste
Depots Bins Location
Dumps Bins Type
Pneumatic Pipes
Near Field
IoT Technology Sensors Fig. 3. Distribution of the papers by the publication year. Note: x-axis unit
Wireless Sensor of measure is the research’s publication year while y-axis unit of mea-
Networks sure is the number of research publications for a specific year.
Cameras ten years of research in the area of ICT waste management.
We survey thirty-two papers while only six exploit the IoT
DSS Architecture Technology as the back-end system for delivering intelligent
GIS Social Context applications. The distribution of the papers by the publica-
Software Analytics Dynamic Scheduling Experimental
Data tion year is depicted in Fig. 3. Taking advantage of this sur-
Dynamic Routing vey, we propose a reference model which exploits IoT
capabilities combining the strengths and eliminating the
weaknesses of the surveyed models.
in the laboratories, or real, collected from observations in
the SCs. 3.1 Survey of Existing Models
Table 1 presents an overview of the above discussed In [21], the authors propose a capacitive level-sensing model
components / features while Fig. 2 visualizes the proposed for solid waste collection. The paper presents a capacitive
taxonomy. point-level sensor used for improved solid waste collection.
the sensor is composed of two electrodes built from low-cost
metal tape which has the ability to detect the volume of
3 SURVEY AND COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT paper waste in the bin. The research uses a theoretical model
The efforts we review are compared according to the above which describes qualitatively the effects of the presence of
proposed taxonomy while their strengths and weaknesses closely related conductive outdoors or underground metallic
are clearly stated. These research efforts cover more than objects. Face-to-face electrodes are proved to be less sensitive

Fig. 2. Visual tree representation of the proposed taxonomy.


to interference from close metallic objects and the position of central system. The specific research incorporates both a DSS
paper in the bin. Furthermore, the paper defines a capaci- and a GIS component in the software analytics part. The
tance threshold that can be applied to a certain type of bin, model is evaluated with real experimental data associated
thus, it can depict when the bin is full. Compared with our with WSNs traffic and the collection trucks. The strengths
taxonomy, in the physical infrastructure, paper waste bin is of the paper are the envisioned dynamic scheduling model
the appropriate class. They are located either outdoors or along with the dynamic routing. However, the paper descri-
underground. The fleet of collection trucks is homogenous bes only the specific type of toxic lube oil waste bin.
and a single dump is used. Recycling of inorganic waste is In [24], the authors propose a model for remote monitor-
also supported. Moreover, regarding the IoT Technology, in ing of charity assets to improve the efficiency of the waste
the presented system, a capacity sensor for solid waste collection. The paper presents the waste collection problem
collection is used. The software analytics part involves evalu- from the collection costs perspective of servicing a major
ation with synthetic experimental data. In general, the UK charity’s: (i) donation banks and (ii) collection of unsold
strengths of the system involve the well-defined analyses goods from retail shops. The research also states that cur-
and design of the capacity sensor. However, the system does rently bank and shop waste collection is based on static
not constitute a concrete approach as it focuses strictly on the scheduling on fixed days of the week irrespective of the
technical characteristics of a specific type of sensor. amounts of waste to be collected. A model from a major UK
A search space analysis for dynamic routing with time charity is proposed to monitor bank and shop servicing
windows in waste collection is discussed in [22]. The paper requirements. The system incorporates sensors embedded
presents a large-scale, dynamic routing model with time into bins and uses tabu search methods; to develop dynamic
windows taking into consideration multiple disposal trips scheduling and routing models. The dynamic models are
and drivers’ lunch breaks. A fitness search space analysis for proved to decrease collection costs compared with the exist-
a variety of waste collection scenarios is described by utiliz- ing fixed scheduling infrastructure by means of distance
ing statistical and information theoretic parameters. The covered, pollution emitted and the transported waste capac-
authors conclude that using such parameters, the mutation ity. The physical infrastructure includes organic, glass,
landscapes are more easily distinguishable than crossover paper, plastic and metal waste bins located outdoors. The
landscapes. Comparing with our taxonomy, the physical fleet of trucks is heterogeneous while a single dump is used.
infrastructure involves outdoor, organic waste bins. The fleet Recycling of inorganic waste and further processing of
of the collection trucks is homogenous and depots are incor- organic waste are supported. The IoT Technology includes
porated while a single dump is used. Moreover, the IoT WSNs while the software analytics part involves dynamic
Technology involves capacity sensors and the software ana- scheduling and routing. Finally, the model is evaluated
lytics include an overview of the dynamic routing. The with real experimental data collected from trucks in a
model is evaluated with synthetic data. The strengths of the period of a year. The strengths of the paper are the treat-
paper are the incorporation of drivers’ lunch breaks as a ment of waste collection problem from the collection cost
routing parameter along with the multiple disposal trips. perspective along with the incorporation of tabu search
However, the paper does not define a concrete architecture. methods. However, the paper neither defines a concrete
In [23], the authors propose a Web-based Decision Sup- architecture nor incorporates a DSS.
port System (DSS) for waste lube oils collection and recy-
cling. The DSS enables schedulers to perform interactive 3.1.1 Models that Adopt Capacity, Weight, Temperature,
reverse supply chain management operations. The main Humidity, and Chemical Sensors
goal is related to the efficient and effective management of In [25], [26], [27], and [28], researchers adopt capacity,
waste lube oils collection and recycling. A model which ena- weight, temperature, humidity and chemical sensors for
bles intra-city and inter-city dynamic routing incorporating solid waste collection. Specifically, in [25], the authors pro-
real-time operational constraints is proposed. Dynamic rout- pose a municipal solid waste platform exploiting recycling
ing is based on the shortest path and hybrid metaheuristics collection information based on IoT Technology. The paper
models. The paper introduces an Enterprise Resource Plan- presents a model for waste collection, transportation, recy-
ning (ERP) system which enables the utilization of specific cling and processing. A management information platform
functional models and the combination with other schedul- based on IoT Technology is proposed which serves a waste
ing tools. The proposed DSS provides online monitoring of collection model in the city of Wuhan. The outcomes of the
the waste collection process and the Web architecture ena- research help municipal authorities to use efficiently the
bles the platform independent approach for exploiting wire- information produced in every stage of the waste collection
less telecommunication utilities. Finally, the proposed process and, finally, achieve the goal of an intelligent cycle.
system is applied to realistic industrial environments and is In [26], the authors propose a dynamic optimization model
proved to increase productivity and competitiveness on for solid waste recycling. The paper presents a model for
reverse supply chain management. Compared with our tax- recycling materials and dynamic optimization. A dynamic
onomy, the physical infrastructure involves outdoor toxic decision model characterized by state variables is developed;
waste bins and the fleet of the collection trucks is heteroge- it corresponds to the quality of waste in each bin on a daily
neous. Recycling of inorganic waste is supported. Moreover, basis. The model controls the variables, thus determining the
the IoT Technology includes capacity and chemical sensors quantity of the collected materials. It is also responsible for
while WSNs are adopted as part of the proposed architec- calculating the routes for each collection truck. An objective
ture. Collection trucks have embedded GPS devices for function is defined that is studied to minimize the sum of the
tracking their location and being synchronized with the collection costs. The decision model is integrated in a DSS

that is enabled with a GIS. A case study in the municipality of 3.1.2 Models that Adopt Capacity, Weight, Temperature,
Cogoleto, Italy is presented which proves the effectiveness of Humidity, and Pressure Sensors
the proposed model. Specifically, the net benefits of the opti- The researchers in [29] and [30] focus on the use of capacity,
mized waste collection are 2.5 times greater than the esti- weight, temperature, humidity and pressure sensors for
mated current policy. In [27], the authors propose a solid solid waste collection. More specifically, in [29] the authors
waste bin and truck monitoring system enabled with RFID have proposed a sensorized waste collection container for
and ICT. The paper presents an integrated system for the effi- content estimation and collection optimization. The paper
cient waste collection. GPS, GIS and cameras are adopted to presents the design and implementation of a suitable urban
design an intelligent monitoring system for bins and trucks. solid waste system which can predict the quantity and diver-
A novel integrated theoretical framework, a hardware archi- sity of solid waste. They adopt measures to correlate the
tecture and an inference algorithm have been introduced, as capacity of solid waste with residential population and con-
well. The model incorporates a database which stores bin sumer index at different seasons of the year. The system
and truck information. In addition, it processes the date and incorporates an intelligent and sensorized bin in order to
time of waste collection, the bin status, the amount of waste exploit data used for further statistical inference processes.
transported and trucks GPS coordinates. Data are exploited The proposed bin is prepared and tested in the Pudong New
by the proposed monitoring system in order to perform Area, Shanghai. In [30], the authors have proposed a solid
efficient scheduling and routing. The monitoring system waste collection architecture using WSNs. The paper
uses an advanced GUI which incorporates real time image presents a WSN model as a key enabling technology for
processing, histogram analysis, waste estimation, and bin smart implementation to face the waste collection problem
information. Experimental results prove that the proposed in an urban area. An architecture is proposed in order to
monitoring system is stable and has high performance. A improve and optimize the on-site handling and transporta-
WSN prototype for solid waste bin monitoring with an tion during the waste collection process. The system architec-
energy efficient sensing model is proposed in [28]. The ture incorporates sensor nodes and uses data transfer nodes
research extends [27] by describing a system that responds in order to provide data measurements, collected from bins,
online when waste is disposed in the bins. The paper to a remote server. A remote monitoring web application is
presents a system architecture which is composed by three also incorporated, providing user the capability of interact-
tiers. The lowest tier involves the sensors embedded in the ing with the system through a Web browser. A DSS is also
bins while an energy efficient model senses the measure- available aiming to provide solutions to resources organiza-
ments and transmits bin status to the next tier. The middle tion problems.
tier includes a gateway which stores and transmits bin data Compared with our taxonomy, physical infrastructure
to a control station. The upper tier stores and analyzes the involves outdoor organic, glass, paper and plastic waste
data for further use. The system is capable of minimizing the bins in [29] while in [30] only organic, glass and paper waste
truck operational costs and pollution emissions by providing bins are included located outdoors. Regarding the IoT Tech-
the collected data to a DSS which incorporates dynamic rout-
nology, cameras are incorporated in [29], WSNs in both i.e.,
ing for waste collection.
[29] and [30] and GPS in [30]. Regarding the software ana-
Organic, paper, plastic, metal and toxic waste bins located
lytics, the model discussed in [29] is evaluated on top of real
outdoors are involved in [25], [28] while glass, paper, plastic
experimental data collected from sensors located on bins in
and metal waste bins are involved in [26], [27]. In all efforts,
the city of Pudong while the model presented in [30] is eval-
the bins are located outdoors. The fleet of the collection
uated by synthetic data. In both efforts, the fleet of trucks is
trucks is homogenous in [25], [27], [28] and heterogeneous in
homogenous. The strengths of the model presented in [29]
[26]. Recycling is supported in all the efforts and the IoT
are the enhancement of the bins with a variety of sensors
Technology involves RFID tags [25], [27], [28], cameras [27],
and the use of cameras. However, the paper does not sup-
GPS [26], [28], while WSNs is the main communication hub
port a WSN for further fusion of the sensor data neither sup-
for all. GPS is embedded on trucks enabling the collection of
ports RFID for bin tagging and identification. The strengths
real time information, thus, enhancing the dynamic routing
of the model discussed in [30] are the use of WSN as the
of trucks in real time. Real experiment data are adopted in
back-end communication component, the detailed presenta-
[25], [26], [27] while both real and synthetic data are adopted
tion of the underlying architecture and the incorporated
in [28]. Concerning the strengths of the discussed models
remote monitoring GUI. However, the paper does not incor-
these are as follows. In general, many advantages in the pro-
porate actuators as an integration mechanism of the model.
posed frameworks offer the efficient management informa-
tion platform and the extensive use of the IoT Technology
[25], specific objective functions that minimize the cost of 3.1.3 Models that Adopt Capacity and Weight Sensors
waste collection [26], intelligent monitoring systems for bins The next set of papers in the area consist of five research
and trucks [27], or the adopted DSSs [28]. The adopted DSSs efforts where the authors also deal with capacity and weight
aim to respond online when waste is disposed and minimize sensors [31], [32], [33], [34], [35]. More specifically, in [31] the
the truck operational costs and pollution emissions. On the authors propose a collection-monitoring model for early
other hand, one can observe a set of disadvantages. Among detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized bins.
them the most critical are the absence of a DSS for deriving The research extends [29] by describing a novel application
decisions in real time [25], the absence of IoT hardware (e.g., used to monitor the municipal solid waste, based on distrib-
RFIDs) [26] and actuators [28] or the involvement of a single uted sensor technology and GIS. The paper presents a model
type of sensor [27]. tested and evaluated in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The

waste collection system has specific monitoring requirements Italy is evaluated with Web-GIS systems. In this scenario,
related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. 80 percent efficiency of waste source separation in the recy-
The paper focuses on the quantitative measurement of the cling purposes is achieved. In the second scenario, the local
waste present at each bin and identification of different types authorities incorporate optimization of waste collection with
of waste collected in the bins. The model incorporates a net- Web-GIS technologies for the first time. The results in the sec-
work of sensorized bins linked to a DSS. Bins are equipped ond scenario indicate that it needs more effort to achieve opti-
with a set of sensors which provide real data to the system mized management of MSW. Specifically, the last two case
while trucks incorporate GPS for real time monitoring. The studies are pilot experiments in China and Malaysia. The
collected data are integrated into an existing application used research performs comparative assessment comparing the
by municipality authorities. Evaluation is performed on real Web-GIS strategies, between each case study for the devel-
data flow (the software analytics part) from the network of oped and transient economies, respectively. It is concluded
bins as well as in terms of optimization functions such as that transient economies are willing to exploit Web-GIS utili-
dynamic scheduling and routing. Research uses obtained ties for MSW collection. In [35], the authors propose a model
outcomes related with waste weight and volume as parame- for smart planning and monitoring of urban solid waste man-
ters for optimizing the proposed dynamic routing model and agement using the Smart-M3 platform. The paper presents
evaluating the material density in the bins. In [32], the the process of solving the waste collection problem by incor-
authors have proposed an energy utilization model for opti- porating context from interconnected heterogeneous devices
mizing solid waste collection, which is applied in a large city and sharing data involving a large amount of urban popula-
area. The research extends [31] by providing three models for tion. A Smart-M3 platform, exploiting the IoT Technology, is
dynamic scheduling and routing enhanced with path optimi- proposed offering a high degree of decoupling and scalabil-
zation. The paper presents an improved waste collection ity. Sensors enable real time monitoring of the waste capacity.
model which is enabled with capacity and weight data col- A DSS is responsible to integrate this information to perform
lected for bins. In addition, it is exploited energy utilization dynamic routing within a certain territory. The paper defines
related to the trucks, which optimize municipal solid waste advantages to both service providers and users. Specifically,
processes. A genetic algorithm and a simulation model are service providers can obtain a significant cost reduction;
adopted to optimize the collection route. There are incorpo- while users gain high Quality of Service (QoS). Furthermore,
rated in both a DSS and a GIS for efficient administrative the model is interactive since users can communicate with
management of the system. The proposed model is verified the system and be aware of the waste capacity stored in
through a case study in Pudong. The results are very promis- neighbor bins. Green points are also incorporated in order to
ing for waste collection and transport by achieving energy enable recycling.
utilization. In [33], the authors have proposed a model for Compared with the proposed taxonomy, the effort pre-
analyzing the impact of solid waste Source Segregation (SS) sented in [31], [33], [34] involves organic, glass, paper, plastic
intensity on fuel consumption along with the collection costs. and metal waste bins located outdoors (physical infrastruc-
The paper presents an evaluation on the fuel consumed and ture). The fleet of trucks transporting the waste is homoge-
an analysis on the collection costs of solid waste collection. A nous in [31] and heterogeneous in [33], [34]. A single dump
simulation model is incorporated as well. The proposed is used in [31], [33] and multiple in [34]. The IoT Technology
model can calculate the time spent, the waste capacity col- uses RFIDs [34], WSNs [31], [33] while cameras are incorpo-
lected and the fuel consumed for a specific waste collection rated as part of the sensor infrastructure for [31], [33]. GPS is
route. The initial value of SS intensity is set to 25 percent embedded on trucks enabling real time information transfer,
where the evaluated model error was less than 1.2. The simu- thus, enhancing dynamic routing. Furthermore, regarding
lation scenarios are held with different values of 25, 30, 35, the software analytics the discussed architectures incorpo-
and 52 percent of SS intensity. An increase in the average fuel rate a DSS and a GIS. Finally, the model was evaluated on
consumed by collection trucks is observed started form real experimental data collected from sensors located on bins
3.3 lit/ton for 25 percent SS intensity and reached up to in the city of Pudong [31] and a large section of a medium-
3.8 lit/ton for SS intensity of 52 percent. In addition, direct sized Italian city, which consists of a typical cities centre,
collection costs; including crews and truck purchase, ranged mainly with apartment buildings and with a rather high
from 40€/ton to 70€/ton, respectively, for 25 and 52 percent population density [33]. In [32], regarding the physical infra-
of the SS intensity. The research proves that the increased val- structure includes organic, glass and toxic waste bins located
ues of fuel consumed and collection costs depend on the den- outdoors, the fleet of trucks is homogenous and a single
sity of the waste collected, on the collection truck compaction dump is adopted. Recycling of inorganic waste and further
ratio and on the Waste Collection Truck Utilization Factor processing of organic waste are supported. Moreover,
(WCTUF). Specifically, a particular reduction of 50 percent of WSNs, a DSS and a GIS are discussed. Dynamic scheduling
the WCTUF can lead to an average increase of 80 percent in and routing are also defined. Finally, the model was evalu-
fuel consumed and 100 percent in collection costs. In [34], the ated on real experimental data collected from sensors located
authors propose a Web-GIS for optimizing the viability of on bins also in the city of Pudong. The model presented in
MSW selective collection in developed and transient econo- [35], adopts glass, paper, plastic, metal and toxic waste bins
mies. The paper presents issues related to the implementa- while the fleet of trucks is homogeneous. Multiple dumps
tion of the Web-GIS system. The model is critically evaluated are used. Recycling of inorganic waste is supported. GPS
with two scenarios: (i) two Europeancase studies, and (ii) embedded on trucks is incorporated for location tracking
two extra-European case studies. In the first scenario, one of while software analytics incorporates a DSS. Dynamic rout-
the best examples of selective collection optimization in ing is defined and social context is supported. Finally, the

model was evaluated on real experimental data from sensors bins are used which are located outdoors in both models (i.e.,
and trucks. The effort in [31] extends [29] by incorporating a [36], [37]). Pneumatic pipes infrastructure is incorporated and
WSN. However, the model does not support RFIDs for bin the fleet of trucks is homogenous. Multiple dumps are used.
tagging and identification. The strengths of [32] are the Recycling of inorganic waste and further processing of
enhanced genetic algorithm and the provided simulation organic waste are supported only in [36]. WSNs are implied
model. However, the model does not support RFIDs. The in both efforts while dynamic scheduling and routing are
strengths of [33] are the detailed simulation model and the defined with social context being supported. Finally, models
variety of scenarios used to evaluate it. However, no archi- were evaluated on real experimental data retrieved in the cit-
tecture or a contemporary DSS are defined. The strengths of ies of Helsinki and Seoul. The strengths of the models are the
[34] are the well-defined Web-GIS system along with the two detailed analysis of the hypothetical stationary pneumatic
evaluation scenarios while the model does not incorporate a waste collection system, the comparison with a traditional
DSS or a dynamic scheduling algorithm. The strengths of truck-operated door-to-door collection system by means of
[35] are the scalable platform, which incorporates context economics efficiency, the well-defined USN architecture and
from interconnected heterogeneous devices and sharing the exploitation of IoT Technology.
data along with the exploitation of the IoT Technology. On
the other hand, the paper does not incorporate RFIDs, as a 3.1.5 Models that Adopt RFIDs
key mechanism of IoT or a dynamic scheduling model. In [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], and [43] the researchers incorpo-
rate extensively RFIDs for tagging and identification as part
3.1.4 Models that Adopt Capacity and of the solid waste collection infrastructure. Specifically, in
Pressure Sensors [38] the authors have proposed an RFID-based real time
In [36] and [37], researchers adopt capacity and pressure sen- smart waste collection system. The paper presents the use of
sors for solid waste collection. The authors in [36] propose an RFID and weight sensor technology as part of waste collec-
economic performance comparison between pneumatic and tion. The IoT architecture is proved to decrease waste collec-
door-to-door waste collection systems in existing urban areas. tion operational costs and enables automating and
The paper presents an analysis on how a hypothetical station- streamlining waste identification for recycling and further
ary pneumatic waste collection system can be compared eco- processing of waste. Furthermore, weight measurement pro-
nomically to a traditional truck-operated door-to-door cesses are incorporated in the proposed real time waste col-
collection system. In densely populated urban areas both lection system. The paper concludes with an application that
pneumatic and door-to-door waste collection systems face exploits RFID and weight sensor data in order to define an
disadvantages. Specifically, buildings and fixed city infra- automatic Waste Identity, Weight, and Stolen Bins Identifica-
structure increase the installation costs of a pneumatic system tion System (WIWSBIS). In [39] the authors have proposed a
in existing residential areas. Inversely, the limited space for waste collection multi-objective model based on real time
waste transportation trucks and bins cause problems for traceability data. The paper presents the investment, opera-
truck-operated waste collection systems. The paper uses a tional and environmental costs related with the waste collec-
method for analyzing the cost effects of the waste collection tion. A variety of IoT mechanisms is used in order to provide
systems, which takes into consideration the monetized envi- the system with real time data used to implement an efficient
ronmental effects of both waste collection systems. Door-to- and innovative waste collection routing model. The research
door waste collection is proved to be economically six times states that knowing the real-time data of each truck and the
more superior; approximately. In the performed analysis, the real replenishment level at each bin enables dynamic sched-
dominant cost factor is the large investment cost of the pneu- uling and routing in relation with a waste generation pattern.
matic system. Another significant impact factor is the eco- Dynamic models can be optimized incorporating further
nomic value of land, because it is able to reverse the results of information about total distance covered, necessary number
the analysis; in case that the value of land saved with pneu- of trucks and the environmental impact. It is also described a
matic system is sufficiently high. In [37], the authors propose framework about enabling traceability and monitoring in the
an automatic waste collection system based on Ubiquitous optimization of solid waste collection. The framework is inte-
Sensor Network (USN). The paper presents a novel approach grated with an innovative dynamic routing model which
to collecting municipal solid waste in residential and com- uses real time traceability data from an Italian city of 100,000
mercial buildings using IoT Technology. USN technology inhabitants. The model was tested and validated using simu-
eliminates web of wires while increases connectivity of devi- lation; while it is also performed an economic feasibility
ces, thus, providing an easy extension of the network. An study. In [40] the authors have proposed an automated bin
USN architecture is proposed which is experimentally evalu- level detection system using a gray level aura matrix. The
ated with real time scenarios in the city of Seoul, South Korea. research extends [27] by introducing an advanced image
The system is composed of integrated WSNs, gateways and processing approach integrated with communication tech-
specially designed software. The research covers all the pro- nologies and a camera for bin level detection. The paper
cesses of waste collection including waste loading and trans- presents the environmental concerns associated with bins
portation in pneumatic pipes from depots to dumps. The and the kind of waste disposed in them. A Gray Level Aura
proposed system is compared with a conventional wired net- Matrix (GLAM) approach is used in order to extract the bin
work and proved to perform in-time fast waste collection. image texture. GLAM neighboring system parameters are
Furthermore, it has low installation, operational and mainte- tuned to determine their optimal values. The system is evalu-
nance costs; while it is scalable and reliable. Compared with ated by training and testing the extracted image with Multi-
our taxonomy, organic, glass, paper, plastic and metal waste Layer Perceptions (MLPs) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN)

classifiers. The paper proves that the proposed system per- system as a whole. The methodology is applied to real use
formance is robust and can be applied to different kinds of cases of a waste collection and packaging company which
waste and bin level detection under various conditions. serves 7 municipalities in mainland Portugal. The results
In [41] the authors have proposed a novel dynamic schedul- were encouraging because of the decreased total cost of the
ing and routing model incorporating GIS, which reduce system. The decrease in total cost was achieved because of
the operation costs and pollutant emissions of MSW collec- the significant savings obtained in terms of minimizing: (i)
tion. The paper presents an innovative methodology for the total distance covered, and (ii) the number of trucks
the reduction of the operational costs and pollutant emis- required for waste collection.
sions involved in the waste collection and transportation. Compared with our taxonomy, organic, paper, plastic
Dynamic scheduling and routing are combined for efficient and metal waste bins are adopted with a homogeneous fleet
waste collection. Dynamic routing is based on historical data of trucks. Recycling of inorganic waste and further process-
initiated by the filling rate of each bin individually in order ing of organic waste is supported. Weight sensors, capacity
to establish the daily routes of collection points to be visited. sensors GPS, cameras and RFIDs are used as part of the pro-
This approach is more realistic compared with the usual posed architectures. Dynamic routing and dynamic sched-
assumption of a single average fill-up rate because it is com- uling are incorporated into the discussed systems while
mon to all system bins. Dynamic routing enables ahead plan- their evaluation is based on real experimental data. The
ning of the dynamic scheduling; which permits a better strengths of the discussed efforts are the incorporation of
system management. The optimization process of the tra- RFIDs and the exploitation of the underlying architecture
versed routes incorporates a GIS and uses total spend time [38], the well-defined framework for enabling traceability
and covered distance as optimization criteria. The model and monitoring as well as the proposed dynamic schedul-
also considers variables related to fuel consumption, pollut- ing and routing models [39], the advanced image processing
ant emissions, truck speed and capacity transported as part [40], the incorporation of GIS and the advanced dynamic
of the optimization process. Experimental evaluation is per- scheduling and routing models [41] and the incorporation
formed for the case of glass waste collection and transporta- of a dynamic multi-hop network along with the online mon-
tion in the city of Barreiro in Portugal. The research isolates itoring and visualization utilities [42]. It should be noted
the influence of the dynamic load; on fuel consumed and pol- that the application on real use cases of waste collection
lution emitted, by incorporating a sensitivity analysis of the schemes helps in the efficient management of waste [43].
truck loading process. Specifically, it was tested two scenar- The observed limitations involve the orientation to a specific
ios of waste collection: (i) one with the collected waste capac- type of sensor [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43] and the absence
ity increasing exponentially along the collection path, and of an architecture [40].
(ii) the other assuming that the collected waste capacity
decreasing exponentially along the same path. Optimization 3.1.6 Models that Adopt WSNs
performed on operation costs of labor, truck maintenance The next set of papers, i.e., [44], [45], [46], [47], also focus on
and fuel consumptions; as well as pollutant emissions, are the extensive use of WSNs. More specifically, in [44], the
proved to have beneficial impacts regardless of the optimiza- authors propose a solid waste collection system, which incor-
tion criterion used. Nonetheless, this impact is particularly porates an effective dynamic scheduling, and routing model.
relevant when optimizing for time; yielding substantial In Fig. 4, it is presented the Malmoe simulation model pro-
improvements to the existing system. In addition, it is posed in the paper. The paper presents capacity sensors and
proved that dynamic loading process of the collection trucks wireless communication equipment embedded to recycling
impacts on both fuel consumed and pollution emitted. In bins. In the IoT infrastructure, the research effort provides
[42] the authors have proposed a solid waste disposal system waste collection operators and access to real time informa-
using mobile ad-hoc networks. The paper presents a model tion about of the status of each bin. The architecture uses ana-
for waste collection of bins, distributed in a highly densely lytical modeling and discrete-event simulation to evaluate
populated city in India. A dynamic multi-hop network that dynamic scheduling and routing by utilizing real-data. Fur-
can provide real time information to municipal authorities is thermore, the discussed research performs an empirical sim-
formed. The system is able to monitor online and visualize ulation based on real experimental data from a recycling
the status of the bins for further use; due to sensors and station in Malmoe, Sweden. During this study, it is proved
adhoc transceivers embedded in the bins. In [43], the authors that dynamic scheduling and routing models have lower
have proposed a model for assessing and improving man- operational costs, shorter collection and hauling distances,
agement practices in planning packaging waste collection and reduced labor hours compared with static models. In
systems. The paper presents a packaging model for waste [45], the authors have proposed an eco-design Machine-to-
collection systems that incorporates depots as transfer and Machine (M2M) system that contributes to waste glass col-
sorting stations. During the application of the current strat- lection i.e., the Product Service System (PSS). The research
egy each depot is managed independently and not as a part methodology is based on the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
of the whole system. The research proposes four tactical and model. The provided results help to understand the mecha-
operational practices which contribute to the independent nisms of the PSS while research explains how the proposed
management of each depot. The model applies these practi- infrastructure impacts the environment. The paper examines
ces to the proposed infrastructure and assesses their impacts the influence of system parameters to eco-design and dimen-
on the total collection cost. A design methodology is devel- sioning of the PSS. The study incorporates mutualisation
oped to plan service areas, dynamic scheduling and routing. analytics to reduce environmental impacts while limiting
The model exploits alternative solutions in managing the data exchanges. Additionally, in [46], the authors propose

Fig. 4. The Malmoe simulation model in [44].

a wireless platform, called WEKO, for monitoring the recy- part of a simulation model. The research is applied and eval-
cling spots. The paper presents an embedded WSN for moni- uated on a real use case problem of a waste collection com-
toring the level of bins located in recycling spots. The system pany located in the Netherlands. The results show that the
interacts with a remote central station when a bin reaches total cost savings are up to 40 percent due to the efficient
some filling threshold, thus, avoiding to check the spot if the optimization of parameters.
bin is full while ensuring that the recycling spot is kept clean. The strengths of the model presented in [44] are the
The wireless nature of the system imposes energy supply enhancement of dynamic scheduling and routing models
requirements which are covered with specific batteries with and the incorporated simulation model. However, the
a life time of at least six years. Data collected from sensors model is not integrated since it does not incorporate a DSS
are captured by a monitoring platform located in the remote for processing the aggregated data. The strengths of the sec-
central station for further processing. In [47], the authors pro- ond model [45] are the incorporation of mutualisation ana-
pose an inventory routing model for dynamic waste collec- lytics to reduce environmental impacts and the multi-
tion. The paper presents the process of waste collection criteria LCA used to feed the realistic scenarios. On the
incorporating underground bins equipped with sensors. The other hand, the paper describes only the specific type of
research treats the waste collection routing as a reverse glass waste bin. The advantages of the third model [46] are
inventory dynamic routing problem taking into consider- the contemporary embedded wireless sensor network and
ation decisions involving routing and bin selection. The the system architecture, which handles energy supply
model is able to cope with uncertainty on the bins capacity requirements. The paper does not incorporate RFIDs as an
and fluctuations of routes; due to daily and seasonal effects. assistive technology to the system architecture. In addition,
The need of an anticipatory policy which will balance the only a specific type of capacity sensor is incorporated.
workload over time is also stated. The paper proposes a The strengths of the fourth model [47] are the proposed
computational efficient heuristic which consists of several inventory routing algorithm along with its application to
tunable parameters depending on a weekly schedule. The the sensorized underground bins. However, the paper does
parameters are tuned using optimal learning techniques as not incorporate a DSS or a GIS.

3.1.7 Models that Adopt Actuators to perform waste collection and dynamic route optimization.
In [48], [49], [50], [51] and [52] the researchers incorporate In addition, the system can handle various cases of ineffective
actuators as part of the solid waste collection infrastructure. waste collection in inaccessible areas within the SC. The sys-
Specifically, in [48], the authors propose a bin level detection tem also incorporates surveillance cameras in order to capture
model based on a gray level co-occurrence matrix feature problematic areas and provide evidence to the authorities.
(GLCM) extraction approach. The research extends [40] by The strengths and weaknesses of the aforementioned
focusing on solid waste bin level detection and classification models are as follows:
using the GLCM feature extraction. The paper also presents a  Model presented in [48]: the incorporation of novel
set of GLCM displacement and quantization parameters
classification models, which optimize and outper-
along with the number of textural features which are tuned to
form research in [40], thus, enabling improved bin
determine the best parameter values of the bin images.
detection, monitoring and management. The model
Parameters and textural features are incorporated in the
exploits data produced only from a specific type of
GLCM database adopted for reasoning. Image classification
capacity sensor.
and grading is based on training and testing of MLPs and
 Model presented in [49]: the incorporation of cam-
KNN classifiers. The proposed model can be used in bin level
eras and the advanced classification process using
classification and grading, thus, providing a robust solution
DTW, which optimize and outperform research on
for bin detection, monitoring and management. In [49], the
image processing performed in [48]. The paper
authors propose a solid waste bin detection and classification
exploits data produced only from a specific type of
model using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and MLP classi-
capacity sensor.
fiers. The research extends [48] by focusing on image process-
 Model presented in [50]: it incorporates IoT Technol-
ing solutions for solid waste collection. The paper presents
ogy and a dynamic routing model. The model
the process of capturing bin image with a camera embedded
exploits data produced only from a specific type of
in the bin. Specifically, during capturing the bin image the
capacity sensor.
position of the camera should be focus on getting a centralized
 Model presented in [51]: the incorporation of a cost
image of the bin area. The captured image should be further
efficient heterogeneous fleet and the robust dynamic
processed in order to correctly estimate the waste capacity in
routing algorithm extending the research in [50]. The
the bin. The research uses DTW for detecting and cropping
paper exploits data produced only from a specific
the bin area; while Gabor Wavelet (GW) is incorporated for
type of capacity sensor.
feature extraction of the bin image. The features extracted are
 Model presented in [52]: it incorporates IoT Technol-
then used to train a MLP classifier which is adopted to classify
ogy as well as an advanced DSS. However, the paper
the bin level and perform estimations about the capacity of the
does not incorporate GIS as part of the advanced DSS.
waste in the bin. The classifier performance is evaluated with
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and proved
to be efficient with respect to the accuracy (i.e., level estima- 3.3 Classification and Comparative Assessment
tion of 98.5 percent). In [50], the authors propose an efficient The summary of the comparative assessment performed on
waste collection model incorporating shortest path semi-static the survey is presented in Table 2. Thirty-two research efforts,
and dynamic routing. The paper presents the waste collection in total, are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses are
process from the IoT Technology perspective. It analyzes the revealed. Through the provided survey, we try to classify
importance of dynamic routing models as part of waste collec- each model according to our taxonomy developed to depict
tion in SCs. The research introduces both a semi-static and a important parts of the proposed systems. Concerning the
dynamic routing model as part of a two-tier architecture. Spe- physical infrastructure, organic bins are used in 22 models,
cifically, the upper tier contains a semi-static routing model glass bins in 20 models, paper bins in 25 models, plastic bins
which builds an initial route for waste collection. The lower in 23 models, metal bins in 21 models and toxic bins in 4 mod-
tier contains a dynamic routing model which can handle real els. Waste bins are located outdoors in 28 models while they
time routing requirements; while simultaneously encodes are underground in 2 models. In just one model, bins are
this knowledge to the upper tier enabling context pro-active- located both outdoors and underground. Pneumatic pipes
ness. In [51], the authors have proposed a robust waste collec- are incorporated in 2 models, the fleet of trucks is homoge-
tion model exploiting cost efficiency of IoT potentiality in SCs. nous in 22 models while it is heterogeneous in 9 models.
The research extends [50] by introducing a dynamic routing Depots are incorporated in 6 models while they are absent in
algorithm, which is robust and copes with cases of truck 25 models. Dumps are single in 18 models while they are
replacement due to overload or damage in the city of St. multiple in 13 models. Recycling of inorganic waste is sup-
Petersburg in Russia. The paper presents a system model ported in 17 models and further processing of organic waste
which incorporates two kinds of trucks for waste collection, is supported in 8 models. The IoT Technology includes RFIDs
the Low Capacity Trucks (LCTs) and the High Capacity (14 models), capacity sensors (30 models), weight sensors
Trucks (HCTs), respectively. The incorporation of HCTs (12 models), temperature sensors (5 models), humidity sen-
achieves reduction of the waste collection operational costs sors (6 models), chemical sensors (5 models) and pressure
because the route trips to the dumps are reduced due to the sensors (5 models). WSNs are adopted in 14 models and
high waste storage capacity of these trucks. In [52], the actuators are incorporated in 7 models. Cameras are incorpo-
authors have proposed an advanced DSS for efficient waste rated in 6 models and GPS is incorporated in 16 models. In
collection in SCs. The research extends [51] by introducing a the category of software analytics, a DSS is incorporated in
model for on line data sharing between truck drivers in order 9 models, GIS is discussed in 15 models, dynamic scheduling

Comparative Assessment

Physical Infrastructure IoT Technology Software Analytics

Dynamic Scheduling

Experimental Data
Dynamic Routing
Pneumatic Pipes
Research Effort

Fleet of Trucks

Social Context
Bins Location

Bins Type






[21] 3 1, 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
[22] 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
[23] 6 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1, 5 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
[24] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1, 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2
[25] 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
[26] 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2
[27] 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
[28] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1, 2
[29] 1, 2, 3, 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
[30] 1, 2, 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1
[31] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1, 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
[32] 1, 2, 6 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1, 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
[33] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1, 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2
[34] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1, 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2
[35] 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1, 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
[36] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1, 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
[37] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1, 6 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
[38] 1, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
[39] 1, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1, 2
[40] 1, 2, 3, 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
[41] 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2
[42] 1, 3, 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
[43] 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
[44] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1, 2
[45] 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
[46] 2, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1
[47] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1, 2
[48] 1, 3, 5 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
[49] 1, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
[50] 1, 3, 4, 5 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1
[51] 1, 3, 4, 5 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1, 2
[52] 1, 2, 3, 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1, 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1, 2
Bins Type Organic (1), Glass (2), Paper (3), Plastic (4), Metal (5), Toxic (6)
Bins Location Outdoors (1), Underground (2)
Pneumatic Pipes Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
Fleet of Trucks Homogenous (1), Heterogeneous (2)
Physical Infrastructure
Depots Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
Dumps Single (1), Multiple (2)
Recycling Supported (1), Not Supported (2)
Processing Supported (1), Not Supported (2)
RFIDs Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
Sensors Capacity (1), Weight (2), Temperature (3), Humidity (4), Chemical (5),
Pressure (6)
IoT Technology WSNs Defined (1), Implied (2)
Actuators Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
Cameras Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
GPS Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
Architecture Defined (1), Implied (2)
DSS Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
GIS Incorporated (1), Not Incorporated (2)
Software Analytics Dynamic Scheduling Defined (1), Implied (2)
Dynamic Routing Defined (1), Implied (2)
Social Context Supported (1), Not Supported (2)
Experimental Data Synthetic (1), Real (2)

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T. Barros, “Towards an IoT ecosystem,” in Proc. 1st ACM Int.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS future internet architecture,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Internet Things
Cyber, Physical Social Comput., 2013, pp. 426–433.
Part of this work has been carried out in the scope of the [20] O. Zhou and X. Xiaopeng, “Research on In-vehicle bus network
project bIoTope which is co-funded by the European Com- based on internet of things,” in Proc. IEEE 4th Int. Conf. Comput.
Inf. Sci., 2012, pp. 981–984.
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carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of [22] A. Runka, B. Ombuki-Berman, and M. Ventresca, “A search space
analysis for the waste collection vehicle routing problem with
Education and Science of the Russian Federation under
time windows,” in Proc. 11th Annu. ACM Conf. Genetic Evol. Com-
grant agreement RFMEFI58716X0031. put., 2009, pp. 1813–1814.
[23] P. P. Repoussis, D. C. Paraskevopoulos, G. Zobolas, C. D. Taranti-
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[36] N. Teerioja, K. Moliis, E. Kuvaja, M. Ollikainen, H. Punkkinen, Athens (NKUA), Greece, in 2012. In 2013, he was a postdoctoral
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matic waste collection system,” in Proc. IEEE 14th Int. Conf. Adv. ing at the Oulu University, Finland. Currently, he is a principal research
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mated solid waste bin level detection system using a gray level
aura matrix,” Waste Manage., vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2229–2238, 2012.
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Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Emerging Trends Commun. Control Signal Pro- Data 61 at CSIRO, Australia. Before coming to
cess. Comput. Appl., 2013, pp. 1–4. CSIRO in July 2011, he held a position of a chaired
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“Assessing and improving management practices when planning the Lulea University of Technology, Sweden,
packaging waste collection systems,” Resources, Conservation Recy- where he was involved in a number of European research projects, collab-
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in a solid waste management system,” Waste Manage., vol. 26, member with Monash University, Australia, where he held various aca-
no. 8, pp. 875–885, 2006. demic and administrative positions including director of the Monash
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design of machine-to-machine product service systems: the exam- director of the Monash CoolCampus initiative that brought together perva-
ple of waste glass collection,” J. Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 10, sive computing researchers with university users. He was a principal
pp. 1033–1044, 2011. investigator at CRC DSTC (Distributed Systems Technology Centre) lead-
[46] T. Gomes, N. Brito, J. Mendes, J. Cabral, and A. Tavares, “WECO: ing and contributing to the DSTC project “M3: Enterprise Architecture for
A wireless platform for monitoring recycling point spots,” in Proc. Mobile computations”. He led and was involved in a number of research
IEEE 16th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf., 2012, pp. 468–472. projects funded by ARC (ARC Discovery and Linkage) and industry, both
[47] M. Mes, M. Schutten, and A. Perez-Rivera, “Inventory routing for at national and international level, totalling in support more than AU$
dynamic waste collection,” Waste Manage., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1564– 12,000,000. He chaired and organized many international workshops and
1576, 2014. conferences, including Mobile Data Management, Pervasive Services,
[48] M. Arebey, M. A. Hannan, R. A. Begum, and H. Basri, “Solid Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia and others. He made internationally
waste bin level detection using gray level co-occurrence matrix recognized contribution in the area of disconnected transaction manage-
feature extraction approach,” J. Environmental Manage., vol. 104, ment and replication in mobile computing environments, context-aware-
pp. 9–18, 2012. ness as well as in mobile agents. He made significant internationally
[49] M. S. Islam, M. A. Hannan, H. Basri, A. Hussain, and M. Arebey, recognized contributions in the areas of data stream mining on mobile
“Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time devices, adaptive mobile computing systems, ad-hoc mobile networks,
Warping and MLP classifier,” Waste Manage., vol. 34, no. 2, efficiency and reliability of mobile computing systems, mobile agents, and
pp. 281–290, 2014. mobile file systems. Before coming to Australia in 1991, he worked in vari-
[50] T. Anagnostopoulos and A. Zaslavsky, “Effective waste collection ous research positions at industrial R&D labs as well as at the Institute for
with shortest path semi-static and dynamic routing,” in Proc. Computational Mathematics of Georgian Academy of Sciences where he
IEEE 14th Int. Conf. Next Generation Wired/Wirel. Adv. Netw. Syst. lead a systems software research laboratory. He has published more than
7th Conf. ruSMART, 2014, pp. 95–105. 300 research publications throughout his professional career and super-
[51] T. Anagnostopoulos and A. Zaslavsky, “Robust waste collec- vised to completion more than 30 PhD students. He is also an interna-
tion exploiting cost efficiency of IoT potentiality in smart cit- tional adjunct professor with ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia. He
ies,” in Proc. IEEE 1st Int. Conf. Recent Adv. Internet Things, is a senior member of the ACM, the IEEE Computer and Communications
2015, pp. 1–6. Societies, and the IEEE.

Kostas M. Kolomvatsos received the BSc Jeremy Morley is a chief geospatial scientist at
degree in informatics from the Department of Ordnance Survey. He has worked in geospatial
Informatics, Athens University of Economics and research since the mid-90s, starting in the former
Business, in 1995, the MSc degree in computer Department of Photogrammetry and Surveying,
science - new technologies in informatics and tel- University College London before moving to the
ecommunications, and the PhD degree from the University of Nottingham in 2009 as a geospatial
Department of Informatics and Telecommunica- science theme leader in the Nottingham Geospa-
tions, National and Kapodistrian University of tial Institute. His early career covered topics in
Athens (UoA), in 2005 and in the beginning of environmental Earth observation and radar map-
2013 respectively. Currently, he serves as a ping of the British Isles’ terrain. From this base,
senior researcher in the National and Kapodis- he moved into geographic information science,
trian University of Athens – Department of Informatics and Telecommu- focusing on topics including crowd-sourcing and citizen science, open
nications ( He has participated in several and interoperable geographical information services, and applications of
European and national research projects. He is a member of the Perva- geospatial science in fields from plant sciences to planetary mapping. At
sive Computing Research Group ( His research Ordnance Survey, he leads the Research and Education team who carry
interests include the definition of intelligent systems and techniques out research in collaboration with universities and other, and promoting
adopting machine learning, computational intelligence and soft comput- spatial literacy and geospatial education from primary schools through
ing for pervasive computing, distributed systems, and big data. He has to higher education.
authored more than 40 publications in the above areas.

Stathes Hadjiefthymiades received the BSc,

Alexey Medvedev received the BSc degree in MSc, and PhD degrees in informatics and tele-
radioelectronics and telecommunications from communications from the Department of Infor-
Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical Univer- matics & Telecommunications (DIT), University
sity “LETI”, Russia, in 2008. He received the MSc of Athens (UoA), Athens, Greece. He also
degree in infocommunications information and received the joint engineering economics MSc
communication technologies and communication degree from the National Technical University of
systems from ITMO University, St.-Petersburg, Athens. In 1992, he joined the Greek consulting
Russia, in 2014. Currently, he is working toward firm Advanced Services Group, Ltd., as an ana-
the PhD degree at Monash University, Faculty of lyst/developer of telematics applications and sys-
Information Technology, Melbourne, Australia. tems. In 1995, he became a member of the
His research interests include the internet of Communication Networks Laboratory of UoA. During the period 2001–
things and middleware platforms for smart cities. 2002, he served as a visiting assistant professor with the University of
Aegean, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engi-
neering. In 2002, he joined the faculty of the Hellenic Open University
Pouria Amirian is a principal research scientist (Department of Informatics), Patras, Greece, as an assistant professor.
in data science and big data at the Ordnance Sur- Since the beginning of 2004, he belongs to the faculty of UoA, DIT
vey of Great Britain and data science research where he presently is an associate professor. He has participated in
associate with the University of Oxford. He is numerous projects realized in the context of EU programmes and
involved in Ordnance Survey’s forward-looking national initiatives. His research interests are in the areas of mobile,
development efforts to integrate the ordnance pervasive computing, web systems engineering, and networked multi-
survey’s data and services with analytics. media applications. He is the author of more than 150 publications in
these areas.

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